University of Nebraska - Lincoln University of Nebraska - Lincoln
DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Impact of Internet Blockade Post Abrogation of Article 370 of Impact of Internet Blockade Post Abrogation of Article 370 of
Indian Constitution on Doctoral Students Pursuing Research in Indian Constitution on Doctoral Students Pursuing Research in
Safat Mustaq Misgar
University of Kashmir, India
Zahid Ashraf Wani
University of Kashmir
University of Kashmir, India
Follow this and additional works at: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac
Part of the Communication Technology and New Media Commons, and the Scholarly Communication
Misgar, Safat Mustaq; Wani, Zahid Ashraf; and Ayoub, Arshia, "Impact of Internet Blockade Post
Abrogation of Article 370 of Indian Constitution on Doctoral Students Pursuing Research in Kashmir"
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)
Impact of Internet Blockade Post Abrogation of Article 370 of Indian Constitution on
Doctoral Students Pursuing Research in Kashmir
This paper aims to gauge the impact of internet blockade on the research students pursuing
research in Kashmir post abrogation of article 370 of Indian constitution that granted political
autonomy to erstwhile state of Jammu & Kashmir. In order to collect the data survey method
was employed. A close-ended questionnaire was distributed among the select group. The data
for the study was gathered from these questionnaires as per the objectives was analysed and
interpreted to reach logical conclusions. The study revealed that the majority (76.92%) of
researchers are of the view that the internet is a backbone for education and research. In the
absence of the internet facility, the majority of research students (74.04%) were not able to
pursue their research, while the research work of 61.54% was extremely hampered by 76-
100%. It was also observed that the majority of researchers (78.85%) failed to complete their
research in a set timeline, thereby hampering their academic growth. Majority of the research
students (77.88%) failed to access the internet in e-kiosks setup by the administration due to
the huge rush outside these centres while 42.31% migrated to mainland India avail internet
facility. The study also explored the information seeking pattern of respondents before the
internet blockade and it was observed that the majority of scholars (80.77%) consulted both
print and online sources of information before the blockade. The researchers also claimed that
resources of the library are not current and comprehensive.
The study can be a good starting point for the researchers to understand how people cope with
limited information sources, in the absence of the internet. It will also be beneficial for the
information scientists in making plans and strategies for tackling such e-crises in the future.
The study does not claim to be the final word in this matter as respondents were limited to only
one university though university under study is the oldest and major source of imparting higher
education in Kashmir valley.
Keywords– Internet blockade, Internet services, e-crisis, e-sources, Research student,
Research, Information seeking pattern.
The internet has revolutionized human lives completely, particularly their communications
capabilities. The Internet has become the major mechanism for information dissemination in
present times. It is expanding with each passing day, in terms of its resources and users.
Simultaneously, the active efforts of government of nations different to curb the internet
indicates that the “democratic potential of the internet is being dumbed down’’ (Gomez, 2004).
These restrictions and controls on internet content by laws, censorship, and blockade methods
are usually enforced for certain reasons such as “political, social, commercial, national security,
and cultural interests’’(Subramanian, 2011 & Giles, 2009).
There has been an internet blockade in Kashmir valley from time to time. But the people of
Kashmir observed the longest ever internet blockade of 213 days in the world from 4th August
2019 and ended on 4th March 2020 (Malik, 2019a). The highest number of internet blackouts
has seen in Kashmir between 2012, and 2017 succeeded by Rajasthan, Haryana, and
Gujarat (Kathuria, Kedia, Varma, Bagchi & Sekhani, 2018). The internet was suspended in
Kashmir on the intervening night of 4 August, 2019. The Indian government revoked Jammu
and Kashmir (J&K) state’s special status under Article 370, and also Article 35A on August 5,
2019. The state was divided into two union territories of J&K and Ladakh (Internet Shutdown
Tracker, n.d). To avoid agitation over the decision especially in Kashmir, the government
imposed curfew, curbed communication systems including internet, cable TV, landlines &
mobile services, and all educational institutions were closed. (Press Trust of India, 2019). The
freedom of speech & expression and freedom of conducting business over the internet is
protected by the constitution of India. The constitution safeguards internet access as a
fundamental right under Article 19, so blocking of the internet means violating fundamental
human rights (Review curb on internet, 2020).
The internet blockade affects every nook and corner of the society especially the Business and
Education sectors of Kashmir. The internet suspension hits government employees and
business persons in submitting their Income Tax, and Goods & Services Tax (GST) returns.
The e-tendering halts in Kashmir which has a direct effect on the development process.
Individuals could not apply for driving licenses, and transporters are incapable to submit
vehicle fitness and insurance fee online (Malik, 2019b). The Kashmir train passengers are
unable to check online local train timing through the National Train Information Enquiry
System (NTIES) (Malik, 2019c). The numerous services offered by the postal department are
affected by internet lockdown like “booking of registered letters, parcel and value payable
articles, money orders, insurance schemes, speed post articles, saving bank and cash
certificates, telephone billing, money transfer, and much more” (Naqushbandi, 2019a). The
banking operations also hit severely, the utility bills which people pay online are now paid in
their respective branches resulting in long queues (“No world on resumption”, 2019).
Internet ban affects the healthcare sector badly as the patients of Post Stress Trauma Disorder
(PSTD) and other mental disorders can’t take online counselling. The patients are unable to
check online reports of their pathology samples that are dispatched outside the state for
examination. In Kashmir hospitals, most of the patient data remain undigitized. The doctors
cannot acquire new knowledge and update themselves (Kathuria, Kedia, Varma, Bagchi &
Sekhani, 2018). The online medical aid groups like Save the Heart and J&K Blood donors
have been rendered defunct (Salam, 2019a). The poor patients of Kashmir cannot take
advantage of free treatment under the Ayushman Bharat healthcare scheme works on the
internet (Naqushbandi, 2019b).
The political uncertainty, frequent strikes, and suspension of internet services in Kashmir led
to shut-off of all private sectors and businesses which ultimately shattered Kashmir’s economy.
Daily Kashmir’s economy lost around Rs. 165 crore and one lakh people rendered jobless.
Without the internet, the overall industrial production brings down by 70 percent (Akmali,
2019) and the export of certain sectors i.e., horticulture, handicrafts, and Kashmir bat industry
plunged by 50-60 percent (Malik, 2019a). The tourism sector is considered as the main catalyst
for Kashmir’s economy recorded the lowest number of tourists i.e. 36,105 in the valley from
August to November 2019 as compared to the last five years for the same period (Yaqoob,
2019). E-commerce suffered due to an internet bar. In pre-internet blockade, Kashmir received
around 3000-5000 online shopping products per day (Malik, 2019d). E-commerce owners use
different platforms like social media and other websites for their trade. These websites
disappeared from the internet due to the non-payment of the annual registration fee (Salam,
Internet gag collapsed education and research in Kashmir. Students have to wait long outside
the established internet kiosks due to lack of internet facilities. The scholars of Kashmir were
neither able to access scholarly literature nor able to apply online for national and international
conferences. They were also not able to apply for fellowships and submit their research papers
to journals. However, some scholars managed to migrate in order to proceed and complete their
research in set time but every scholar cannot afford to go to other places just for internet access
(Maqbool, 2019). The e-libraries resources of universities and colleges are inaccessible amid
internet lockdown hampered research and studies of students (Salam, 2020).
