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Software Takes Command

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... Moreover, Kwinter [10] uses Conrad Waddington's Epigenetic Landscape and describes it as the relationship between an evolving form and its environment-the stimuli in that environment-a topic upon which D'Arcy Thompson [11] already elaborated in 1942. In addition to that idea, in the 2000s, Manovich asserted that we are shifting from the idea of the document to the idea of performance [12]. ...
... For example, when considering a thin material, differential r, and a radius r, supposing a cylindrical curvature of the cushions, the thermal resistance considered should be, approximately the following: R = 1/2 L × Ln (r 2 /r 1 ) for r 2 > r 1 (12) • Variable needs requests from internal users, rooms, and weather scenarios Moreover, fundamental further research must be developed regarding the connection between the inner environmental variables (heat gain, loss, lumens . . . ) and different façade patterns. The current research presents just a regularly designed pattern applied to a unique inner space. ...
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A genetic algorithm and an artificial neural network are deployed for the design of a dynamic multi-layered façade system that adapts in real-time to different weather and occupants’ needs scenarios. The outputs are a set of different performances of the façade insulation cushions, optimized by the previous run of the genetic algorithm. A façade system of ETFE cushions is considered for them to learn from environmental data models. Each façade cushion is set up as an artificial neuron that is linked to the behavior and temperature of the others. The proposed outputs are a set of different performances of the façade system that are optimized through running the genetic algorithm. Façade neurons are configured as genes of the system that is abstractly represented on a digital model. The computational model manages cushion patterns’ performances through several phenotypical adaptations, suggesting that the proposed facade system maximizes its thermal efficiency in different scenarios.
... This was a step toward avoiding massive retweeting cascades during ongoing events. To further scrutinize such sociotechnical mechanisms that this article has highlighted, future analyses of crisis communication on the internet have much to gain from taking more cues from emerging fields of scholarship such as software studies (Fuller, 2008;Kitchin & Dodge, 2011;Manovich, 2013), and platform studies (Bucher & Helmond, 2018;Dijck, Poell & Waal, 2018;Gillespie, 2010). ...
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In the immediate aftermath of crisis events, there is a pressing demand among the public for information about what is unfolding. In such moments “information holes” occur, people and organizations collaborate to try to fill these in real time by sharing information. In this article, we approach such gaps not merely as the product of the actual lack of information, but as generated by the algorithmically underpinned social media platforms as such, and by the user behaviors that they proliferate. The lack of information is the result of the noisy and fragmented patchwork of information that social media platforms can generate. In this paper, we draw on a case study of one particular case of a false terrorism alarm and its unfolding on Twitter, that took place in London’s Oxford Circus underground station in November of 2017. Using a combination of computational and interpretive methods – analyzing social network structure as well as textual expressions – we find that certain logics of platforms may affect emergency management and the work of emergency responders negatively.
... In youth media studies, pioneering work has been conducted into how networks support youth creativity (Drotner, 2018;Eleà & Mikos, 2018;Livingstone, 2009). The field of digital humanities has focused on digital archives, computational cultural analytics, textual mining, analysis, and visualisation (e.g., Manovich, 2013), whereas recent co-design studies have explored media innovation and citizenship (e.g., Björgvinsson et al., 2012;Huybrechts et al., 2017). Similarly, important literature that maps transmedia skills of production and consumption among young people emphasises that while young people have content production and social management skills, they may lack the ability to understand ideologies and media representations of stereotypes (Scolari et al., 2018). ...
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Increasingly, the means of engaging young people in constructive public debate and democratic society has shifted to online digital media platforms. This assumes that participants have the necessary media literacy skills to engage in a meaningful way. We discuss how and to what extent responses in an online blog elicited by two different scenes from the popular youth television series Skam [ Shame ] demonstrate agonistic deliberation and media literacy in digital dialogue spaces. Our study includes an analysis of the rhetorical characteristics of the dialogues; the mapping of key themes that characterise reactions of blog commentators in the online discussions; and a discussion of the characteristics of – and degree of deliberation in – online comments. We propose that narratives which employ agonistic deliberation around pertinent social themes are most likely to encourage and elicit public engagement that moves beyond emotional outbursts, reflecting a deeper consideration of the themes and topics.
