BookPDF Available

Smart Sustainable Cities - a handbook for applied research

Authors:
  • Windesheim University of Applied Sciences
  • Utrecht University of Applied Sciences (Hogeschool Utrecht)

Abstract

Urban regions are confronted with huge sustainability challenges. Their future depends to a large extent on our ability to promote sustainable urban development. However, sustainability challenges in cities are inherently complex and need integrated, multidisciplinary solutions. This textbook on Smart Sustainable Cities responds to that challenge by capturing theories, methods and tools relevant for researching smart sustainable cities and developing solutions for sustainability challenges within cities. This book thereby serves the great need among students and practitioners to understand the multifaceted nature of Smart Sustainable Cities, to build upon acknowledged cross-disciplinary analytical and design approaches, and to learn how to apply such approaches. Each chapter presents a practical approach to urban sustainability, a relevant case study, and exercises and assignments for students to master the topic. Topics include: Smart Sustainable Cities: an introduction; Systemic Design Thinking; Probing the Future for Smart Sustainable Cities; Social Design of Smart Sustainable Cities; Urban Psychology of Smart Sustainable Cities; Behavioural Change for Smart Sustainable Cities; Healthy Urban Living; Towards Energy Neutral Neighbourhoods; Carbon Footprinting and Accounting; Circular Economy: material and value flows in the city; Promoting Sustainable Urban Mobility; Canvas Business Modelling; Big Data Analytics; Social Value Innovation: from concept to practice.
Smart
Sustainable
Cities
a handbook for applied research
Martijn Rietbergen, Evert-Jan Velzing & Rien van Stigt (eds.)
Editors:
Martijn Rietbergen, Evert-Jan Velzing, Rien van Stigt
Authors:
Caroline Maessen, Claire Pattison, Evert-Jan Velzing, Friso Metz, Guido
Ongena, Jasper Huitink, Jennie Shorley, Juan Ignacio Torregrosa-López,
Lenneke Kok, Lewis Maani, Liza Looijen, Malou van der Vegt, Marieke de
Roos, Martijn Rietbergen, Mieke Oostra, Pascal Ravesteijn, Piia Nurmi,
Remko van der Lugt, Rhiannon Hunt, Rien van Stigt, Russel Yates, Sally
Randles, Sander van der Ham, Thomas Steensma, Vanesa Gladys Lo-
lacono Feirreira.
HU University of Applied Sciences – Utrecht
Center of Expertise Smart Sustainable Cities
Padualaan 99 – 3584 CH Utrecht – The Netherlands
smartsustainablecities@hu.nl
www.smartsustainablecities.nl
ISBN: 9789089281494
Third edition
Printing: Pumbo
© 2021 by Hogeschool Utrecht. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publica-
tion may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of HU University of Applied
Science.
Cover photo: ‘Urban Jungle’ designed by Robot (Image #447 at Vector-
Stock.com)
Graphic design: Malou van der Vegt
Cite as:
Rietbergen, M.G., E-J. Velzing, R. van Stigt - eds. (2021). Smart Sustainable
Cities - a handbook for applied research. HU University of Applied Science,
Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Smart
Sustainable
Cities
a handbook for applied research
5
Preface
We are living in an exciting time, in which the world calls for radical trans-
formation towards a sustainable society. Urban regions in particular are
confronted with huge sustainability challenges. Their future depends to
a large extent on our ability to nurture sustainable urban development.
However, sustainability challenges in cities are inherently complex and
need integrated, multidisciplinary solutions. This textbook responds to that
need by presenting practical approaches for analyzing complex urban
sustainability challenges and designing solutions for them.
With the objective to innovate education in the field of urban sustainability,
international partners joined forces, coordinated by the Centre of Expertise
Smart Sustainable Cities (Hogeschool Utrecht), resulting in this internation-
al learning handbook. It aims to present tangible solution pathways for
students, young professionals and practitioners to make meaningful steps
towards Smart Sustainable Cities.
Establishing international cooperation in the field of professional education
in close collaboration with companies and other organizations is of great
importance. This approach not only results in applied research and devel-
opment projects, but also enables partners to collaborate on pedagogical
development related to mission driven and societal challenges. For this
reason, CARPE was founded: the first strategic partnership of universities
of applied sciences in Europe. The CARPE partners - Universitat Politècnica
de València, Turku University of Applied Sciences, HU University of Applied
Sciences Utrecht and former partner Manchester Metropolitan University -
joined forces to compile this handbook, together with various professionals,
invited for their specific expertise.
The Handbook on Smart Sustainable Cities presents a unique opportunity
to learn from urban sustainability professionals from all over Europe, to
learn about the latest developments and international practices in urban
sustainability, and to explore practical approaches, methods and tools. We
sincerely hope that it inspires young professionals to accelerate solving the
grand challenges of this age. Ideas can become ideals, and ideals can lead
to deeds.
Wilma Scholte op Reimer - Executive Board Member, HU University of
Applied Sciences Utrecht
Vesa Taatila - Rector-President, Turku University of Applied Sciences
Dominic Medway - Pro-Vice Chancellor, Faculty of Business and Law, Man-
chester Metropolitan University
José Esteban Capilla Romá – Rector, Universitat Politècnica de València
6
7
A Handbook on Smart Sustainable Cities
In the period 2014-2017 HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (The