Governments, around the globe, have dynamic control over the internet usage by their citizens
via censor and block web content. Every nation has formulated some policies and incorporated
certain laws accordingly to keep the check on internet usage by their citizens. This can be
attributed to the fact that the internet provides access to a tremendous amount of information
which may contain moral as well as immoral content. In the UAE, the popular social site i.e.,
Orkut is unavailable (Riyasbabu, 2007; Ghosh, 2016). BBC Persian, the site is suspended in
Iran as a part of their internet censorship policy (BBC News, 2006; Cozens, 2006; Tajdin,
2019). It is mandatory to install hidden cameras in internet cafes of Saudi Arabia and provide
footage along with the name of the customers to the government (Noman, 2009, Rahal, 2010).
Also, the websites appertaining freedom of speech and women’s rights are blocked in Saudi
Arabia (Giles, 2009). Similarly, the Vietnam authority had blocked foreign news, human rights
institutes, politically, and morally hazardous sites. It is unlawful to use the internet to breach
the law, an anti-political party, against the nation’s security and sovereignty. The violators are
jailed for some years (Human Rights Watch, 2019). Immoral and against national sovereignty
sites are blocked in South Korea and it was probably the first country to pass internet censorship
laws. It is considered illegal to communicate and show pity towards North Korea over the
internet (Ang, 1997). Turkey’s authority blocks and censor websites built on nine catalogue
crimes i.e., “incitement to suicide, child pornography, facilitation of the use of narcotics,
provision of substances harmful to the health, obscenity, prostitution, facilitation of gambling,
the crimes against Atatürk, and betting/gambling”(Akdeniz, 2010; Yurtsever, 2019). The
country also banned the news and posts related to corruption of eminent political officers
(Akgul & Kırlıdog, 2015; U.S. Mission Turkey, 2020).
At times the internet censorship is used by governments to suppress the opposition parties’
support or control the anti-government protests by the locals like the sites of opposed political
parties and bloggers are suspended in Ethiopia (OpenNet Initiative, 2009). China was the
worst abuser of internet freedom and acquired “Not Free” status in 2020. Internet censorship
and blockades impede economic development and research scientific output of china (Balding,
2017; Bulman, 2017). The Chinese government curbs the citizen’s freedom of expression on
the internet by using numerous methods viz. imposed laws, imprisonment, clampdown internet
cafes, blocks various foreign news and social media sites (China Shuts Down, 2017).
Likewise, authorities block sites of political areas and news reports of sensitive topics like Tibet
protests in 2008 and Taiwan relations (Bulman, 2017; Congressional Research Service,
2011; Giles, 2009). MSN Spaces, Microsoft's blog site for Chinese people, blocked contents
under title democracy, freedom and human rights (Congressional Research Service, 2012;
The Myanmar citizens held protests and demonstrations against the sharp hike in fuel price on
August 19, 2007. The military forces killed over 200 people on September 26 and the
government suspended the internet on 29 September was precipitated to disarm and immobilize
the citizens that share updates, photographs and videos documenting the violent suppression of
protests by Myanmar military rulers with the rest of the world. The internet blockade lasted
until October 4, 2007 (Chowdhury, 2008; Human Rights Watch, 2007; Wang, 2007).
Similarly, the activists in Egypt call for protest against unemployment, poverty, corruption and
three- decade ruler Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian government ordered all service providers to
cut-off internet connections with the rest of the world on January 28, 2011 because of extensive
pro-democracy and anti-government protests in Egypt (Aljazeera, 2011; BBC, 2011; Fahim
& El-Naggar, 2011).
The internet shutdown was documented in 33 countries with 213 incidents across the globe in
2019. India with 121 incidents of internet shutdowns tops the list of worst internet shutdown
offenders followed by Venezuela (12) and Yemen (11) (Taye, 2019). According to Woodhams
and Migliano (2020) report, the world experienced the highest internet shutdown cases than
ever before with 122 major incidents in 21 countries during 2019. The global economy lost
around $8.5 BN by all major internet shutdowns, and also shows a 235% rise as compared to
$2.4 BN in 2015-16. Iran’s economy (2319.5M) hit badly with shutdowns followed by Sudan
(1866.3M) and India (1329.8M). The Mauritania government blocked the internet for one week
on 25 June due to disputed Presidential elections (Human Rights Watch, 2019; Shaban,
In Sudan, social media was blocked for 68 days that ended on 26 Feb 2019 and again on April
7. These blocks were implemented because of the intensive protests and demonstrations that
demand to step down the long-term president of Sudan, Omar al-Bashir. The media access was
restored after Omar al-Bashir stepped down by the pressure of top military generals (Dahir,
2019; Zisengwe, 2019). Due to military coup, the protests continued in Sudan, the internet was
suspended on Jun 3 to prevent the flow of information related to the killing of innocent citizens
and brutality (Aljazeera, 2019; BBC, 2019; Human Rights Watch, 2019). The suspension
and protests continued until the establishment of a new government at the starting of August
(Aljazeera, 2019; Woodhams & Migliano, 2020). The government suspended the internet for
a week, to suppress anti-government protests that erupted in Iraq due to poor public services,
corruption and unemployment begin on October 1 (Alkhshali, Tawfeeq & Qiblawi; 2019;
Baqal & Karaalp, 2019; Mansour, 2019). The citizens of Iran held protests against a rise in
the petrol price by around 50% in November leading to internet blockade (BBC, 2019; Welle,
2020; Wintour, 2019). The country Chad witnessed the longest suspension of social
networking sites from March 2018 to July 2019. This happened when the parliament of Chad
suggested constitutional modifications that allow President Idriss Deby to stay in power till
2033 (Christian, 2019; Dahir, 2019; Kulkarni, 2019). Zimbabwe authority more than
doubled the fuel prices and to maintain law and order situation it imposed the internet blockade
on January 15, 16 and 18 (Bright, 2019; Koch, 2019; Taye, 2019). Internet and SMS services
blocked in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for 20 days afore election result
(Aljazeera, 2019; BBC, 2018). The authority of Sri Lanka blocked social sites to prevent the
spread of rumours and disinformation, after a series of bomb blasts in churches and hotels on
April 21 (Fisher, 2019; Ellis-Petersen, 2019; Wakefield, 2019).
Internet surveillance, censorship and blockades took roots in India after two terrorist attacks in
Mumbai in July 2006 and November 2008 where terrorists used internet platforms from
planning to execution of attacks (Lordet, 2012; Murthy, as cited in Ramesh, 2011).
