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The Impact of Cloud Computing on Academic Libraries

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With the introduction of computers and other forms of communication technology, library services have undergone a significant transformation. Libraries have been automated, networked, and are currently being converted into virtual or paperless libraries. This article is dedicated to many aspects of cloud computing, including different kinds and applications. There is a discussion about the advantages and drawbacks of cloud computing in academic libraries. The article also includes recommendations for professional librarians and academic libraries across the globe on how to take advantage of cloud computing resources. This article may be of use in the development of cloud-based services for university libraries. The article claims that cloud providers' high quality of service, the expansion of Internet bandwidth, and the rapid transfer of information should all contribute to improving academic library services in the future. Cloud computing is essential for today's information innovation, and it is vital for university libraries.
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University of Nebraska - Lincoln University of Nebraska - Lincoln
DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Summer 9-3-2021
The Impact of Cloud Computing on Academic Libraries The Impact of Cloud Computing on Academic Libraries
Sivankalai S
PSN College of Engineering & Technology
, skysivan@gmail.com
Follow this and additional works at: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac
Part of the Data Storage Systems Commons, Development Studies Commons, Digital
Communications and Networking Commons, Engineering Education Commons, Library and Information
Science Commons, and the Other Computer Engineering Commons
S, Sivankalai, "The Impact of Cloud Computing on Academic Libraries" (2021).
Library Philosophy and
Practice (e-journal)
. 6207.
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/6207
The Impact of Cloud Computing on Academic Libraries
Sivankalai, S
Librarian, PSN College of Engineering and Technology,
Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.
skysivan@gmail.com. Orcid Id: 0000-0002-1174-7594
Abstract
With the introduction of computers and other forms of communication technology,
library services have undergone a significant transformation. Libraries have been automated,
networked, and are currently being converted into virtual or paperless libraries. This article is
dedicated to many aspects of cloud computing, including different kinds and applications.
There is a discussion about the advantages and drawbacks of cloud computing in academic
libraries. The article also includes recommendations for professional librarians and academic
libraries across the globe on how to take advantage of cloud computing resources. This article
may be of use in the development of cloud-based services for university libraries. The article
claims that cloud providers' high quality of service, the expansion of Internet bandwidth, and
the rapid transfer of information should all contribute to improving academic library services
in the future. Cloud computing is essential for today's information innovation, and it is vital
for university libraries.
Keywords: Academic Libraries, Cloud Computing, Cloud Based Library Services,
Components of Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, Models of Cloud Computing, Storage, Security
1. Introduction
Because information and communications technology (ICT) has had a significant
effect on library users and the way they seek data. Kids are very familiar with their personal
computers, laptops, mobile phones, and tablets with intelligent capabilities in today's world.
A fascinating survey was recently conducted by ACCENTURE, a well-known IT
management consultancy, to determine what kinds of e-products and facilities society wants
to use or purchase in the upcoming year. The results revealed that users are expected to buy
fewer but multi-function gadgets such as smartphones, and a significant rise in the use of
cloud-based services and applications, such as virtual mailboxes. If one examines the success
of Facebook with a critical eye, one may discern why Facebook succeeded, whereas
MySpace failed. "Sharing and Innovation" is the motto for achieving success. When we talk
about Cloud Computing, Dr. Ranganathan's fourth principle is very applicable. By making
information available at any time and from any location, you save the reader's time.
If a user has an excellent internet connection, the services should be designed to be available
24 hours a day, seven days a week. Currently, Dell, an American multinational computer
technology company, is working on a project called "Ophelia," which may change the way
people interact with computers in the future. Ophelia is a virtual computer that can be
accessed from any location. While it is already possible for a person to access their online
electronic mail account or update their Facebook status from any computer, this project,
Ophelia, would enable users to access their computer and its apps from any linked device. As
a result, it is now necessary for librarians to concentrate on delivering proactive services and
moving away from standard services to customize information facilities for the benefit of
academic society, rather than focusing on finding new technologies to provide services to
users.
