Katholische Kirche

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Eine Studie über die Konfliktlösung im Kirchenrecht in der Neuzeit kann nur ausgeführt werden, wenn man dabei das Augenmerk auf die Tendenz der Zentralisierung der Herrschaft und der Regierung richtet, die die Geschichte der kirchlichen Institutionen zwischen dem 16. und dem 18. Jahrhundert prägt. Denn genau seit Beginn des 16. Jahrhunderts wurden die Bedürfnisse einer Reform der Römischen Kurie und einer erneuten Stärkung der päpstlichen Kontrolle über die Ortskirchen nach und nach immer dringlicher. Nach den zaghaften Versuchen der Päpste der ersten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts und dem von Luther herbeigeführten dramatischen Bruch konnte die Reform nicht länger aufgeschoben werden. So versuchte die katholische Kirche durch die Einberufung des Konzils von Trient (1545–1563), welches nur mit erheblichen Schwierigkeiten zum Abschluss gebracht werden konnte, ihre Macht über den gesamten orbis catholicus wieder unerschütterlich zu befestigen. In diesem Prozess hatte das Thema Konfliktlösung eine große Bedeutung. Die erneute Stärkung einer präzisen gerichtlichen Hierarchie, die nach spezifischen Verfahrensvorschriften geregelt war, bildete einen fundamentalen Punkt in der erneuten Bekräftigung des päpstlichen Universalismus im modernen Sinne. Dieser Universalismus unterschied sich von dem während des Mittelalters verfolgten Konzept insoweit, als die Kirche nunmehr, nachdem sie mit den modernen Staaten nicht konkurrieren konnte, ein paralleles Modell ohne territoriale Grenzen anbot, in dem der Papststaat die Garantie der Grundlage für diesen Prozess darstellte (Prodi 2000, S. 271).

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Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian's perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520-1575), a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571) contained an extended discussion of the government's attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado's view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the «collaborative form of legal pluralism» typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
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Alessandro Gnavi, Carriere e Curia romana : l'Uditorato di Rota (1472-1870), p. 161-202. Attraverso un'indagine di carattere quantitativo, basata sull'esame delle carriere di 351 uditori della Sacra Romana Rota la presente indagine indaga sulla fisionomia del tribunale romano dal 1472 al 1870. Da diverse aggregazioni di dati, sintetizzate con tabelle, si sono rintracciate alcune ricorrenze negli sbocchi offerti dalla Rota - in primo luogo il cardinalato - e nelle modalita di accesso al tribunale. Alcune esemplificazioni di carriere di singoli uditori descrivono le strategie familiari, i complessi giochi in Curia romana, per l'assegnazione di uffici diversi, in rapporto alle politiche nepotistiche dei pontefici.
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