Immediately after the 2008 attack, the Information Technology Amendment Act 2008 was
passed in December 2008. The state and central governments of India are responsible for censor
and block internet contents (Faleiro, 2014; Naavi.org, n.d; Reich, 2012). In India, the frequent
internet suspension in the name of maintaining peace and harmony was condemned by the UN
and considered it as a human rights violation (Goel, Singh & Yasir, 2019; Kamdar, 2019;
Krishnani, 2019; Singh, 2019). Also, India tops in internet shutdowns with 121 incidents out
of 213 documented shutdowns worldwide in 2019 (Taye, 2019) and 47% shutdowns occurred
in Jammu and Kashmir region, according to a recent study done at Stanford University
(Flamini, 2019). India received "Partly Free" internet freedom status which is unchanged since
2009 (Shahbaz & Funk, 2019). From 2012 to 2017, India’s economy cost $3.4 billion
approximately due to internet blackouts (Kathuria, Kedia, Varma, Bagchi & Sekhani, 2018).
But the earliest case of Internet blocking is traced in July 1999 during the Kargil war with an
attempt to block the online edition of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn by VSNL, although this
was an unsuccessful attempt (Subramanian, 2011). On 5 December 2011, Indian government
issued advisory to pre-screen and delete “disparaging, inflammatory or defamatory content”
before making it accessible on net to social media and other internet companies like Facebook,
Yahoo, Google and Microsoft. The decision was taken when offensive content was put online
against “Congress leader Sonia Gandhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh” (Arya, 2011;
Burke, 2011; Timmons, 2011; The Economic Times, 2011). The Mobile data, group SMS
and MMS services suspended in Vadodara district of Gujarat for 3 days on September 27, 2014
in response to communal clashes between two communities. The unrests began “when a man
identified as Sunil Rajput posted on Facebook a photo shopped image of a Hindu goddess
superimposed on an image of the Muslim holy city of Mecca” (Langa & Rajendran, 2014;
The Economic Times, 2014; The Times of India, 2014; Zee news, 2014). Protests erupted
in Nagaland over the government’s decision to provide 33% reservation to women in 12 towns
across the state in urban local body elections and the tribal organisations demanded the chief
minister Zeliang to step down. To prevent violence, mobile services like SMS and internet
were suspended in the state for 20 days which began on 30 January, 2017 (Das, 2017; Deka,
2017; Financial Express, 2017; Pia, 2017; Singh, 2017). The Manipur government suspend
mobile internet and SMS services on 1 September 2015 for one week due to agitation over the
passing of three Bills –the Protection of Manipur Peoples Bill, 2015, the Manipur Land
Revenues & Land Reforms (7th Amendment) Bill, 2015 and the Manipur Shop &
Establishment (2nd Amendment) Bill, 2015. The laws are proposed to restrict residency and
land ownership rights of non-Manipuris in the state (“All three Bills”, 2015; Gurumayum,
2015; Fowler, 2015; Pandey, 2015). The District Magistrate of Manipur issued Orders to all
telecom operators to disconnect mobile data services in East and West Imphal from 18th
December to 30th December, 2016. Such preventive steps were taken to maintain law and order
situation caused due to economic blockade imposed by the United Naga Council (UNC).The
blockade was implemented on 1 November and lasts for 139 days, as a protest against the
government's decision to create two districts in Manipur (HuffPost, 2017; “Mobile Internet
blocked”, 2016; sflc.in, 2018 ). Internet services were also blocked in Asanol and Raniganj
areas of West Bengal for a week on 28th March 2018 when clashes erupt between two different
religious groups over a Ram Navami procession (Firstpost, 2018; Kolkata 24x7, 2018; New
Indian Express, 2018).The Madhya Pradesh farmer’s demanding higher rates for their
produce and waiver of agricultural loans. The Internet suspended in Madhya Pradesh when the
farmer’s agitation turned violent on 6th June, 2017 and restored on 11th June, 2017 (Chauhan,
2017; GardaWorld,2017; NDTV, 2018; Outlook, 2017).The Jat community started
agitations on 29 January which demanded reservation in government jobs, educational
institutions, and among other things .In order to prevent spread of rumours mobile Internet and
bulk messaging services were suspended on 17th February, 2017 in many “sensitive” districts
of Haryana and were reportedly restored on 19th February, 2017 (Financial Express, 2017;
Firstpost, 2017; The Economic Times, 2017;). Country-wide protests and violence reported
in India especially in the North eastern states against the CAA (Citizenship Amendment Act)
which was passed on December 11, 2019 in the Parliament. To maintain law and order
situation, the government decided to lockdown internet services in unrest places (Sathe, 2019;
Subramaniam, 2019). Mobile data, SMS and voice services were suspended in parts of Delhi
for the first time over protests against CAA on December 19 from 9 am to 1 pm (Dixit, 2019;
India Today, 2019). The Internet was restored in Assam after 10 days on 20th December due
to constant protests over CAA (Benu, 2019; Jalan, 2020; The Week, 2019). Internet
connection was cut off between November 8-10 in various parts of the country before Supreme
Court decision in November 9, 2019 on Ayodhya land dispute case between Hindus and
Muslims for over 70 years (“Ahead of Ayodhya verdict”, 2019; Jalan, 2019; News18, 2019).
The 22 social networking sites banned in Kashmir for a period of one month issued by the
government of J&K on 26 April 2017 after a series of videos on social networks which shows
abuse of Kashmiris by Indian forces amid protests and clashes with security forces. The
decision was taken to maintain peace and harmony (BBC, 2017;Das, 2017; Telegraph, 2017).
There has been long suspension of internet services in few areas that include the district Kargil
of Ladakh where 145 days 145 days were observed which was imposed in the wake of
abrogation of Article 370 on 5 August 2019 (India Today, 2019; The week, 2019; Scroll.in,
2019). Also in 2016, the Internet was suspended for 133 days in Kashmir from 8th July 2016
to 19th November 2016, in order to quash the protests caused over the killing of Burhan Wani
(BBC, 2020; Khatri, 2019; Majid, 2019; Yaqoob, 2016). Darjeeling witnessed 100 days
internet suspension from 18th June 2017 to 25th September 2017 against the backdrop of
protests demanding separate Gorkhaland (Mehrotra, 2019; Medianama, 2018). But the
longest ever internet lockdowns was observed by Kashmir where the Internet of all platforms
was suspended on 4th August 2019 as a precautionary measure in the wake of the withdrawal
of Article 370. The 2G mobile internet restored on 25th January to access white listed sites and
social media remained banned (Al Jazeera, 2020; Gulf News, 2020; The Economic Times,
2020) and fully restored after 213 days (Internet Shutdown Tracker, n.d).
Statement of the problem
The internet has become a great invention in the 21st-century world. The internet eradicates
the communication gap irrespective of geographical barriers, which help researchers to share
their research literature with the rest of the world. Apart from the research literature, e-journals,
e-books, e-databases, and e-theses/dissertations are easily accessible for the scholar community
on the internet. Sans internet, researchers cannot access online resources for conducting their
research smoothly. The present study was carried out to portray the impact of internet gag on
research students pursuing research degrees at university of kashmir.
Scope of study
The Internet bar had disrupted the research work of all research scholars of Kashmir valley. It
was not possible for investigators to reach all scholars who had enrolled in different academic
institutions of the valley due to a shortage of time, finance and partially functioning campus
with sparse visibility of researchers due the fallout of august 5, 2019 scrapping of Article 370.