... Existen muchos textos que tratan de explicar, desde diferentes perspectivas, las relaciones que siempre han existido entre la ciencia y el arte (Racionero, 1986;Ribes, 1989); estas áreas de conocimiento tradicionalmente se han presentado como antagónicas, pero la historia ha demostrado que son complementarias y que se necesitan la una a la otra. Además, existen otras aproximaciones también clásicas, que señalan las relaciones entre el arte y la tecnología mediante la estética del soware (Manovich, 2013), aspecto más vinculado a nuestro estudio concreto del caso de la Falla Inmaterial. ...
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En este artículo abordamos algunas experiencias que, por sus características especiales, alternan entre el arte popular, el arte contemporáneo y la tecnología; todas ellas están vinculadas al fenómeno cultural de las Fallas de València. Analizamos algunos casos concretos de fallas de carácter experimental e innovador y la manera en la que la tecnología funciona como aliada para permitir nuevas estéticas frente a la renovación de determinadas tradiciones culturales y patrimoniales como las Fallas de València. Entre esos casos se destaca el de la Falla Inmaterial, así como algunos otros ejemplos donde el uso de la tecnología genera polémicas sociales y políticas que permiten avanzar en las rupturas estéticas y en las redefiniciones de la tradición y la innovación. Complementamos el análisis incorporando una reflexión sobre las posibilidades educativas de estas manifestaciones artísticas y los cambios que generan.
... La progettazione di artefatti comunicativi-infografici è storicamente deputata al Designer dell'Informazione, il quale attraverso il linguaggio visivo traduce e media fra i dati e l'uomo (Manovich, 2013), progettando visualizzazioni che secondo Tufte (1983/2011) hanno lo scopo di rendere accessibile il sapere nascosto. ...
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Nell’epoca dell’infodemia, in cui la società si trova a confrontarsi con la necessità di elaborare rapidamente grandi quantità di dati ed informazioni contenuti in un singolo artefatto comunicativo, il Design della Comunicazione Visiva – e in particolare l’Information Design – rivestono un ruolo fondamentale in quanto portatori del sapere specifico relativo al processo di produzione e consumo degli artefatti comunicativi-infografici. Considerando che la decodifica di qualsiasi artefatto comunicativo di Information Design appare inconsapevolmente facile, in virtù dell’uso di un linguaggio apparentemente universale ed accessibile, vi è tuttavia una dimensione infoestetica che determina un abbassamento della soglia critica di attenzione contro possibili manipolazioni di significato. Ciò che ne deriva è, pertanto, un fenomeno diffuso di disordine informativo, in quanto “anche i grafici possono mentire”. La competenza storicamente deputata alla lettura di un grafico, prima ancora della sua comprensione, è la Graphicacy che, sebbene concettualizzata oltre 56 anni fa, trova difficoltà oggettive nella sua applicazione e diffusione all’interno dei diversi curricula educativi, a causa di questioni tassonomiche, di metodi e di approcci sistemici. A partire da tali premesse, la presente tesi dottorale indaga il ruolo cognitivo del Design dell’Informazione e dei suoi artefatti, attraverso la proposta, sperimentazione e validazione di una metodologia Design-based per un approccio critico interdisciplinare al progetto di Information Design, che unisca competenza tecnica, culturale e di pensiero in un proces-so di democratizzazione della cultura del progetto: dalla Graphicacy alla Data-Graphicacy, per uno sviluppo strategico di competenze di decodifica e codifica critica.
... Advances in information technologies such as data mining methods and algorithmic techniques along with the attempts to analyze big data 3 have transformed the whole market landscape including the media industry. Whether an enthusiastic (Bollier 2010;Kitchin 2014;Manovich 2013;Lohr 2015; Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier 2013) or a critical approach (Andrejevic 2012;Beer 2009;Couldry 2017;Couldry and Mejia 2019;Mager 2012) is adopted, it is obvious that data technologies have changed the way many businesses operate. The repercussions of these data-oriented developments in the advertising and marketing world are also remarkable. ...
