Conference PaperPDF Available

Building Inclusive Environments for All Ages with Citizens

Authors:
  • AFEdemy, Academy on age-friendly environments in Europe BV

Abstract

The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a "society for all ages" concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the European Commission in the field of intergenerational programming and policies as well as features of the COST Action NET4Age-Friendly: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE). The following sections are focused on studying and discussing examples of projects and methodologies that have been aimed at: empowering facilitators of smart healthy inclusive environments, empowering citizens to deal with health emergencies, and supporting older people's voices. The conclusion covers selected recommendations for entities of public policy on ageing (ageing policy) as well as potential directions for further research.
Page 143 - Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting 14th October 2021
Building Inclusive
Environments for All
Ages with Citizens
Willeke van Staalduinen1[0000-0002-3868-7683]
willeke@afedemy.eu
Carina Dantas2[0000-0002-9887-7622]
carinadantas@shine2.eu
Joost van Hoof3[0000-0001-9704-7128]
j.vanhoof@hhs.nl
Andrzej Klimczuk4[0000-0002-8072-1152]
aklimcz@sgh.waw.pl
1 AFEdemy, Academy on Age-Friendly Environments in Europe BV,
Buurtje 2, 2802 BE Gouda, the Netherlands, www.afedemy.eu
2 SHINE 2Europe Lda, Rua Câmara Pestana, Iote 3- IDF, 3030-163
Coimbra, Portugal, www.shine2.eu
3 The Hague University of Applied Sciences, Johanna Westerdijk-
plein 75, 2521 EN Den Haag, the Netherlands; Wrocław Univer-
sity of Environmental and Life Sciences, ul. Grun-waldzka 55,
50-357 Wrocław, Poland
4 SGH Warsaw School of Economics, al. Niepodległości 162, 02-554
Warsaw, Poland, www.sgh.waw.pl
Page 144 - Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting 14th October 2021
Abstract:
The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse
around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments.
First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen
participation in the context of implementation of a “society
for all ages” concept disseminated by the United Nations.
Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the European
Commission in the eld of intergenerational programming
and policies as well as features of the COST Action NE-
T4Age-Friendly: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments
(SHAFE). The following sections are focused on studying
and discussing examples of projects and methodologies
that have been aimed at: empowering facilitators of smart
healthy inclusive environments, empowering citizens to
deal with health emergencies, and supporting older peo-
ple’s voices. The conclusion covers selected recommen-
dations for entities of public policy on ageing (ageing poli-
cy) as well as potential directions for further research.
Keywords:
Age-Friendly Cities and Communities, Citizen Participation,
Inclusive Environments, Intergenerational Programmes and
Policies, Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE),
Society for All Ages.
Building Inclusive Environments
for All Ages with Citizens
Page 145 - Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting 14th October 2021
1 Introduction
Smart, healthy, and inclusive environments can help improve and support independent living
throughout the course of life, regardless of age, gender, health status, disabilities, cultural dif-
ferences, and personal choices. In order to develop and design these environments, it is of the
utmost importance to include the people who are to live in these designed surroundings and
should ideally accept the use of the proposed solutions. In this contribution, we explore sev-
eral approaches to citizen participation in order to create smart healthy inclusive solutions and
environments, including solutions, programs, schemes, products, and services for all ages. The
methodologies of involvement and engagement are acknowledged, and—if appropriate—suc-
cess factors and lessons learned are identied. At rst, a short overview of the smart healthy
age-friendly environments (SHAFE) notion is given. This is followed by a paragraph on citizens
participation in the context of implementation of a “society for all ages” concept promoted by
the United Nations. Thereafter, several projects are presented, methodologies of participation
highlighted, results described, and conclusions drawn.
2 Defining the Smart Healthy Inclusive
Environments
The challenges of various sectors, such as the information and communications technologies
(ICTs) sector, the building and urban planning industry, health and social care, as well as those
of citizens and their communities, are interlinked. Responding to these challenges will foster
awareness and support the creation and implementation of smart, healthy, and inclusive envi-
ronments for present and future generations that enable them to learn, grow, work, participate
in society and enjoy a healthy life, beneting from the use of digital innovations, accessibility
solutions and adaptable support models in the European context.
The local community is the physical, social, and cultural ecosystem closest to people, which is
built on relationships of trust, sharing, solidarity and intimacy, where people nd social, cultural
and identity references, socialise and live their daily lives. The objective conditions of the envi-
ronment (maintenance, accessibility, mobility, safety, and comfort) aect the quality of life and
well-being of citizens, particularly in the context of environmental challenges such as climate
change and thus aect the whole community.