As a consequence, the scope of the study was restricted to research students of Kashmir
University falling under the school of Business Studies, Social Sciences, Biological Sciences
and Applied Sciences and Technology only.
The current study was taken based on the following objectives:-
1. To explore the significance of the internet in education and research.
2. To ascertain the effect of internet blockade on the research of scholars.
3. To determine the zeal of doctoral students to conclude their research on fixed time by
migrating or visit e-kiosks.
4. To examine the information sources preferred by research scholars in the pre-internet
blockade period, and also determine how much they relied on offline library resources
during the period of internet blokade.
5. To identify the research anxiety among research students due to internet suspension.
The present study was conducted to understand the impact of internet blockade on the research
scholar community of Kashmir University. The survey was used as a research method for
collection of data for the present study. The methodology used can be summarized into
Step 1: After thorough review of literature a short closed-ended questionnaire was framed as
per the objectives of the study.
Step 2: From the official website of Kashmir university (www.kashmiruniversity.net), among
the list of schools, the faculty of Business Studies, Social Sciences, Biological Sciences, and
Applied Sciences & Technology were selected. Respondent (researcher students) from select
faculties were randomly considered for the study. A total of 110 questionnaires were distributed
and 104 questionnaires were received back from the respondent’s between 13th - 25th
Step 3: The received questionnaires were sorted according to their respective faculties. The
highest number of responses were received from Biological Sciences (33) followed by Applied
Sciences & Technology (32), Social Sciences (23), and Business Studies (16). The data was
tabulated from these responses and saved in MS EXCEL. The saved data was graphically
represented and interpreted as per set objectives of the study which leads to meaningful
findings and conclusion.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
1. Internet Sways Education and Research
The majority of research scholars (76.92) ‘Strongly Agree’ with the statement that the internet
is the backbone for education and research. At the faculty level, Biological Sciences leads with
the highest number of respondents (81.82%) who strongly believe that the internet is the main
channel of communication for a free flow of education and research, followed by Social
Sciences (78.26%), Business studies (75%%%) and Applied Sciences and Technology
Likewise, a considerable magnitude of scholars from Applied sciences and Technology
(28.13%)‘Agree’ that the internet is essential for the education and research followed by
Business Studies (25%), Social Sciences (17.39%) and Biological Sciences (15.15%).
Furthermore, a few ‘neutral’ responses (3.03%) have been received from Biological Sciences
faculty while some respondents (4.35%) belonging to Social Sciences disagreed that the
internet has an impact on the learning and exploring process and these two least numbers
contributed equal proportion in cumulative figures i.e. 0.96%. The highest number respondents
from the field of science strongly believe in the impact of the internet on education and research
can be attributed to the fact science subjects are dynamic in nature than other subjects and get
first-hand information related to their theme of study only through the internet (Graph 1).
Graph 1: Internet sways education and research
2. Effects of Internet bar on research
a. Pursue Research
Researchers fetch the most relevant information related to their field of study in a few seconds
just by giving keywords in search engines which is impossible in case of offline resources. It
is observed that the maximum number of research scholars (74.04%) were not able to pursue
their research work in absence of access to the internet. at the level of faculties, majority of
Applied Sciences and Technology scholars (84.38%) is of view that the internet is a
compulsory part for conducting investigation and exploration of study followed by Business
Studies (81.25%), Biological Sciences (75.76%) and Social Sciences (52.17%). Around 1/4th
of the scholar community (24.04%) thought that internet access is moderately important for
research while a very small proportion of scholars (1.92%) are of the view that they can conduct
their research without use of the internet (though such scholars solely belongs to faculty of
social sciences). Graph 2 offers a lucid picture. This may be attributed to the fact that in social
sciences the literature is slow when compared to sciences and as such some of research may
have such outlier opinions and perspectives. Besides, the library usually possesses decent print
resources in the field of social science.
Graph 2: Effect of Internet on pursue of research
b. Research Hampered
The obstruction of the research work due to internet suspension is directly proportional to the
dependence of researchers on the online resources and virtual academic platforms. The study
depicts that internet blockade retards research work of all scholars that ranged between 1-100
percent. Observing the aggregate data, the majority (61.54%) of scholars agreed that their
research work was hampered by 76-100%, while a good proportion of scholars (28.85%)
agreed it affected their research work by 51-75%. Few scholars (7.69%) believed that their
research work was affected by 26-50%, while meagre proportion (1.92%) believed that their
research work was hindered by 0-25%.
Applied Sciences & Technology seems to suffer most with the highest numbers of respondents
(81.25%) falling in the category of 76-100%, followed by Business Studies (75%), Biological
Sciences (54.55%) and Social sciences (34.78%). The investigation and exploration of Social
science scholars showed that the majority (43.48%) of its scholars suffered from 51-75% work
setback followed by Biological Sciences (36.36%), Applied Sciences & Technology (18.75%)
and Business Studies (12.50%). While an average number (21.74%) of scholars from Social
Science had their research disrupted by 26-50%, followed by Business Studies (6.25%) and
Biological Sciences (6.06%). Lastly, the research students’ whose work was least suffered (0-
25%) belongs to Business Studies (6.25%) and Biological Sciences (3.03%) though the number
is very low (Graph 3).
Graph 3: Research hampered due to internet blockade
c. Probability of Finishing Research in Time
Just like any other course, M.Phil. /Ph.D. has its time limit for completion. The study reveals
that the majority of respondents (78.85%) are of view that they cannot complete their research
in a set time due to long term and continuous internet bar though the faculty of Biological
Sciences leads with (87.88%) responses, followed by Applied Sciences and Technology, and
Business Studies (81.25% each) and Social Sciences (60.87%). It depicts the intense use of
online resources by the researchers in the valley. The top second respondents (17.31%) are in
a dilemma whether their research will finish in a set timeline or not. The highest number of
such respondents (30.43%) belongs to Social Sciences faculty, which also indicates a partial
dependency on the internet succeeded by Applied Sciences & Technology (15.63%), Business
Studies (12.50%) and Biological Sciences (12.12%). The lesser number of the respondents
from Social Sciences (8.7%), Business Studies (6.25%), and Applied Sciences & Technology
(3.13%) show no dependency on the internet or may be their research is about to finish. These
faculties together contributed to a minor share 3.85% in aggregate (Graph 4).
Graph 4: Probability of finishing research in time
3. Complete research on time
a. Availing Internet Services by Migration
To retain work pace and complete research in a fixed period, some respondents migrated to
mainland India to avail internet. The study also tried to have insight into the conditions that
hindered scholars from migration. It was observed, most of scholars (42.31%) are considering
migration for academic sake, while reasonable number of scholars (27.88%) are not
economically sound to carry out such a migration, besides some female scholars (16.35%) do
not feel safe outside their hometown and families of small number of scholars (14.42%) are
averse to such decision.