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Industry advocates argue that the focus of advertising production has shifted from the creativity of practitioners to consumer analytics and the potential advantages of big data. Although a little empirical research offers valuable insights about the changing role of advertising practitioners, it lacks a critical perspective to situate it in a broader social context. On the other hand, digital labor and branding literature over-concentrate on user labor and neglect the role of practitioners in advertising production. By deploying the concept of immaterial labor, this article reevaluates the findings of mainstream marketing-advertising literature within the context of post-Fordist labor. This article aims to create a resonance between theories of immaterial labor and advertising literature and to call for further empirical research from a labor perspective. It argues that advertising practitioners put more strategical, relational and communicative powers into work to manage a data-oriented market. Keywords: Advertising Practitioners, Immaterial Labour, Big Data, Media Work, Autonomist Marxism
Article
This article argues that videogames may be considered part of the fluid cross-media landscape of children’s literature and that they require a particular sort of active reader, namely a player. Departing from the concept of cybertext and using the physics-based puzzle game Unravel (Coldwood Interactive) as a main example, the article draws on theoretical discussions from game studies (Aarseth; Jenkins; Jørgensen; Schell; Sicart; Tronstad; Zimmermann; Yee) and on Louise Rosenblatt’s distinction between efferent and aesthetic reading to discuss what kinds of player engagement may constitute aesthetic and efferent gaming.
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Cette contribution propose d’interroger le rôle et les enjeux des outils numériques sur lesquels notre société s’appuie pour la création de contenus et leur diffusion. Comment leur rhétorique influence et guide les pratiques de création ? La démarche, s’inscrivant dans des méthodologies socio-sémiotiques, s’articulera autour du décryptage des stratégies relevant d’une « rhétorique de la conception », que nous décelons dans un outil numérique comme Adobe Flash. En mobilisant les imaginaires d’auteurs de littérature numérique, nous soulignerons l’urgence d’une prise de conscience du rôle de l’outil dans la formation d’une culture numérique.
Article
Despite the ubiquity of digital technologies, data-driven approaches and algorithms, organization theory so far only engages with these developments in limited ways. A deeper engagement with the organizational ramifications of a digital, datafied world is urgently needed and must start from mappings of the phenomenon and the development of better theoretical vocabularies that can guide future research. Complementing the essays by Zuboff and Power in this exchange, my essay suggests a research agenda based on how digital technologies, data and algorithms impact and shape our lives in and around organizations by making us visible in novel ways. I unpack the technological and operational underpinnings of this phenomenon in two steps. The first is a broad conceptualization of the overall shape of what I term ‘digital architectures’. The second is a more granular theorization of how data-driven, algorithmic approaches make the ‘management of visibilities’ a central concern for humans, organizations and societies, as well as some reflections on possible responses to these developments. Taken together, these discussions highlight how digital ubiquity calls for novel theoretical perspectives and research avenues for organization theory to explore.
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Este trabajo explora en algunas obras producidas a finales del siglo XX y comienzos del XXI y el lugar de las prácticas escritas mecánicas y manuales en una era de inscripción digital. Interesa analizar estas formas de sobrevivencia, de reapariciones, que se concentran en la difícil relación máquina y mano, precisamente en Sergio Chejfec, Mario Levrero y Jacqueline Goldberg. En cada uno veremos una modalidad distinta de resurgimiento, de re-aparición, de las escrituras a mano y a máquina, inspirados por el impacto de su relación con el trabajo en computador.