Thus, smart healthy inclusive environments, also described as smart healthy age-friendly envi-
ronments (SHAFE), require a comprehensive approach that optimises the design of social and
physical environments, which is supported by digital tools and services, which allows providing
better health and social care as well as promotes not only independent living but also equity
and active participation in society. This approach follows the United Nations’ line-up, with the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) intended to be achieved by the year 2030 [1], stating
that sustainable environments for all ages represent the basis for ensuring a better future for
the entire world population and addressing most of the growing issues of the ageing popula-
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tion. They are in particular related to Goal 3 (“Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for
all at all ages”) and Goal 11 (“Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”) and can be
understood as an approach broader than other ideas used in the literature such as ambient
assisted living (AAL), smart and age-friendly cities and communities (SAFCC), and “ageing in
place 2.0” (AIP2.0) [2].
3 Citizen Participation in the
Context of Implementation a
“Society for All Ages” Concept
In order to develop the above mentioned inclusive, smart, and healthy environments, citizen in-
volvement and cooperation is particularly important. Having people’s voices heard during the
conceptualisation and design phases of the development of the living environment t the ob-
jectives of the intergenerational policies related to the United Nations concept of “society for
all ages” and its implementation by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Network on
Age-Friendly Cities and Communities (GNAFCC). Citizen participation clearly pertains to the
distinguished domains of age-friendliness described as buildings and housing, social partici-
pation, and social inclusion [3, 4].
Van Hoof et al. [4] took the widely used concept of the “ladder of citizen participation” by Arnstein
[5] as a starting point in shaping various roles that citizens can play. Arnstein described eight
roles for citizens, varying from nonparticipation (in forms such as manipulation and therapy)
through tokenism to citizen power. Tokenism is divided into informing (about citizen’ rights, but
often the one-way ow of information), consultation (e.g., ask for opinions in surveys, neighbour-
hood meetings or hearings), and placation (citizens are granted a limited degree of inuence in
boards or commissions). Higher levels of participation grouped under the notion of citizen pow-
er are divided into partnership (shared planning and decision-making responsibilities through
structures such as policy boards), delegated power (some degree of control is transferred to
citizens), and citizen control (participants or residents can govern a programme or an institution
and be in full charge of policy and managerial aspects).
Additional research on citizen participation by Van Hoof et al. [4] showed that involvement is not
automatically a guarantee for success. For example, due to a limited number of active partic-
ipants, lack of required skills to participate or not representing the target group, success can
be rather limited. Van Hoof et al. further identied the factors that impact the participation of
citizens in a positive manner, such as the provision of regular feedback, the full commitment of
the involved organisations, and the usage of understandable and inclusive language. Having
these observations in mind, the following sections are providing discussions and examples of
various approaches to citizen participation related to SHAFE.
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3.1. Selected Initiatives of the European Commission in the Field of
Intergenerational Programming and Policies
In 2012, the European Commission announced the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity
between Generations and took the initiative to launch a bottom-up approach to involve citizens
and organisations’ actions and opinions in the eld of public policy on ageing (ageing policy)
[6]. It led to the creation of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing
(EIPonAHA) [7]. At rst, it was well-received, and many parties joined the network. Over the
years, the broad interest slowly faded but the main challenges recognised remained unsolved,
for example, the need for scaling up and transferring across the countries, regions, and com-
munities the best practices and solutions such as social innovations and technological innova-
tions in ageing [8, 9]. Nevertheless, several networks that had their origin in the EIPonAHA, such
as the Stakeholders Network on Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE) [10] and
the Reference Sites Collaborative Network [11], still continue to operate.
To bring the European Union (EU) citizens’ involvement alive again, the European Commission,
at the beginning of the year 2021, launched a new cooperation network titled the Active and
Healthy Living in the Digital World. This network is a part of the Futurium platform that started
already in the year 2011 as a foresight project aimed at participatory policymaking, crowdsourc-
ing of ideas, and discussing EU policies [12]. One of the dedicated areas within this emerging
network is dedicated to age-friendly environments.