Observing data at faculty level, scholars from faculty of Business Studies (56.25%) lead in
such initiative (migration) followed by Social Sciences (43.48%), Biological Sciences (39.39)
and Applied Sciences & Technology (37.50%). A good number of Applied Sciences &
Technology respondents (37.50%) cannot afford to go outside Kashmir succeeded by Social
Sciences (26.09%), Business Studies (25%) and Biological Sciences (21.21%) as economic
disparity prevail in our society. Some female respondents feel unsafe outside their hometown
in which Biological Sciences faculty leads (24.24%) with such responses followed by Applied
Sciences & Technology (18.75%), Business Studies (12.50%) and Social Sciences with least
number of responses (4.35%). Lastly, few respondents were not permitted by their families to
travel to other places in which the faculty of Social Sciences (30.4%3) leads followed by
Biological Sciences (15.15%), Business Studies and Applied Sciences & Technology with the
same number of responses (6.2%5) (Graph 5).
Graph 5: Availing internet facility by migration
b. Availing Internet Through Internet Kiosks
The internet was suspended in the erstwhile state of J&K due to political reasons. Meanwhile,
the government established some internet kiosks at several places to accomplish the needs of
the population. The majority of respondents (77.88%) failed to avail internet services due to
huge rush outside the centres with a maximum number of such respondents belongs to Social
Sciences faculty (82.61%) followed by Applied Sciences & Technology (78.13%), Biological
Sciences (75.76%) and Business Studies (75%). Some scholars (17.31) got a chance to surf the
internet but it was impossible to search, retrieve and download all requisite information related
to their study in a single or few visits due to meagre time allocated at internet kiosks. Among
such research scholars who availed internet access from internet kiosks Business Studies (25%)
lead, followed by Applied Sciences & Technology (21.88%), Biological Sciences (18.18) and
Social Sciences (4.35). Furthermore, the least number of Scholars (4.81%) get a chance to
access the internet and are satisfied with the allotted scanty time the scholars belonging to
faculties of Social Sciences (13.04%) and Biological Sciences (6.06%) are the only supporters.
Graph 6: Availing internet facility by visiting e-kiosks
B. Preferred Sources for Research in Pre and During internet bar Period
1. Print and Online Resources
Research Scholars try to consult all types of resources available in offline and online mode
related to their research study. The highest proportion of scholars (80.77%) preferred both
sources of information succeeded by online sources only (18.27%), and a very small ratio of
researchers (0.96%) depends on print sources only. At the faculty level, the maximum number
of Biological Sciences researchers (87.88%) depends on scholarly literature procured or
subscribed by the library and open access resources available on the internet followed by
Business Studies (81.25%), Social Sciences (78.26%) and Applied Sciences & Technology
(75%). The Applied Sciences & Technology researchers (21.87%) completely depend on
online sources for the reason that it provides new and nascent information related to study
followed by Social Sciences (21.74%), Business Studies (18.7%5) and Biological Sciences
(12.12%). Lastly, the library print resources satisfy the research need of few Applied Sciences
& Technology respondents (3.13%) only (Graph 7).
Graph 7: Preferred information sources before Internet blockade
2. Validation of Library Procured Print Resources
Libraries can cater to the information needs of their users. In the absence of the internet, the
patrons depend on print resources possessed by the library. The majority of the researcher
(53.85%) finds that by and large existing resources of the library are not current and
comprehensive. the majority of such scholars belong to the faculty of Applied Sciences &
Technology (71.88%) followed by Business Studies (50%), Biological Sciences (48.48%) and
Social Sciences (39.13%). However, 30.77% of research scholars frequently used print books
during this tenure in which Social Sciences tops (56.52%) followed by Business Studies
(43.75%), Applied Sciences & Technology (18.75%) and Biological Sciences (18.18%). While
a sizable number of scholars (15.38%) accessed subscribed print journals of a library the
majority of such researchers belonged to the faculty of Biological Sciences (33.33%) followed
by Applied Sciences & Technology (9.38%), Business Studies (6.25%) and Social Sciences
(4.35%). Graph 8.
Graph 8: Validity of library procured print resources
3. Research Anxiety
Political uncertainty, communication blockade, and clampdowns have an adverse effect on
people's psychology. This usually makes them give up their goals and missions. But It was
observed majority of research scholars (54.81%) are resolute and want to continue their
research without the internet by staying in their hometown and consult offline resources The
maximum research scholars with this resolve belonged to the faculty of Business Studies
(68.75%) followed by Biological Sciences (66.67%), Social Sciences (52.17%) and Applied
Sciences & Technology (37.5%).
While a good chunk of research scholars (29.81%) intend to continue their research by
grabbing all possible opportunities available locally. Such research scholars are found highest
in the faculty of Applied Sciences & Technology (40.63%), followed by Social Sciences
(34.78%), Biological Sciences (24.24%) and Business Studies (12.50%). However, a sizable
number of researchers (16.35%) feel their work is hampered badly without the internet. They
find no alternative sources for proceeding their research and want to discontinue. The highest
number of such scholars were found in the faculty of Applied Sciences & Technology faculty
lead (25%) followed by Business Studies (18.75%), Social Sciences (13.04%) and Biological
Sciences (9.09%) (Graph 9).
Graph 9: Research anxiety/ effect of Internet blockade on researchers
Findings and conclusion
The world is changing from tradition to a hi-tech system where daily routine to professional
work of an individual is depending on the internet. The dependency on the internet increases
with the growth of networks as it satisfies the information needs of millions of users at a time.
The researchers (76.92%) believed that the internet is the backbone for the 21st-century world
as it provides an immense range of services for education and research. The Internet is a 24X7
service available for its customers at a nominal charge which can be accessed by any portable
device. It is used for doing e-learning which becomes a gateway for formal, informal education,
and creates a lifelong learning opportunity. The educational institutions are well equipped with
smart classrooms and e-labs. The learners and teachers use online material to prepare for
various competitive exams and class lectures. It is considered a key channel for scholarly
literature where traditional, new, and nascent information related to the theme of the study is
available freely or low cost, in abundance for researchers. The Scholars (74.04%) required
incessant internet access for conducting their research which begins with selecting a title to the
final publication of theses/ dissertations.
The University of Kashmir research community faced a lot of barriers while conducting
research due to internet blockade on all platforms. The long term and continuous internet
suspension hampered research extremely (76-100%). It is difficult for researchers (78.85%) to
complete their research in the fixed timeline in such conditions, which result in delay in degrees
and ultimately ruins career opportunities for researchers. The researchers need to remain
abreast about the new developments in their respective fields which cannot be achieved through
print resources and thus also helps to avoid the repetition of the work. An online resource also
removes the geographical barriers and also free communication of the scholarly world.
The enormous Kashmiri population with diverse needs is depending on the internet. In this
view, the government set up e- kiosks at various places in Kashmir during the internet crisis.
The established internet kiosks witnessed the long queues of people, where (77.88%)
researchers failed to get inside the centre and surf the internet. Access to the internet services
through migration, would have helped the reasonable number of research scholars (42.31%) to
retain their work pace and complete research in a set time. But the second major proportions
of researchers (27.88%) are not economically feasible to access internet services by migrating.
As such, the scholars were left with the option of print sources available in libraries.