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The purpose of this study is to identify the basic characteristics of “digital media” and changes in the nature of media communications under the influence of digital media. The purpose of the study is achieved by applying a systematic approach, which allows considering the object of research as an integral phenomenon, which is associated with various aspects of society in many aspects. The interdisciplinary approach, used in conjunction with the structural–functional approach, also turned out to be optimal. The methods were used to identify the structural differences between old and new media, served to identify the main characteristics of the functioning of digital technologies used in modern media. The originality of the work lies in the fact that digitalization, which is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon, is investigated. The phenomenon of digitalization is a new concept in science—therefore, it is necessary to study not only the basic characteristics of digital media but also the imperatives of the globally changed nature of media communications, because the modern world is unrecognizably changing—simultaneously with the processes of influence of digitalization on society, causing the formation of a certain social and political identity under the influence this phenomenon. The authors focus on the increased possibilities of digital media, due to the subjects of digitalization purposefully and effectively use them, thereby determining fundamental changes in the sociopolitical landscape of countries. As a result of the study, it is concluded that modern trends in the development of the information society demonstrate the capabilities of new media, which are expressed in the strengthening of their influence on behavioral practices in the socioeconomic and political spheres. From this moment, digital media can purposefully and very effectively construct socioeconomic and political reality, and this is often done with specific tasks of media owners. In addition, this can be said about digitalization in all industries, including industries that haven’t historically been associated with digital media. Accordingly, digital media can rightfully be called a kind of a structure-forming factor in modern society. Finally, it is emphasized that digitalization has penetrated all spheres of human life: health care, electronic branches of governments, systemic general education, higher education, finance, economics, industry, including the military, sociocultural sphere, etc.
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El tecnoestrés se asume como cualquier impacto negativo provocado por el uso repetido de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Si bien ha sido estudiado en diversos países, su impacto apenas comienza a ser comprendido en México. El cambio en los procesos de enseñanza provocados por la pandemia SARS-CoV-2 obligó a muchos profesores universitarios de la Ciudad de México y municipios urbanos aledaños del Estado de México a cambiar su esquema de instrucción y depender de las TIC para llevar a cabo su trabajo, lo que incrementó su nivel de tecnoestrés. Mediante una metodología mixta con herramientas tradicionales y una capa agregada de recolección de datos biométricos, esta investigación encontró que el tecnoestrés tiene diversas manifestaciones fisiológicas y psicológicas en los maestros estudiados. También halló que los profesores con mayores niveles de tecnoestrés son más propensos encontrarse insatisfechos laboralmente, aunque existen diferencias categóricas entre ellos. Al final de la investigación se propone un modelo de recolección, análisis y visualización de data para disminuir el tecnoestrés a nivel institucional mediante una mejor toma de decisiones en tiempo real.
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The launch of a Computer Science curriculum specification in upper secondary schools in Ireland in 2018 was a landmark and a historic development in Irish education. Addressing the historical policy decisions adopted towards establishing the specification, this paper presents an analysis of developments from the 1970s as revealed in key policies and other documents. Positioning the policy change within the context of influences, context of policy text production and within the context of practices, the paper presents an overview of the Irish Computer Science specification. Alongside the background to the evolution in computer science education over the period, the article takes into account the national and cultural contexts and narrates the journey travelled to arrive at this pivotal position. Developments in a global context are presented in comparison with curricula in other countries and some similarities and differences identified. The article uncovers consequences of the specification for the national curriculum, key skills integration and computer science teacher preparation. The article provides an important analysis of the policy trajectory of computer science in Ireland based on a visibly relevant corpus of documents tracing the different stages of this policy and comparing it to similar experiences implemented in other European countries.
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The vertiginous explosion of new forms and experiences of communication that have emerged in the last 30 years cannot be compared with other moments in the history of humanity. The rapid transformation of the media ecosystem and the technological sphere in general is putting old scientific theories and models to the test. The very idea of “ecosystem” or widely used concepts such as “emergence” (of new media) or “adaptation” or even “extinction” (of old media), albeit metaphorically, point in the same direction: the development of an evolutionary theory of media change. This review article aims to map the different approaches and contributions that come together in an evolutionary theory of the media, understood for all purposes as a transdisciplinary work-in-progress. The article opens with a reflection on the processes of theoretical construction, continues with a map of Media Ecology –a “field of inquiry” inspired by the works of Marshall McLuhan and Neil Postman– and concludes this first approach with the authors who worked on the evolutionary dimension of media change. It could be said that the evolutionary theory of the media already exists, but it is scattered in countless texts and investigations waiting to be articulated. The article concludes with a first identikit of the Evolution of the Media, understood as a theoretical field under construction but more than necessary to understand the past and contemporary transformations of the media ecosystem.