2. Brief History of Cloud Computing
The ARPANET, a "very" early forerunner of the Internet, was developed by J. C. R.
Lickliter in 1969. In the 1990s, companies started providing a cost-effective "Virtual" private
network. In the 1990s, virtual computers became popular, and the current cloud computing
infrastructure was developed. With the Internet, virtualization has developed and currently
defines the construction of a virtual machine that functions as a real computer. CloudCloud
was used to represent the blank space between the end-user and the supplier in the early
phases. Salesforce pioneered the concept of utilizing the Internet to provide software for end-
users. In 1999, Salesforce was a prominent example of the effective use of cloud computing.
Companies across the globe are increasingly using CloudCloud for cloud services. For
research initiatives that need fast processors and massive data sets, Amazon, Google, IBM,
and numerous institutions have created a Server Farm. In 2007, Netflix introduced its cloud-
based video streaming services and supported the "binge-watching" habit. In 2006, IBM and
Google created the cloud computing infrastructure concept. It enables users to rent virtual
machines and utilize their apps and programs. In support of Smarter Planet, IBM created the
IBM SmartCloud framework (a cultural thinking project). Apple has introduced iCloud to
store more personal data (photos, music, videos, etc.). Microsoft started promoting the Cloud
over TV and made it known to retrieve pictures or videos for the public quickly. The Oracle
Cloud was launched in 2012 with IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service), PaaS, and SAAS, the
three business foundations.
Two types of public clouds are primarily available. People are served for personal
use, and companies are served. Data saved on the CloudCloud may be communicated with
friends using smartphones or intelligent computers, including pictures and music. It is simpler
and quicker to utilize CloudCloud for many commercial tasks. It comes with ample storage
volumes, various project management capabilities, and greater availability.
Key Players in Cloud Computing Platforms (softwaretestinghelp 2021)
Company
AWS Inc.
Google Cloud
Azure Microsoft
Launch year
2006
2008
2010
Geographical
Regions
25
21
54
Availability
Zones
78
61
140 (countries)
Key offerings
Some of the
technologies addressed
include computation,
storage, database,
analytics, networking,
machine learning,
artificial intelligence,
mobile devices,
developers' tools, the
Internet of Things, and
security.
All of them are
technological
examples of
computing, storage,
data databases,
networking, big
data, cloud AI, tools
for ID, security, the
internet of objects,
and an API
platform.
The following
examples include
computing, storage,
mobility, data
management,
message
management, media
services, CDNs,
machine learning,
and artificial
intelligence.
Compliance
Certificates
46
90
Annual
Revenue
$33 billion
$8 billion
$35 billion
2.1 Ideas of Cloud Computing
Cloud computing "is a phrase that is being used today to describe the act of storing,
accessing, and sharing data, applications, and computing power in cyberspace." -Pew Internet
Trust.
A Web Service "is a software system designed to support interoperable machineto
machine interaction over a network"-w3c.org In common terms, Cloud computing containers
are well-defined as "a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access
to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal
management effort or service provider interaction." (NIST) "cloud computing as a style of
computing in which scalable and elastic IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service
using Internet technologies" -Gartner IT Glossary.
It is a system that uses virtual servers as the infrastructure and makes them accessible to third
parties through the internet.
2.2 Types of Cloud Computing Services
The raw computational capabilities of Infrastructure-as-a-Service. IaaS clients are
typically technology firms with a lot of IT knowledge. The objective is to have access to
computer power without installation or maintenance obligations.
PaaS enables the writing of computer systems software that is needed. This cloud-based
solution allows companies to build software to integrate current apps. The surroundings
of PaaS include.NET, Python, Rails, Ruby, and Java.
Software as a service is not a computer's hard disc but a cloud program or application
suite.
Desktop as a Service is a business model that licenses the software. DaaS is a slightly
improved model of SaaS, mostly involving the use of multiple services at the same time
necessary to complete the work. It was first introduced in the early 2000s.