The Library delivers authentic and reliable information sources, which are considered as a
foundation for real research. The library subscribes and procures print or e-resources for their
patron that is why 80.77% scholars prefer both sources of information before internet
suspension. The researchers discovered that existing resources are not current and
comprehensive. The research needs up to date information provided by e-resources of libraries
or search engines. Thus, libraries should maintain a more comprehensive collection and should
keep the downloaded copies of e-materials wherever possible, so that can be made available to
students during such turmoil.
The political turmoil, complete lockdown, and internet suspension shatter all sectors of the
society in Kashmir, especially education and research. The unrest has a grave psychological
impact on Kashmiri netizens, which depart them from their goals. The maximum number of
researchers (54.81%) tried to focus on their research by using available offline resources while
residing in Kashmir. The second major figure of the researchers (29.81%) continued their
research by grabbing all the possible opportunities i.e., by visiting internet facilitation centres,
migrate/ visit frequently to other places or take library membership outside Kashmir.
Moreover, the reasonable number of research scholars (16.35%) want to discontinue their
research that hits badly without the internet and finds no other alternative sources which can
be used to run their research smoothly.
Ahead of Ayodhya verdict, internet shuts down in Uttar Pradesh cities. (2019, November 9).The
Times of India. Retrieved https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/ahead-of-
Akdeniz, Y. (2010). Report of the OSCE representative on freedom of the media on Turkey and
internet censorship.Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
Akgul, M., &Kırlıdo, M. (2015). Internet censorship in Turkey. Internet Policy Review, 4(2).
https://doi. 10.14763/2015.2.366. http://yoksis.bilkent.edu.tr/pdf/files/11574.pdf
Akmali, M. (2019, December 29). The year Kashmir economy suffered a body blow. Greater
Kashmir, p. 8.
Al Jazeera. (2020, January 25). Limited internet restored in Kashmir, no access to social media.
Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/limited-internet-restored-
Aljazeera. (2011, February 14). Timeline: Egypt's
Aljazeera. (2019, January 20). DR Congo internet restored after 20-day suspension over
elections.Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/01/dr-congo-internet-
Aljazeera. (2019, July 10). Mobile internet access slowly restored in Sudan.Retrieved from
Aljazeera. (2019, June 13).Sudan crackdown: All the latest updates. Retrieved
Alkhshali, H., Tawfeeq, M., &Qiblawi, T. (2019, October 5). Death toll rises to 93 in Iraq amid
ongoing protests. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2019/10/03/middleeast/iraq-
All three Bills passed without any debate, violent reactions erupt in CCpur, Sadar Hills, CrPC 144
invoked Residences of MLAs attacked, three killed in CCpur, bandh in hill areas total.
(2015, September 1). The Sangai Express. Retrieved from
Ang, P. H. (1997). How countries are regulating Internet content. Paper presented at the INET97:
The Seventh Annual Conference of the Internet Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Arya, A. (2011, December 06). India wants Facebook, Google and others to censor user content.
The Next Web. Retrieved from https://thenextweb.com/in/2011/12/06/india-wants-
Balding, C. (2017, July 18). How badly is china’s great firewall hurting the country’s
economy?.Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2017/07/18/how-badly-is-chinas-
Baqal, M. M. A., &Karaalp, H. (2019, October 07)Iraq: Internet access restored after weeklong
protests. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/iraq-internet-access-
BBC (2017, April 28). India: Kashmir social media ban criticised.Retrieved from
BBC (2019, June 17).Letter from Africa: 'Sudan's revolutionaries offline but not silenced'.
BBC News. (2006, January 24).BBC Persian.com online news site blocked.
BBC. (2011 February 11). Egypt protests: Key moments in unrest.Retrieved from
BBC. (2018, December 31). DR Congo election: Internet shut down after presidential
vote.Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-46721168
BBC. (2019, November 17). Iran petrol price hike: Protesters warned that security forces may
intervene.Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-50444429
BBC. (2020, January 10). Kashmir: India top court orders review of longest internet
shutdown.Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-51058759
Benu, P. (2019, December 21). Meet Assam's first transgender judge who fought to lift the 10-day-
long internet ban. Retrieved from https://www.edexlive.com/news/2019/dec/21/meet-
Bright, J. (2019, January 24). Zimbabwe’s government faces off against its tech community over
internet restrictions. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2019/01/23/zimbabwes-
Bulman, M. (2017, March 4). China’s internet censorship hampering country’s scientific and
economic development, warns government
Burke, J. (2011, December 6). Facebook and Google asked to screen content by India. The
Chauhan, S. (2017, June 10). Mandsaur unrest: Curfew to be lifted shortly, section 144 continues;
internet services to resume tomorrow. Retrieved from
China shuts down thousands of websites for breaking the law. (2017, December 24).Deutsche
Chowdhury, M. (2008). The role of the internet in Burma’s saffron revolution(Pub. No. 2008-
08).The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard
Christian, A. (2019, July 16).Chad lifts social media ban after more than a year of internet
shutdown. Retrieved from https://gadgets-africa.com/2019/07/16/more-than-a-year-after-
Clement, J. (2020, June 25).Countries with the highest number of internet users as of December
Congressional Research Service. (2011, July 18). Human rights in China and U.S. policy (Pub.
Congressional Research Service. (2012). China, internet freedom, and U.S. policy (Pub. No.
Cozens, C. (2006, January 26). Iran blocks BBC Persian.com.The
Dahir, A.L. (2019, April 08).Sudan’s anti-government protests face a total power outage and
social media shutdown. Retrieved from https://qz.com/africa/1589356/sudan-protests-cuts-
Dahir, A.L. (2019, January 22).Chad republic has kept social media shut for 300 days and
counting. Retrieved from https://qz.com/africa/1530071/chad-republic-blocks-social-
Das, S. (2017 February 03). As Nagaland continues to simmer, govt steps up security in all districts.
Retrieved from https://www.livemint.com/Politics/hquPh2ouV8nd7589TplCRJ/As-
Das, S. (2017, April 26). Kashmir: Govt bans Facebook, Whatsapp, Twitter and other 19 social
media sites.Retrieved from
Deka, K. (2017, February). Women can't stand in Naga polls,Magazine. Retrieved from
Deutsche Welle. (2019, November 17). Iran's khamenei backs fuel price hike, slams
'hooligans'. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/irans-khamenei-backs-fuel-price-
Dillinger, J. (2019, September 6). List of countries by internet users. WorldAtlas.
Dixit, P. (2019, December 19). To prevent protests against an anti-muslim law, India’s government
turned off the internet in its capital city. Retrieved from
Ellis-Petersen, H. (2019, April 21). Social media shut down in Sri Lanka in bid to stem
misinformation.Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/apr/21/social-
Fahim, K., & El-Naggar, M. (2011, January 25). Violent clashes mark protests against Mubarak’s
rule.Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/26/world/middleeast/26egypt.html
Faleiro, L. (2014). IT Act 2000 – Penalties, offences with case studies [Case study].