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En los últimos años, Wattpad se ha convertido en una de las plataformas de lectura y escritura colaborativa de referencia en la que jóvenes escritores publican sus trabajos, algunos de ellos enmarcados en la tradición de la fan fiction, historias derivadas de un texto fuente de la cultura de masas. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo principal explorar cómo se articulan las competencias transmedia de producción y de reflexión narrativa y estética de los adolescentes que leen y/o escriben fanfics en Wattpad. A partir de un marco teórico en el que se integran el alfabetismo transmedia, las comunidades de fan fiction como espacios de afinidad, y Wattpad como aplicación para el fomento de lectura transmedia, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio cualitativo con datos procedentes de talleres, diarios mediáticos y entrevistas con adolescentes en 5 comunidades autónomas. Los resultados destacan un juego de identidades en la producción de los relatos, en los que conviven fanfics sobre las celebridades reales que protagonizan los universos mediáticos de los jóvenes, e historias originales inspiradas en las vidas personales o inquietudes de los autores. Asimismo, se observa una tendencia hacia la hibridación de la fan fiction con lenguajes y formatos propios de las redes sociales, como Instagram, y una aplicación superficial de las competencias transmedia de narrativa y estética vinculadas a la práctica de la fan fiction.
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Lo que denomino arqueodiseño consolida en parte una práctica para la recuperación de técnicas y tecnologías ancestrales bajo la perspectiva del Diseño del Sur, corresponde a una propuesta original para avanzar con sostenimiento, para caminar mirando el futuro – pasado (42, 43), aprendiendo de los pueblos Abya-yala en las sociedades contemporáneas. ¿Hacia dónde caminar? una alternativa es acercarse al tejido de los diseños vernáculos, otrora descalificados, hilos del fieltro de culturas originarias, armónicas con la pachamama. Es plausible esta aproximación futurada y con ello andar- desandar, tejer-fieltrar otras posibilidades de prácticas re-directivas en/del/para el diseño. Entender la cadena de defuturación que ha conllevado ideales implantados por la colonización, en especial del modelo neoliberal desigual, tienen un particular significado para desmantelarlos y optar por esta alternativa. Saberes y prácticas ancestrales se pueden reivindicar con el diseño del Sur mediante la praxis del arqueodiseño. En ese sentido, una propuesta en ciernes de la industriosidad del diseño del Sur, propende por Allwiya kamay como chakana para un allin kausay1, que pueden contribuir al campo del diseño y en complemento, a la construcción de otro devenir social, simbólico y técnico con sostenimiento. ¿Cómo opera y en qué consiste la apuesta por el arqueodiseño como un promisorio campo del Diseño del Sur, en especial, diseño desde la filosofía andina? Es parte de la aproximación del presente trabajo.
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The introductory chapter starts by referring to three topical examples of transformations in higher education that can be observed from a geopolitical perspective and, thus, provide a thematic entry point for the theme of the Volume: how at various levels – supranational, national, local, but also at the level of the firms or individuals – a premium has been placed on knowledge and knowledge generation activities and have been made centerpiece in imaginations of the future, in social, political and economic terms. Innovation, science capacity and education – representing the main missions of Higher Education – thus are reckoned key to succeeding in global economic competition. The Introduction discusses a geopolitical perspective on the transformations in higher education adopted in the chapters collected in this book, also relating the topic to adjacent debates in higher education research. Finally, the introduction provides a brief overview over the chapters of the book.