On a dierent note, the President of the European Commission, Ms Ursula von der Leyen, also at the
beginning of the year 2021, took the initiative to launch a bottom-up approach initiative: co-de-
signing the New European Bauhaus [13]. The New European Bauhaus proposes to focus the con-
versations on the places that EU citizens inhabit and on the relationship with natural environments
beyond the built space. It is a practical approach to discover beautiful, sustainable, and inclusive
ways of living and to use them to inspire our way forward. EU citizens are invited to join the con-
versation and are asked to share their thoughts on future environments and places to be like.
Moreover, if it was their neighbourhood, how should that look like, feel like, and work like.
3.2. COST Action NET4Age-Friendly: Smart
Healthy Age-Friendly Environments
The concept behind SHAFE has inspired several projects and initiatives, including one of the
most recent initiatives supported by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology:
NET4Age-Friendly (2020–2024; COST Action 19136), which is an international interdisciplinary
network on health and well-being in an age-friendly digital world focused on the promotion of
social inclusion, independent living, and active and healthy ageing in society.
Participating scholars, practitioners, and stakeholders from the business and third sector work in
four thematic groups on user-centred inclusive design, integrated health and well-being path-
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ways, digital solutions, and large-scale sustainable implementation, and on impact and sus-
tainability (including policy development, funding forecast, and cost-benet evaluations). In or-
der to synthesise and critically examine the results of these four themes and existing practices
of SHAFE, a fth working group will develop a reference framework with guidelines, standards,
and practices (success factors and lessons learned) [14].
The main purpose of described COST Action is to build and nurture local, regional, or national
ecosystems in each participating country. Ecosystems consist of citizens, public authorities,
businesses, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and research and development enti-
ties. These ecosystems aim to foster the implementation of SHAFE with the support of the
above-mentioned working groups.
3.3. Empowering Facilitators of Smart Healthy Inclusive Environments
Erasmus+ is the EU’s programme to support education, training, youth, and sport in Europe in mul-
tinational consortia [15]. These areas are key to support citizens’ personal and professional de-
velopment. High quality, inclusive education and training, as well as informal and non-formal
learning, ultimately equip participants of all ages with the qualications and skills needed for
their meaningful participation in a democratic society, intercultural understanding, and successful
transition in the labour market. Within the frame of Erasmus+, training and education is developed
to empower facilitators to implement smart healthy inclusive environments in their community.
Projects such as “Hands-on SHAFE” [16], “Educational game BIG” [17], “Bridge the Gap!” [18], and
“DESIgn for all methods to cREate age-friendly housing” (DESIRE) [19] supported by the Eras-
mus+ programme include adult learners in the eld of inclusive environments. “Hands-on
SHAFE” aims to deliver online training packages for informal learning experiences and hands-
on tools to improve the skills of people of all ages and especially seeks to enable persons with
lower skills or qualications to choose and implement SHAFE in their own homes or neighbour-
hoods. In this way, the project fosters and promotes social inclusion for people of all ages and
genders, including people with cognitive or physical impairments or disabilities. It also aims to
enable citizens to become innovators and trailblazers in their own neighbourhoods or to be-
come entrepreneurs in the eld of SHAFE services and products.
The educational game “Building Inclusive environments for all Generations” (BIG) elaborates further
on the training about SHAFE by developing an online game. The player can meet and solve the
challenges of characters during the play, such as inaccessible housing for a wheelchair, loading
goods in a car while taking care of a child, or visiting a restaurant with impaired sight. The project
will also develop a workshop methodology to use the game in joint training settings.
The “Bridge the Gap!” project focuses on the training of older people to create and improve their
own living environments to support independent living and participation in society. On the one
hand, the training oers traditional means to advocate their interests. On the other hand, it will
mainly focus on the capacity building of older adults to use digital skills. Such digital actions in-
Page 149 - Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting 14th October 2021
clude accessing social media, building online advocacy accounts, or sharing photos to express
to stakeholders and decision-makers specic local needs to improve the local living environment.
The DESIRE project is developed by an international partnership involving four countries working
on a design for all (D4ALL) concept applied to age-friendly housing. DESIRE aims to provide
professionals in the building industry as well as furniture and home furnishings sector with the
tools and skills to apply D4ALL methods as an integral part of the design process, with the aim
to create or adapt age-friendly housing as a solution for the well-being, comfort and autonomy
of older adults or people in situation of dependency at home. The project will develop an in-
novative training course on D4ALL to meet the emotional, cognitive, and social needs of older
adults while driving new opportunities in the habitat sector, fostering interactions and knowl-
edge exchange in the design process between cross-cutting elds such as science, social
sciences, and arts.