Financial Express. (2017, February 11). Nagaland legislators appeals tribal bodies to lift
Financial Express. (2017, March 19). Jat reservation stir: Internet services restored in Haryana
after Jats call off march. Retrieved from https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/jat-
Firstpost. (2017, March 20). Jat agitation: Protest, which threatened to cripple Delhi, postponed;
Haryana CM Khattar meets community leaders. Retrieved from
Firstpost. (2018, March 29). West Bengal Ram Navami violence: Sixty people arrested; internet
services suspended in Ranigunj, Asansol. Retrieved from
Fisher, M. (2019 April 21). Sri Lanka blocks social media, fearing more violence. Retrieved from
Fowler, T. (2015, September 4). Why a blanket ban on the internet in troubled Manipur is not a
good idea. Retrieved from https://scroll.in/article/753108/why-a-blanket-ban-on-the-
GardaWorld. (2017, June 8). India: Paramilitary deployed to quell riots in Madhya Pradesh.
Retrieved from https://www.garda.com/crisis24/news-alerts/58841/india-paramilitary-
Ghosh, M. (2016, June 10). Rip Orkut, our tribute via 8 interesting facts about
Giles, J. (2009, August 22). Worldwide battle for control of the internet. The Daily Newsletter.
Retrieved from http:// www.NewScientist.com/technology
Goel, v., Singh, K.D., & Yasir, S. (2019, August 14). India shut down Kashmir’s internet access.
Now, ‘we cannot do anything’. The New York
Gomez, J. (2004). Dumbing down Democracy: Trends in Internet Regulation, Surveillance and
Control in Asia. Pacific Journalism Review, 10 (2), 130-150.Retrieved from
Gomez, J. (2004). Dumbing down democracy: Trends in internet regulation, surveillance and
control in Asia. Asia Rights, (1), 1-
Gulf News. (2020, January 25). Limited internet restored in Kashmir, no access to social
mediaRetrieved from https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/india/limited-internet-restored-in-
Gurumayum, M. (2015, September 2).Govt. shuts down internet, SMS services. Retrieved from
HuffPost. (2017, March 19). United Naga council to end economic blockade in Manipur. Retrieved
Human Rights Watch. (2007). Repression of the 2007 popular protests in Burma.Retrieved from
Human Rights Watch. (2019).Vietnam.https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-
Human Rights Watch. (2019, July 23).Mauritania: Widespread arrests to blunt backlash over
election. Retrieved fromhttps://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/23/mauritania-widespread-
Human Rights Watch. (2019, June 12). Sudan: End network shutdown immediately.Retrieved from
India Today. (2019, December 19). Mobile calls, SMS, internet suspended in parts of Delhi as CAA
protests sweep country. Retrieved from https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/delhi-
India Today. (2019, December 27). Ladakh: Mobile internet services restored in Kargil after 145
days.Retrieved from https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/ladakh-mobile-internet-
Internet and Mobile Association of India. (2019).India internet 2019. Nielsen.
Internet Shutdown Tracker. (n.d). Longest Shutdowns.Retrieved from https://internetshutdowns.in/
Internet World Stats. (2020).Top 20 countries with the highest number of internet
Jalan, T. (2019, November 11). Internet shut down in parts of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh during
Ayodhya verdict.Retrieved from https://www.medianama.com/2019/11/223-ayodhya-
Jalan, T. (2020, January 2). Indian govt uses internet shutdowns to curb anti-CAA protests — in
UP, Delhi, Assam, and 6 other states. Retrieved from
Kamdar, B. (2019, December 20). Democracy in digital darkness: Internet shutdowns, new Indian
normal?. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2019/12/democracy-in-digital-darkness-
Kathuria, R., Kedia, M., Varma, G., Bagchi, K. &Sekhani, R.(2018). The Anatomy of an Internet
Blackout: Measuring the Economic Impact of Internet Shutdowns in India. Indian Council
for Research on International Economic Relations.
Kathuria, R., Kedia, M., Varma, G.S., Bagchi, K., &Sekhani, R. (2018). The Anatomy of an Internet
Blackout: Measuring the Economic Impact of Internet Shutdowns in India (Corpus ID:
169433550). Retrieved from
Khatri, B. (2019, August 19). J&K Goes Offline: India Leads The World In Internet
Shutdowns.Retrieved from https://inc42.com/buzz/jammu-and-kashmir-goes-offline-
Koch, R. (2019, July 26). All the internet shutdowns of 2019 so far. ProtonVPN. Retrieved from
Kolkata 24x7. (2018, April 5). Internet Services Restored In Asansol. Retrieved from
Krishnani, R. (2019, December 14). India: The world leader in Internet shutdowns. CNN.
Kulkarni, P. (2019, April 08). Chad: Social media blackout aimed at restricting protests enters
second year.Retrieved from https://peoplesdispatch.org/2019/04/08/chad-social-media-
Langa M. & Rajendran M. (2014, September 28). Vadodara tense, mobile data services suspended.
Hindustan Times. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india/vadodara-tense-mobile-data-
Lordet, G. (2012). Internet enemies report 2012. Reporters without
Lordet,G. (2012). Internet enemies Report 2012: World day against cybercensorship.Reporters
without Borders. https://rsf.org/sites/default/files/rapport-internet2012_ang.pdf
Majid, I. (2019, November 28). Internet Shutdown: An Ongoing Breach of Choice and Freedom
in Kashmir.Retrieved from https://medium.com/strategies-to-put-an-end-to-internet-
Malik, S. (2019a, December 29).The longest ever internet blockade, that continues. Greater
Kashmir, p. 1.
Malik, S. (2019b, December 7).Internet shutdowns shuts e-governance in Kashmir. Greater
Kashmir, p. 12.
Malik, S. (2019c, December 9).Internet blockade turns online train time table obsolete. Greater
Kashmir, p. 15.
Malik, S. (2019d, December 3). Internet shutdown shuts e-commerce in Kashmir. Greater
Kashmir, p. 16.
Mansour, R. (2019, October 07). Iraq protests: What's behind the anger?. Retrieved from
Maqbool, M. (2019, December 28). In Kashmir, internet shutdown cripples study of PhD students,
research scholars; many lose out on grants, fellowships.Retrieved from
Medianama. (2018, October 4). Darjeeling’s e-commerce crumbles after 100–day internet
shutdown.Retrieved from https://www.medianama.com/2018/10/223-darjeelings-e-
Mehrotra, K. (2018, December 18). Shutting down the Internet — how, when, where it has been
happening in India.Retrieved from https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/shutting-
Mobile Internet blocked. (2016, December 18). Imphal Free Press. Retrieved from
Naavi.org (n.d). Legislative history of Information Technology Act -2000 (ITA
Naqushbandi, U. (2019a, August 21).With no internet, postal services affected in Kashmir. Greater
Kashmir, p. 3.
Naqushbandi, U. (2019b, December 12).Internet gag thwarts Ayushman bharat healthcare scheme.
Greater Kashmir, p. 1.
NDTV. (2018, June 10). 10-day Madhya Pradesh farmers' protest ends, BJP calls it a failure.