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The chapter argues that higher education is now part of a New geopolitics of knowledge that refers to the integration of higher education in the imaginations and calculations of different actors aiming at asserting and/or improving their positions in the global knowledge-based economy. This integration, the chapter argues, not only prompts a (re-)imagination of the future of HE in terms of serving knowledge-intensive capitalism, but also reshapes and transforms HE missions and infrastructures. The chapter starts by, first, introducing a geopolitical perspective that, it is argued, can help us understand and deliberate on the implications of current developments shaping higher education. Here the theme of geopolitics is unfolded and two different strands of the debate about a (new) geopolitics of knowledge discussed that offer a conceptual perspective for assessing the relevance and implications of current developments. Second, in taking a global perspective, the chapter presents two distinct sets of contexts that shape contemporary transformations in higher education. To start with, the integration of higher education in global regionalism projects is examined in terms of the relevance of these policy contexts as a background for developments in the field; in what follows, we look into the emerging Global Education Industry that also serves as an influential shaper of higher education transformations. In a third section, the chapter discusses examples of how current transformations in higher education can be better grasped by adopting a geopolitical lens. The section considers the creation of international education hubs by states aspiring to improve their position in global economic circuits; and it discusses the placelessness of the (imagined) future of higher education by examining a current project that aims at disrupting the future of higher education: the Minerva Project.
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Developers, coders, and designers of learning software have a significant influence on the understanding of education and learning in the expanding Global Educational Industry (GEI) as they introduce proprietary digital technologies and data science to formal and informal education. The chapter focuses on this kind of knowledge production and its implications for the understanding of teaching and learning practices. We explore the question how sense-making within algorithmic systems can be described in contrast to human sense-making as generally found in education. This concerns especially the relation of knowledge, learning, education (in the sense of “Bildung”) and time. Throughout all life and developmental stages, humans are addressed by algorithmic systems in the same way, leaving out specific pedagogical values concerning lifetime and biography. By integrating digital software in the education process, established routines are questioned and changed. For example, algorithmic systems work with temporal immediacy – the systems answer immediately, but also provoke immediate reactions. Against this background, it stands in contrast to an understanding of learning and “Bildung”, which inevitably takes time. The contribution calls attention to how digital systems challenge education and force educational routines into dilemmatic situations, such as setting a pedagogical relationship between solicitousness and data security. Digital systems are arguably shaping, in the long run, the next generation of adults as functionally appropriate complying participants and users of the algorithmic systems designed by the GEI. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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The article considers the social perception of artificial intelligence (AI) as an essential factor having an impact on the digitization, transfer, and popularization of cultural heritage. The article aims at the theoretical comprehension of the digital ontology and implementation of AI in the context of Russian realia. The research relies on comprehensive analysis based on statistical data, using descriptive and comparative methods. The interdisciplinary approach adopted includes reflexive analysis of both positive and negative consequences of the digitalization process. The article examines the peculiarities of the “digital ontology”, deterritorization effect, new actors in the digital process, the effect of digital trust, and opposite views of AI-enthusiasts and AI-alarmists. The article describes objective and subjective reasons for the negative perception of digital artifacts, and states the need to consider the influence of key figures in digital ontology: influencers, stakeholders, and data scientists. The ambivalence of public perception of both artificial intelligence and digital cultural heritage is stated. The research reveals digitization frontiers, which involve three factors: the axiological factor, indicating the need for consistency between a human values system and AI development programs; the subject vector, emphasizing the role of a new type of digital heritage bearers and digital influence actors; ethical factor associated with the need to transform relations with information technologies in order to subordinate them to human reflection and comprehension. The authors conclude that cultural heritage digitization should be aimed at generating a human-centered future.
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Many reports indicate higher education counseling centers are finding it difficult to keep pace with the growing rates of stress, anxiety, depression, and sleeping difficulties in undergraduate populations. Some universities are turning to telepsychology, or means of providing mental health care through videoconferencing, software, and other digital tools. This article analyzes one such platform, therapy assistance online (TAO), through a critical walkthrough of the platform’s self-help modules to consider how they communicate and construct care as individual labor which generates data for the platform. We argue that by removing traces of the therapist’s body and, in turn, dialogic communication, the platform produces modes of neoliberal self-care operationalized through data extraction, where the individual user works through modules while providing personal information to the platform. While TAO is offered as a solution to overcrowded and understaffed care facilities, it demonstrates some limitations of relying on third-party platforms to care for students.