3.4. Empowering Citizens to Deal with Health Emergencies
Erasmus+ project “STEP_UP” [20] intends to develop a training tool for social care and community
stakeholders, where they are introduced to the impact of behaviours in the spread of a pan-
demic or emergency situation and trained, through gaming strategies, to prevent and cope,
being empowered to protect and promote well-being in their communities.
The core of this project will be an educational game, which can also be used as a recreational
game for the common public. In “STEP_UP,” the players will play with the aim to stop a pan-
demic from spreading. A list of measures will be displayed, and the player needs to learn about
them in order to be able to choose those that would help to impede the virus spread without
damaging the economy or causing societal anger. This game will also help people better un-
derstand and follow governmental measures and set aside evidence-based information and
facts from myths, fake news, and other forms of misinformation or disinformation.
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3.5. Case Study of Supporting Older People’s
Voice: Senior-Friendly The Hague
Since 2015, the municipality of The Hague is a member of the WHO’s Global Network on Age-Friendly
Cities and Communities [21]. Member cities of GNAFCC follow a 5-year cycle of planning, imple-
mentation, and evaluation in order to make their respective city or community age-friendly. The
Hague recently nalised their rst cycle by performing a broad survey among older people (65+) to
express their opinions on the age-friendliness of the city. Overall, the older citizens of The Hague
value the age-friendliness of their city as well as perceives it as sucient. They give high scores to
their own homes. On the contrary, outdoor spaces and buildings were scored signicantly lower.
People in the situation of having a lower income, health and mobility issues are less satised.
In order to better involve older adults in local policymaking, the municipality facilitates three ways
of citizens involvement. At rst, it subsidises the overarching Older People’s Council of The
Hague (in Dutch: Stedelijke Ouderencommissie; SOC) [22, 23, 24]. Secondly, it facilitates and
supports the building and maintenance of a local ecosystem titled the Knowledge Platform
Age-Friendly The Hague. In this platform, older citizens, scholars, public health administration,
municipal policy-makers, and social enterprises (social small and medium-sized enterprises;
SMEs) meet on a regular basis to exchange ongoing research and to look for cooperation op-
portunities in the eld of the municipal Action Plan Age-Friendly The Hague (2020–2022). The
nal support to hear the voice of older people in The Hague is the fostering of the active in-
volvement of an older people’s panel: a broad panel of at least 1,500 older adults (out of 77,000
people aged 65 and over) who can be consulted on a large variety of municipal topics.
4 Conclusion: Citizens’ Participation in Smart
Healthy Inclusive Environments Explored
From this broad overview of eldwork, it has been possible to explore various perspectives of inclu-
sive environments, their challenges, and the needs to be addressed. Some of the lessons learned
in the various projects include that citizen participation is fully recognised as essential (Table 1).
However, a long way is still necessary to make it structured, constant, and comprehensive.
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Initiatives Strengths Weaknesses Challenges
European Commission’s
Initiatives
Combining bottom-up
and top-down approaches
to ageing policy.
Focus on combining
population ageing with
digitalisation processes
and the development of
diverse environments.
Unclear monitoring and
evaluation of results.
Dependent on funding
programmes with priori-
ties on specic sectoral
policies (e.g., ICT and
AI-focused economic
entities).
Scaling up of the best
practices and policy trans-
fer across the countries,
regions, and communities.
COST Action NET4A-
ge-Friendly
Bottom-up internatio-
nal and interdisciplinary
network.
Providing support in the
form of guidelines, stan-
dards, and practices.
Establishing sustainability
for the network after the
project period.
Building multilevel
ecosystems with a qua-
druple helix of citizens,
public authorities, compa-
nies, and researchers.
Projects: “Hands-on
SHAFE,” “BIG,” “Bridge the
Gap!,” and “DESIRE”
Delivering training pac-
kages and tools related
to age-friendly homes or
neighbourhoods.
Entrepreneurs-
hip promotion.
Limited scale of in-
novative solutions.
Further dissemination and
development of schemes.
Project “STEP_UP” Empowering citizens
to deal with heal-
th emergencies.
Monitoring and evalua-
tion of results after the
COVID-19 pandemic.
Extending focus on the
ght with misinformation
or disinformation.
Senior-Friendly The
Hague
Broad set of initiatives to
involve older people in
implementation and go-
vernance of age-friendly
city’s idea.
