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Katholische Kirche

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Abstract

Eine Studie über die Konfliktlösung im Kirchenrecht in der Neuzeit kann nur ausgeführt werden, wenn man dabei das Augenmerk auf die Tendenz der Zentralisierung der Herrschaft und der Regierung richtet, die die Geschichte der kirchlichen Institutionen zwischen dem 16. und dem 18. Jahrhundert prägt. Denn genau seit Beginn des 16. Jahrhunderts wurden die Bedürfnisse einer Reform der Römischen Kurie und einer erneuten Stärkung der päpstlichen Kontrolle über die Ortskirchen nach und nach immer dringlicher. Nach den zaghaften Versuchen der Päpste der ersten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts und dem von Luther herbeigeführten dramatischen Bruch konnte die Reform nicht länger aufgeschoben werden. So versuchte die katholische Kirche durch die Einberufung des Konzils von Trient (1545–1563), welches nur mit erheblichen Schwierigkeiten zum Abschluss gebracht werden konnte, ihre Macht über den gesamten orbis catholicus wieder unerschütterlich zu befestigen. In diesem Prozess hatte das Thema Konfliktlösung eine große Bedeutung. Die erneute Stärkung einer präzisen gerichtlichen Hierarchie, die nach spezifischen Verfahrensvorschriften geregelt war, bildete einen fundamentalen Punkt in der erneuten Bekräftigung des päpstlichen Universalismus im modernen Sinne. Dieser Universalismus unterschied sich von dem während des Mittelalters verfolgten Konzept insoweit, als die Kirche nunmehr, nachdem sie mit den modernen Staaten nicht konkurrieren konnte, ein paralleles Modell ohne territoriale Grenzen anbot, in dem der Papststaat die Garantie der Grundlage für diesen Prozess darstellte (Prodi 2000, S. 271).

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