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This paper reflects on some of the civilizational challenges enlivened by the post-pandemic context, thus playing a role in understanding the current crisis though other key moments in recent history that restrained design at the theoretical and operative levels, having an impact on several social domains. It draws a parallel between how the increasing digitalization changed both the profession and how research is performed though a change in the perception of society and the designers themselves regarding their sphere of activity—be it through spreading design to areas that once were out of reach or through an increasing emphasis on the performance of communication and interaction devices that were shaped and projected by the design industry to strive for a future. This future deploys aesthetics together with environmental and ecosystemic ethics, while adapting the policies of body and space, both private and public, but also of the spirit, thus transforming the perception of temporality itself. Lastly, this article sets out to reflect upon design, using as a starting point the energetic issue and the consequences thereof on creativity and geographical, biophysical, climate, and physiological processes, to appeal to a certain heterodoxy, which can lead to a counter-hegemonic transition that will have a relevant impact on the planetary system.KeywordDesign for transitionPost-pandemic crisisDesign driven innovationDigital services
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This paper maps out several contemporary Chinese artists whose work of the moving image, be it installation, on mobile phones, on the app or website, is read as responding to the situation where various screens and their corresponding images or information are connected so deeply as to blur their previously established ontological and cultural boundaries. To this end, I expand Francesco Casetti’s idea of ‘hypertopia’, a new spatial structure in which cinema is unhinged from its traditional place and relocated into other places and platforms, through Hito Steyerl’s assertion on the migration of images and data, into, across, and off screens in the postinternet condition under which the world is perceived as the sum of the images and data themselves. If Casetti’s hypertopia points to cinema’s centrifugal relocation to other spaces than the movie theater, it can be argued that Steyerl’s insight into the postinternet condition concerns the centripetal folding of images and screens, including the cinematic, into a screen, so that it is seen as accommodating them in its inside. Developing this theoretical speculation, I characterize as ‘internal hypertopia’ an aesthetic trope of moving image pieces by such artists as aaajiao (aka Xu Wenkai) and Miao Ying.
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Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o problema hermenêutico relacionado ao surgimento do campo de pesquisa amplamente conhecido como humanidades digitais. Em geral, no nível epistemológico, esse problema envolve a consideração de uma teoria da interpretação histórica que articula métodos e técnicas de pesquisa com objetos digitais em seu caráter simbólico. No plano ontológico, ele destaca a necessidade de levar em conta os aspectos constitutivos que tornam essa teoria da interpretação possível. Ao examinar o fundamento histórico-filosófico do paradigma hermenêutico, bem como o engajamento das ciências humanas em geral — e da história em particular — com as tecnologias digitais, chegamos à conclusão de que uma hermenêutica histórica digital precisa ir além de reflexões metodológicas e epistemológicas em direação ao questionamento das condições ontológicas não apenas da compreensão humana, mas também da interpretação realizada pela máquina.
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This article examines ‘instaworthiness’ as a classificatory category in discourses of place-making. It engages in social-semiotic analyses of the selfies clicked at instaworthy cafes and pubs in Kolkata to highlight how the photographic performativity of selfie-taking reconfigures the notions of placemaking. It accounts for: how is an ‘instaworthy’ spot made and consumed? What ramifications does showcasing the self within these specific sites have upon perceptions of identity, both of the self and the space in question? In locating photographic practices of selfies within the wider shifts of the heuristics of ‘instaworthiness’, this article teases out how the self interacts with a diverse range of non-human actors toward conferring visual apartness upon certain spaces. Thus, producing and circulating selfies as a performance warrant thinking through how discourses of the self and that of spatiality co-constitute each other.