Establishing sustainabi-
lity of the older people’s
council, the knowledge
platform, and an older
people’s panel.
Citizens’ involvement is
dependent on their so-
cioeconomic status.
Table 1. The Comparison of Selected Initiatives of Citizen Participation Relat-
ed to the Implementation of a “Society for All Ages” Concept.
The call for active citizenship and ownership of the transformation of society is, on the one hand, a
gift to the citizens. Nevertheless, at the same time, this call is also a burden in terms of commit-
ment and involvement, which currently, not all are prepared to deliver. To overcome these bar-
riers, learning experiences focusing on older adults in Erasmus+ training activities and games
as well as knowledge platforms and ecosystems do support the awareness of older adults to
uptake and realise their own lives in their environments. The initiatives that foster more active
citizenship and those who call for the participation of several age and societal groups are at the
core of this citizen empowerment need, essential to create a better and fairer society for all. This
development just started.
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5 Acknowledgements
This publication is based upon work from COST Action CA19136 “International Interdisciplinary
Network on Smart Healthy Age-friendly Environments,” supported by COST (European Coop-
eration in Science and Technology). For more details go to: www.net4age.eu The publication
received nancial support in the form of an ITC Conference Grant awarded by the COST Action
CA19136 to Andrzej Klimczuk.
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... ICTs and smart cities are seen as having ability to enhance active and healthy in older people by providing a creative and transformative approach (23). The concept of the smart city combining with ICTs technologies aims to provide a multidimensional and comprehensive solution to support older people and age-friendly development. ...
... The concept of the smart city combining with ICTs technologies aims to provide a multidimensional and comprehensive solution to support older people and age-friendly development. The focus of such solutions is to support the creation and implementation of healthy, smart, and inclusive environments for older adults that enable them to actively participate in society while enjoying a healthy quality of life (23). Such solutions, which mainly include ICTintegrated smart homes (14), ambient assisted living (24) and home automation (25), are designed to facilitate active ageing and ageing-in-place through technological assistance. ...
... Such solutions, which mainly include ICTintegrated smart homes (14), ambient assisted living (24) and home automation (25), are designed to facilitate active ageing and ageing-in-place through technological assistance. By creating new solutions and implementing best practise, the city with its aim of "go smarter" can optimise the potential of using the various capitals in cities and citizens, such as institutional, social and human capitals, and traditional (transport) and modern communication infrastructure (ICTs) (26), as well as integrating resources for supporting the participation of older people (23). ...
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The municipality of The Hague has been a member of the WHO's Global Network for Age-Friendly Cities and Communities since 2015. The municipality commissioned a survey to investigate how older citizens view the age-friendliness of their city. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a diverse sample of 393 community-dwelling older citizens. The survey made use of the Age Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire (AFCCQ), and multilevel regression techniques to investigate how social groups differ on the domains of the AFCCQ. The Hague scored a satisfied as an overall score (16.9 ± 8.87), and a satisfied on social participation (2.6 ± 2.46), civic participation and employment (1.4 ± 1.34), communication and information (1.4 ± 1.32), respect and social inclusion (1.6 ± 1.59), community support and health services (2.7 ± 2.79), transportation (1.7 ± 1.26) and financial situation (1.9 ± 1.26). The Hague has an above-average score in the field of housing (2.4 ± 1.06). For Outdoor spaces and buildings, the municipality scores a moderate positive score (0.9 ± 1.41). Significant differences were found for sex, age, socio-economic position, receiving care support, and use of mobility aids. The findings show that older people have different perceptions regarding their city's age-friendliness. Policy makers must acknowledge this heterogeneity among their older citizens and adapt city policies accordingly.
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In the Netherlands, there is a growing need for collective housing for older people to bridge the gap between ageing-in-place and institutional care facilities. Participation of older people in the concept and design phases is important to tune the market supply to the needs of (future) residents, yet social entrepreneurs find it challenging to involve older people. This commentary explores various ways older people can participate in the development of new housing initiatives. The ladder of citizen participation is applied to explore different roles that (future) residents could play with levels of influence varying from non-participation to citizen power. Considerations for meaningful participation are discussed, in order to show how collaborations can be formed between (future) residents and decision makers.