Retrieved from https://www.ndtv.com/cities/10-day-madhya-pradesh-farmers-protest-
New Indian Express. (2018, April 2). West Bengal's Asansol and Raniganj districts limping to
normal after Ram Navami violence, prohibitory orders lifted. Retrieved from
News18. (2019, November 9). Ayodhya Verdict: Internet services shutdown in Agra, Aligarh; 29
districts monitored.Retrieved from https://www.news18.com/news/tech/ayodhya-verdict-
Newswatch. (1999, July 5). India blocks Pakistani newspaper web
No world on resumption of internet service in Kashmir. (2019, December 27). Greater Kashmir,
Noman, H. (2009, April 16).Restriction on Internet use in the Middle East on the rise: Internet
cafes in Saudi must install hidden cameras.OpenNet Initiative.
OpenNet Initiative. (2009, December 30).Internet filtering in Ethiopia.
Outlook. (2017, June 6). Five killed in farmers' stir in MP; mobile Internet suspended. Retrieved
Pai, V. (2017 February 23). Internet services restored in Nagaland after 20 day block. Retrieved
Pandey, A. (2015, September 1). Curfew in Manipur town after 3 dead in violence, minister's house
set on fire. Retrieved from https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/violence-in-south-manipur-
Press trust of India. (2019, December 28).2019: A year that reshaped Jammu and Kashmir Greater
Kashmir, p. 10.
Rahal, F. (2010, March 13).Enemies of the internet: KSA, Egypt, Iran, Syria.The Next
Ramesh, S. (2011). The growth of global internet censorship and circumvention: A survey.
Communications of the IIMA, 11(2), 69-90. https://core.ac.uk/reader/55330340
Reich, P. C. (2012). Case study: India - Terrorism and terrorist use of the internet/technology. In
Law, Policy, and Technology: Cyberterrorism, Information Warfare, and Internet
Immobilization (pp. 377-408). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-831-
Review curbs on internet: SC directs J&K Govt. (2020, January 10). Greater Kashmir, p. 1.
Riyasbabu. (2007, July 5).Orkut fans upset as site is blocked.Khaleej
Salam, A. (2019a, October 5). Internet gag: 2 months on, life saving online medical help group
defunct. Greater Kashmir, p. 5.
Salam, A. (2019b, January 3). Kashmir websites vanish from internet. Greater Kashmir, p. 6.
Salam, A. (2020, January 1). Students suffer as e-libraries inaccessible amid internet gag Greater
Kashmir, p. 3.
Sathe, G. (2019, December 12). India's internet shutdowns mean its people don't have a voice.
Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/kashmir-internet-shutdown-article-
Scroll.in. (2019, December 27). Ladakh: 4G mobile internet services restored in Kargil after 145
days.Retrieved from https://scroll.in/latest/948043/ladakh-4g-mobile-internet-services-
SFLC.in (2018). Living in digital darkness: A handbook on internet shutdowns in India. Retrieved
Shaban, A.R.A. (2019, June 26).Mauritania joins Ethiopia, Sudan in Africa's 'internet blackout
zone'. Retrieved fromhttps://www.africanews.com/2019/06/26/mauritania-joins-ethiopia-
Shahbaz, A., & Funk, A. (2019).The Freedom on the Net 2019:The Crisis of Social Media.
Shanthi, S. (2019, December 21). India Shuts Down Internet More Than Any Country In The
World: Report. Inc42. https://inc42.com/buzz/india-shuts-down-internet-more-than-any-
Singh, B. (2017 February 3). Kohima burns as Nagas oppose women's quota. Retrieved from
Singh, M. (2019, December 13). India shuts down internet once again, this time in Assam and
Meghalaya. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2019/12/13/internet-shutdown-india-
Subramaniam, N. (2019, December 19). CAA protests live: internet, mobile services shut down in
parts of Delhi on police order. Retrieved from https://inc42.com/buzz/caa-protests-internet-
Subramanian, R. (2011).The Growth of Global Internet Censorship and Circumvention: A Survey.
Communications of the IIMA, 11(2), 69-90. Retrieved from
Tajdin, B. (2019, November 26).Iran letter raises prospect of 'white list' internet clampdown.BBC
Taye, B. (2019, January 15). Zimbabwe orders a three-day, country-wide internet
shutdown. Retrieved from https://www.accessnow.org/zimbabwe-orders-a-three-day-
Taye, B. (2020). Targeted, cut off, and left in the dark:The #KeepItOn report on internet shutdowns
in 2019. Access Now. https://www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2020/02/KeepItOn-
The Economic Times. (2011, December 6). Kapil Sibal vows to stop offensive content on
Facebook, Twitter & Google. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/internet/kapil-
The Economic Times. (2014, September 29). Security stepped up after fresh violence in Vadodara.
The Economic Times. (2017, March 18). Jat stir: Section 144 imposed, internet services suspended
in Haryana. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-
The Economic Times. (2020, January 25). 2G mobile internet restored in Kashmir from
midnight.Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-
The Internet Shutdown Tracker (https://internetshutdowns.in)
The telegraph. (2017, April 27). India bans social media in Kashmir for one month.Retrieved from
The Times of India.(2014, September 27). Internet services blocked in Vadodara after riots.
The Week. (2019, December 20). Assam CM invites protesters for talks; internet restored after 10
days. Retrieved from https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2019/12/20/assam-cm-invites-
The week. (2019, December 27). Mobile internet restored in Kargil after 145 days.Retrieved from
Timmons, H. (2011, December 5). India asks Google, Facebook to screen user content. The New
York Times. https://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/05/india-asks-google-facebook-
Timmons, H. (2011, December 5). India Asks Google, Facebook to Screen User Content. The New
York Times. Retrieved from https://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/05/india-asks-
U.S. Mission Turkey. (2020, March 12). 2019 country reports on human rights practices:
Turkey.U.S. Embassy and Consulates in Turkey. https://tr.usembassy.gov/2019-country-
Wakefield, J. (2019, April 23). Sri Lanka attacks: The ban on social media.Retrieved from
Wang, S. (2007).Pulling the plug: A technical review of the internet shutdown in Burma. Retrieved
Waters, D. (2008, March 25). China's battle to police the web. BBC
Wintour, P. (2019, November 17). Iran supreme leader backs petrol price rises as protests
spread. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/nov/16/protests-erupt-
Woodhams, S., &Migliano, S. (2020, January 7). The global cost of internet shutdowns in 2019.
Retrieved from https://www.top10vpn.com/cost-of-internet-shutdowns/
Yaqoob, M. (2016, November 20). Internet Resumption: Post-paid subscribers greet; prepaid
users not upbeat.Retrieved from https://www.greaterkashmir.com/news/kashmir/internet-
Yaqoob, M. (2019, December 15). Post Aug 5, tourist footfall in Kashmir lowest in 6 years.
Greater Kashmir, p. 1.
Yurtsever, A. (2019, March 6).Turkey: Internet bans in turkey banning/blocking access to certain
Zeenews. (2014, September 28). Mobile internet facility suspended in violence-hit Vadodara.
Zisengwe, M.T. (2019, April 17).In the news: Social media restored in Sudan. Retrieved from