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In dem Beitrag werden Parallelen aufgezeigt zwischen Verfahren des sog. Deep Learnings im Kontext von künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) und gängigen Ablaufschemata im Bereich qualitativ-rekonstruktiver Verfahren empirischer Sozialforschung: Methodologien wie die Dokumentarische Methode, die Objektive Hermeneutik, die Grounded Theory oder das Narrationsstrukturelle Verfahren haben alle mehr oder weniger nicht methodisierbare Bereiche, auf die mit Begriffen wie Abduktion oder Intuition eingegangen wird. Die Parallele zur KI wird in den sog. Hidden layers gesehen, also den verborgenen Schichten algorithmischer Berechnung bei sprachverarbeitenden Systemen, die von Informatiker*innen ebenfalls nicht oder nur unter unverhältnismäßig großem Aufwand rekonstruiert werden können. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden die angesprochenen qualitativ-rekonstruktiven Methodologien als Verfahren Tiefer Interpretation rekonstruiert und abschließend ein Forschungsprojekt vorgestellt, welches eruiert, inwiefern eine QDA1-Software für das Interpretieren mit der Dokumentarischen Methode (DokuMet QDA2) durch KI unterstützt werden kann.
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The contemporay technological developments have been redefining human communication, concurrently raising the question whether users of online services and various media platforms can cope with so much freedom. Thus, the Internet as a global medium opens new legal issues and poses new challenges in the field of media legislation. Information policy, and legislation must adequately respond to the challenges of the new digital age. New media pose a new challenge for law and values, not only in a speculative sense but also in a real procedural and human sense. In times of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), law should not turn a blind eye to the developments in the virtual space. The development of new digital environments and media platforms raises the question whether the legislation should be the same for all media, traditional and new ones alike. The first step in addressing this issue should be the provision of a broad and realistic definition of the concept of media, which will ensure the recognition of the new media. Secondly, media regulations and principles referring to the new media should be more flexible and less strict as compared to the traditional media (but only provisionally), which is more purposeful than turning a blind eye to the new media. Non-recognition and non-regulation of information dissemination via the Internet opens the possibility of causing much greater damage to the public interest.
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The development of information and communication technologies reveals their transformative effects on all areas and in all aspects of human practices. Transformative processes that accompany the development of artificial intelligence have been especially impactful in the past decade and a half. The social circumstances of the Coronavirus pandemic added a new dimension to such processes, as the world has become more aware of the need to introduce new technologies into the areas of the economy, education, culture, and art. Digital technology has also a strong impact on media development and functioning and enables the emergence of new genres while causing the old ones to transform. Thanks to all this, it affects the formation of media messages, also affecting the processes of perception and interpretation of messages. This paper assumes a critical approach to the notion of media, i.e., media messages while assuming two perspectives considered crucial for the understanding of the working of media in general. On one side, the fact that their steadiness is software-dependent impacts the understanding and interpretation of media messages. Therefore, this paper will observe recent theoretical framings relevant to the understanding of new media, while emphasizing the possibilities of new methodological approaches to media message analysis, and on the understanding of messages in general. These processes are mutually dependent, and possibilities of understanding and interpreting media messages can be said to have a direct influence on the interpretation of new media trends, and vice versa. We are proposing a research protocol to test the so-called method of media visualization that was gradually introduced by Lev Manovich via a series of articles published during 2008, to be rounded and presented integrally in his book Cultural Analytics, published in 2020. Grounding our approach in the fact that the new media are computer-based, and the message dissemination is software-based, we will approach the message analysis in much the same way, by using media visualization software (primarily ImagePlot). This method will, hence, embrace the fundamental characteristics of the new media, such as omnipresence, large data sets, recipient orientation, and visuality, and use all these principles to process our research data. The material which we are using will be the advertisements issued by a Swedish furniture company between 2012 and 2021 and published on social platform YouTube. The results of our research will, of course, point to strategic orientations in advertising practices by this firm. However, and more importantly: following the main goal of our research, they will point to the possibilities of application of new, technologically based methods and their relevance to the understanding of new media. The results show that the use of big data sets and their digital processing open new perspectives applicable not only to the understanding of new media and media messages but also to the understanding of the broader social and cultural context within which they are created and interpreted.
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