The IaaS service providers entrust:
1. Hardware for computer systems
2. Internet protocol (IP) is used to communicate between computers (including
routers, firewalls, internet-users load balancing etc.)
3. Internet access is available.
4. Service level agreements, among other things.
Rather than buying servers, software, network equipment, etc., librarians may rent them.
The service is usually paid monthly, like phone or power. Rackspace, Amazon, VMware, and
Digital Commons.
2.3 The main advantages of IaaS include
Quickly gain access to a pre-configured natural environment often created on the
Information Technology Infrastructure Library framework, a custom-built outline of
best practices intended to encourage high-quality computing essential services in the
information technology industry.
One may get the advantages of the most recent technologies accessible for
infrastructure kits.
More minor expenses that enable you to depreciate facility charges rather than
creating investment expenditures are desirable.
Figure1: Cloud computing logical diagram (Samba, A. 2011).
2.4 Cloud Deployment Models
In other words, Cloud deployment models define the kind of access to the Cloud, i.e.,
where the Cloud is physically situated. You may access the Cloud in four ways: public,
private, hybrid, or community based. The Cloud is available in all four kinds of access. The
most significant distinctions are found in the breadth and accessibility of cloud services and
how they are produced accessible to end-users.
3. Cloud Computing in the Public domain with the use of the Public Cloud, it is possible
to make systems and services readily accessible to the public by making them available
via the internet. Because of its openness, the public Cloud, for example, e-mail, may be
less secure than other types of cloud computing.
3.1. Cloud Computing in a Private Environment
Systems and services inside an organization may be made accessible to other organization
members via a Private Cloud infrastructure. It offers a greater degree of security because it is
private.
3.2. Community Cloud
The Community Cloud makes it possible to make systems and services accessible to
many organizations simultaneously.
3.3.Cloud Computing in a Hybrid Environment
A hybrid cloud combines public and private cloud resources. Non-critical operations are
performed in the public Cloud, whereas essential activities are performed in the private
Cloud.
3.4.Characteristic of Cloud Computing
On-demand self-service: When needed, users may utilize cloud computing services
without the participation of any provider. Computing services should be fully
available on-demand to meet changing needs.
Broad network access: Network-wide access to cloud computing services and
anybody with selected tools (e.g., laptops, desktops, smartphones, etc.).
Resource pooling: One of the most attractive features of cloud computing is the
capacity to scale computer services. Requirements rely on resource consumption such
as storage, memory, processor, and bandwidth.
Rapid elasticity: Flexible allocation of resources is necessary. The ability to absorb
significant spikes and decreases in demand is needed without service interruption or
quality decline.
Measured service: Cloud computing services are assessed using a utility model and
measured. This measurement enables the service supplier (and customer) to monitor
expenses according to resource requirements and consumption.
4. Cloud Computing and Academic Library Services are two topics that have come up
recently.
Data: Preservation, scientific and managerial aspects of digital technology;
bibliographic information; licensing access; and other aspects.
Content: Collections, subscriptions, digital print, and publishing are all examples of
what we do.
Services: The library is essential for a physical location, material access, content
production, teaching, research, and preservation.
Experience: Research, study assistance, peer-to-peer cooperation, and information
technology exploration
4.1.Cloud-Based Library Services
Cloud computing is receiving considerable attention because it can alter how librarians
provide users with new technologies and information needs. According to recent research, the
number of Cloud Storage Subscribers would reach 1.3 billion by 2017. Cloud computing not
only changes library service models but also affects hardware and maintenance. Unless a real
need exists or data security is a top concern, Cloud Computing eliminates the need to
purchase, configure, deploy, and manage physical servers. So, the main aim of Cloud
Computing is to enable you to focus on the study and growth of new essential services rather
than knowledge to provide them to customers. Before using the Cloud, one needs to
understand the storage and service expenses. Currently are several standard storage services
(price).