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The World Health Organization engages cities and communities all over the world in becoming age-friendly. There is a need for assessing the age-friendliness of cities and communities by means of a transparently constructed and validated tool which measures the construct as a whole. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire measuring age-friendliness, providing full transparency and reproducibility. The development and validation of the Age Friendly Cities and Communities Questionnaire (AFCCQ) followed the criteria of the COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). Four phases were followed: (1) development of the conceptual model, themes and items; (2) initial (qualitative) validation; (3) psychometric validation, and (4) translating the instrument using the forward-backward translation method. This rigorous process of development and validation resulted in a valid, psychometrically sound, comprehensive 23-item questionnaire. This questionnaire can be used to measure older people's experiences regarding the eight domains of the WHO Age-Friendly Cities model, and an additional financial domain. The AFCCQ allows practitioners and researchers to capture the age-friendliness of a city or community in a numerical fashion, which helps monitor the age-friendliness and the potential impact of policies or social programmes. The AFCCQ was created in Dutch and translated into British-English.
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In recent years we may observe increasing interest in the development of social innovation both regarding theory as well as the practice of responding to social problems and challenges. One of the crucial challenges at the beginning of the 21st century is population ageing. Various new and innovative initiatives, programs, schemes, and projects to respond to negative consequences of this demographic process are emerging around the world. However, social theories related to ageing are still insufficiently combined with these new practices, social movements, organisational models, and institutions. Many scholars are still using notions and tools from classical theories of social gerontology or the sociology of ageing such as disengagement theory, activity theory, and successful and productive ageing. Such theories do not sufficiently explain ageing in the context of, for example, a broad use of the information and communications technologies (ICTs) including robotics and automation, new healthcare and long-term care models, advancements in the development and governance of age-friendly environments, and public engagement of older adults into co-production of services delivered by public, private, non-governmental as well as non-formal entities.
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The World Health Organization (WHO) strives to assist and inspire cities to become more 'age-friendly' through the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide. An age-friendly city offers a supportive environment that enables residents to grow older actively within their families, neighbourhoods and civil society, and offers extensive opportunities for their participation in the community. In the attempts to make cities age-friendly, ageism may interact with these developments. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which features of age-friendly cities, both facilitators and hindrances, are visible in the city scape of the Dutch municipalities of The Hague and Zoetermeer and whether or not ageism is manifested explicitly or implicitly. A qualitative photoproduction study based on the Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities was conducted in five neighbourhoods. Both municipalities have a large number of visual age-friendly features, which are manifested in five domains of the WHO model, namely Communication and information; Housing; Transportation; Community support and health services; and Outdoor spaces and buildings. Age-stereotypes, both positive and negative, can be observed in the domain of Communication and information, especially in the depiction of third agers as winners. At the same time, older people and age-friendly features are very visible in the cityscapes of both municipalities , and this is a positive expression of the changing demographics.
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This book shows that global population ageing is an opportunity to improve the quality of human life rather than a threat to economic competitiveness and stability. It describes the concept of the creative ageing policy as a mix of the silver economy, the creative economy, and the social and solidarity economy for older people. The second volume of Economic Foundations for Creative Ageing Policy focuses on the public policy and management concepts related to the use of the opportunities that are created by population ageing. Klimczuk covers theoretical analyses and case study descriptions of good practices to suggest strategies that could be internationally popularized. Each chapter includes exercises and assignments for both students and those who are likely to apply the presented concepts in practice.
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The heated controversy over “citizen participation,” “citizen control”, and “maximum feasible involvement of the poor,” has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered using examples from three federal social programs: urban renewal, anti-poverty, and Model Cities. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens' power in determining the plan and/or program.
Smart, Age-friendly Cities and Communities: The Emergence of Socio-Technological Solutions in the Central and Eastern Europe
  • A Klimczuk
  • Ł Tomczyk
Klimczuk, A., Tomczyk, Ł.: Smart, Age-friendly Cities and Communities: The Emergence of Socio-Technological Solutions in the Central and Eastern Europe. In: Flórez-Revuelta, F., Chaaraoui, A.A. (eds.) Ambient Assisted Living: Technologies and Appli-cations, pp. 335-359. The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London (2016). doi: 10.1049/ PBHE006E_ch17
Aging Policy Transfer, Adoption, and Change
  • C Dantas
  • W Van Staalduinen
  • A Jegundo
  • J Ganzarain
  • S Ortet
Dantas, C., van Staalduinen, W., Jegundo, A., Ganzarain, J., Ortet, S.: Aging Policy Transfer, Adoption, and Change. In: Gu, D., Dupre, M.E. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging: Living Edition, pp. 1-6. Springer, Cham (2020). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_216-2