The Cloud has created considerable interest in library applications. Within five years, all
library collections, systems, and services will be cloud-based. We may create or construct
new services or assist academic services. Cloud Computing's most important benefit is to free
libraries from a load of dealing with technological problems that do not relate to their mission
and services. Cloud-based apps are included, and users are invited to investigate and deploy
them according to their requirements. We have chosen some cloud computing applications
and services that our library community believes will improve its offerings.
4.2.Storage Service Comparison on an Annual Basis
Cloud
Storage
Providers
File Upload
Limit
Price
pCloud
2TB
Free storage of 10GB. Annual Plans: $3.99
per month for 500 GB and $7.99 per month
for 2TB. Lifetime Plans: One-time fee of
$175 for 500GB and $359 for 2TB.
Sync.com
Any size
Standard: $5/user/month,
Livedrive
--
Business Express:$50 per month. Business
Standard: $160 per month.$1.67 /month for
150 GB.
Icedrive
No limit.
Polarbackup
4GB for basic
plan &unlimited
with the
advanced plan.
1TB: $39.99, 2TB:
$59.99, 5TB: $99.99/all lifetime
Zoolz
BigMIND
No limits
Starter: $15/month, Standard: $20/month,
Premium: $37.5/ month, & Smart Archive:
$40/month.
IBackup
2 GB
It starts at $9.95.
IDrive
2GB
Free: 5GB IDrive Personal 2TB:
$104.25. IDrive Business: $149.25.
Amazon
Cloud Drive
--
The storage plan starts at $19.99
per year for 100GB storage
Dropbox
Unlimited
Plans for Individuals starts at $8.25/ month.
Plans for teams start at $12.50/user/month
Google
Drive
5TB
Free for 15GB. 200GB: $2.99 .2TB:
$9.99. 30TB: $299.99/per month.
OneDrive
15GB
Free: 5GB.The paid plan starts at $1.99 per
month.
Box
5GB
Free for 10GB.The paid plan starts at
$10/month.
4.3.Google Apps
As a robust cloud service provider, Google today rivals Amazon and Microsoft in terms of
cloud computing and apps that the community may use to improve their essential services.
Sites: Create a fully functional website using Google Sites. A rare collection can be
scanned into searchable papers and made available to researchers. Any news item or
institutional document can be scanned and uploaded to Google Sites for free.
Calendar: You may build a year-long library calendar with events.
Form: Organize events, distribute surveys, quiz students, or gather data using Google
Form. Forms and spreadsheets may be linked. If the form is connected to a
spreadsheet, answers are immediately transferred there. "
Chat: A reference librarian may utilize this chat service to help people find
information ONLINE.
Doc: You may build your papers and share them with others. Subscribe, modify, or
see it.
4.4. Mendeley (Reference Management Software) Reference management and social
networking for academics that is completely free. Mendeley is a research organization
tool that also allows you to interact online and discover fresh research.
4.5.Dropbox enables you to store, synchronize, and retrieve files in the cloud using
customer apps. To ensure consistency, Dropbox enables employers to run on each
computer a specific folder that Dropbox then syncs, making it seem to be the same
folder, regardless of which machine it is used to run (with the same information). The
contents of this directory may be accessible via a website and mobile applications.
(Wikipedia)
4.6.YouTube has become the most popular site for online, mobile, and email viewing and
sharing of videos. It allows you to produce and distribute YouTube videos efficiently.
Using the YouTube API, you may also use YouTube video content on your website,
app, or device. YouTube is used for most NPTEL videos.
4.7.The Client for Windows, Mac OS, and Linux desktops is a free, open-source email
and calendar client. It works online as well as offline and can be synchronized with
the iPhone and BlackBerry.
4.8.Your library is iBookshelf. A complete book database that people like you have
created and maintained. Select how to display books. You may browse your library
for books and track whom you lent or borrowed from them. The manual or automated
entry of a new book (by entering the ISBN). It also says where to purchase it, how
much it costs, and where to get it at a library! It even informs you.
4.9.On Facebook, users may create profiles, post pictures, send messages, and stay in
contact with family, friends, and colleagues. The website is accessible in 37 languages
and includes public features. You may also build and sell your own page. The library
may communicate news and events using the Facebook application. A library may
provide a chat service live via Facebook.
4.10. Microsoft Office 365 Microsoft Office is a subscription service that may be accessed
from anywhere at any time. Audio, Video Conference and IM are available. The
website offers a free trial.
5. An Example of Cloud Libraries
3.1.OCLC: Cloud computing enables quick application processing and data collection
across server clusters. These apps use cutting-edge technology. Our Hadoop/Hbase
library databases. It distributes Web applications and APIs across global data centers.
It uses WorldCat, the largest bibliographic database. Because it has a database of over
3 billion library items, it allows libraries and developers to improve "big data"
applications. Tech helps library workflows. Due to the widespread use of OCLC
services, our application developers deal with a wide variety of software. 600+
institutions use our cloud-based library management service. We also have a user-
friendly library search engine called WorldCat Discovery.
3.2.Library of Congress: Libraries are using cloud-based storage systems to manage
their data. The Library of Congress has unveiled a hybrid cloud storage strategy.
Librarian In the cloud, "we are looking at a range of storage capabilities." Google's
Library Project scans rare and out-of-print books. If the book becomes public domain,
it will appear on Google Books. Patrons may see 700,000 free photos on 80 NYPL
websites.
3.3.ExLibris: A new open architecture from Ex Libris®, a ProQuest business, allows
applications developed by Ex Libris community members and partners to operate
within the Ex Libris higher-ed cloud platform. Ex Libris Alma® library services
platform will include the first Cloud Apps in August. Since the Ex Libris App Center
launched last year, the community has contributed over 60 applications, helping users
fulfill important and evolving institutional requirements. Cloud Apps' open
architecture enhances the openness, agility, and flexibility of the Ex Libris higher-ed
cloud platform.
3.4.Polaris: Polaris may now display e-books alongside print items in the PowerPAC or
MobilePAC online catalogues, together with the necessary services. In other words,
the results of a catalogue search will include both print and electronic versions. You
may put holds or requests for items that are presently charged out to another
customer. If an e-book is found in the search, the patron may instantly check it out or
request notice if no copies are available.
3.5.Scribd: With Scribd, you can access over 1,000,000 eBooks and audiobooks from
any location. It is a cloud-based service. Scribd provides access to a limitless number
of books, audiobooks, periodicals, and other resources. Science and technology. Titles
that are not fiction. A trial for 30 days is free. Maintain Children's Intereststitles in
the workplace and money. Anxiety should be managed.
3.6.Discovery Science: Discovery Science Channel is a pay television channel in the
United States that Discovery, Inc. owns. A wide variety of programming is available
on the channel, including programs concentrating on wilderness survival and ufology,
manufacturing and building, technology, space exploration, prehistory, and animal
science.
3.7.Google Doc and Scholar: Higher education has a significant role in preparing
students to learn online. Nowadays, education is internet-based. The Internet
empowers students to own their education. Cloud computing is based on sharing.
Google Docs allows online document sharing. Students must comprehend the
potential of cloud collaboration and the rules of teamwork. Online collaboration
applications allow students to work in teams from anywhere and anytime. It also
benefits pupils' education. Lessons can be shared via Google Docs. Online
collaboration tool for group assignments, seminars, review presentations,
documentation, and dataset creation (Nithya, P., & Selvi, P. M. 2017).
3.8.Encore: The Encore feature is a tag cloud based on library subject headings and
community tags that helps users to conduct related searches for items. Encore 3.3 and
higher libraries can use deep article integration, whereas Encore 4.0 showcases the
newest functionalities.
6. Advantages
6.1.Back up and Restoration: Cloud Backup helps safeguard your library information
from fire, flood, or other natural or artificial computer disasters. If backed up and
securely preserved, your data may be quickly recovered.
6.2.Better Movability: library personnel and customers may connect to the library
servers from anywhere instead of being connected through a PC and internet
connection to their workstations.
6.3.Cost Saving: Organizations get paid gradually for cloud computing technologies. It
provides price reductions because of economies of scale, with organizations paying
solely for their resources. The infrastructure costs may also decrease from 70% to
30%, say expertsCloud computing.
6.4.Easy installation and maintenance: no separate server room and no UPS batteries or
air conditioners. Easy installation and maintenance. Library employees may use the
additional time to build creative new services. It also reduces energy use since actual
servers do not reside on your premises. The service is free.
6.5.Flexibility: Cloud computing is more flexible than local network computing and
saves time and money for businesses. For instance, libraries may request more server
capacity at any time.
6.6.Highly Automated: As new versions are available; a cloud service provider upgrades
the program. When you update the server, everyone who uses the service receives the
latest version without any changes. Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand.
6.7.Increased Storage: You need more storage space and retrieval as your collection is
growing. There is limitless storage space. You can store more data on the cloud than
on your network. In an emergency or emergency, it's a good idea to have a backup
plan.
6.8.Shared Resources: Cloud computing enables you to share resources and build
collaborative strength. They all have comparable subscriptions when you look at ten
university libraries in an individual state. Cloud computing enables individuals in and
out of organizations, if they have access to a high-speed Internet connection, to access
resources anywhere and at any time. Several libraries may pool their resources to
enable the use of additional resources by their users.
7. Issues
The Internet and electricity are essential. Here are some significant cloud computing
challenges:
7.1.Bandwidth and Network Connectivity: Cloud Computing is an internet-based cloud
computing service. It wanted to operate services on Cloud computing. 1 MBPS
internet bandwidth since the connection to the Internet can not be run at a low speed.
You may not be able to access your application, information, or services for some
time when issues arise.
7.2.Connaissance and integration: For many companies, cloud computing represents a
new method of working. Equipment used in data centers to host data with peripheral
systems such as printers, USB drives, etc., is tough to integrate. Cloud computing
expertise is vital since the service depends on the operator.
7.3.Cost: According to a study from Scotland, companies may wind up paying higher
costs in the future.
7.4.Dependence on external agencies: third-party services are challenging to manage
cloud services via the Internet. According to a study from the Department of
Homeland Security, it is almost challenging to monitor maintenance levels and the
frequency of maintenance of service providers.
7.5.Limited flexibility: The new study from the Department of Works and Pension states
that all clients will utilize the cloud in the future to offer services of the same quality
as other businesses, such as Google and Facebook. Limited flexibility:
7.6.Long-term service provider stability: If the service provider disconnects or
discontinues its services, data migration from cloud to cloud may be problematic
because of compatibility concerns. According to IT experts, the service provider also
plays an equal role in its stability. All data will need to be moved to another provider
if the service provider ceases.
7.7.Safety of data and confidentiality: The security and privacy of cloud computing are
two of the significant issues. Cloud data is susceptible to malware assault, theft, etc.
Due to incorrect backups and the breakdown of systems, there is also a danger of data
loss.
7.8.Unavailability of service due to power outage: It is hard to access the application
and services without a power supply. Entire library activities may be interrupted
because of power failure. The service cannot be used for up to hours if there is a
power failure.
8. Conclusion
Security and privacy are important issues for cloud computing, especially when dealing with
sensitive information such as consumer credit card information. If there is still no appropriate
security template, the data saved in the cloud may be assaulted by viruses, theft, and other
kinds of fraud and identity theft. In addition, because services are delivered via the Internet,
the reallocation of servers and software can not be identified, and a security audit can not be
carried out. In addition, owing to inadequate backup and system failure, there is a risk of data
loss.
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