Netherlands) managed the ERASMUS+ project European Sustainable
Solutions for Existing and New City Environments (ESSENCE). The project
was a joint eort of the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional
Education (CARPE), amongst others to develop, pilot and implement a one
semester study programme on Smart Sustainable Cities. This programme
is being oered successfully at HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht
for a couple of years now. Various lecturers from dierent academic dis-
ciplines, from dierent universities and dierent nationalities contribute to
the programme, educating students on the Smart Sustainable Cities theme.
In the course of time a valuable body of knowledge, methods and tools
has been collected. Now it is time to capture this in a textbook on Smart
Sustainable Cities.
What is the purpose of this book?
The main purpose of this textbook on Smart Sustainable Cities is to capture
theories, methods and tools relevant for analysing Smart Sustainable
Cities and developing smart solutions for sustainability challenges within
cities. The focus of this textbook is therefore on learning how to apply such
theories, methods and tools in a Smart Sustainable City context. This book
serves the great need among students and practitioners to understand the
multifaceted nature of Smart Sustainable Cities, to build upon acknowl-
edged cross-disciplinary analytical and design approaches, and to learn
how to apply such approaches.
The target group of this textbook is primarily undergraduate students that
study Smart Sustainable Cities topics. The textbook is especially beneficial
for students at universities of applied sciences, since this textbook aims at
learning how to apply relevant theories, methods and tools for analysing
and designing Smart Sustainable Cities. The textbook can obviously be used
by graduate student and practitioners as an important source of reference.
What’s inside?
The textbook starts with an introductory chapter on understanding the
concept of Smart Sustainable Cities. It continues with a few integrative ap-
proaches for the analysis and design of Smart Sustainable Cities, including
design thinking, future probing techniques and measuring tools for sus-
tainability. Next, several chapters will follow, presenting unique cross-dis-
ciplinary approaches. These approaches are clustered in topics that
originate from a people, planet or profit context. The textbook ends with a
few chapters that present smart approaches for improving sustainability.
Each chapter follows a similar structure. Chapters start with a short intro-
duction about how the topic relates to the concept of Smart Sustainable
8
Cities. Second, the theory, methods and tools are explained in a conceptual
way. Third, the results of applying the theory, method or tool to an inspiring
case is presented. And fourth, limitations of the theory, methods and tools
are discussed, and alternative approaches are presented. Each chapter
concludes with a series of exercises, and a more comprehensive assign-
ment, that allows students to practice. The chapters have been written in
such a way that they can easily be studied, independently from each other.
Chapter by chapter
The first chapter kicks o with introducing the emerging concept of Smart
Sustainable Cities. It briefly outlines the history of sustainable development,
highlights the importance of urbanization and urban growth in the devel-
opment of the Smart Sustainable Cities concept, and specifies the role of
ICT in sustainable development. Furthermore, this chapter pinpoints the
main sustainability challenges in cities and introduces six strategies for
enabling the development of Smart (Sustainable) Cities.
Solving sustainability challenges in today’s cities is inherently complex,
primarily because of conflicting people, planet and profit interest. Chapter
2 therefore introduces systemic design thinking as an alternative approach
for problem-solving. It is a problem-solving approach for complex situa-
tions involving sense-making through rapid iterations.
One way to help people and organisations taking control in sustainability
transitions is by using the method of ‘probing the future’. Probing the future,
introduced in Chapter three, helps to envision possible futures, to under-
stand their consequences and take adequate action today for limiting
severe implications.
In chapter four we take a ‘people perspective’ on sustainable urban devel-
opment, by focussing on the concept of quality of life in the city. We then
discuss a number of elements that are typical of socially sustainable set-
tlements: amenities and social infrastructure, social and cultural life, voice
and influence, and space to grow.
Chapter five takes a slightly dierent angle, i.e. the role of urban psychology
in creating better urban environments. It introduces a conceptual model,
consisting of six basic human needs, being overview, control, proximity,
belonging, distraction, and relaxation. The model provides a framework to
understand people’s needs in urban areas and design the physical envi-
ronment accordingly.
Chapter six is about behaviour change, which is a necessary component
for sustainable development. This chapter introduces the ASE model for
behaviour change, named after its main elements attitude, social influence
and self-ecacy. This model helps us to understand which variables
influence behaviour and thus how behaviour change can be brought about.
9
Chapter seven introduces the six dimensions of the concept of positive
health, i.e. physical functions, mental wellbeing, meaning, quality of life,
participation and daily functioning. By linking the concept of positive health
to various spatial themes, a blueprint is created for designing living envi-
ronments that promote overall health.
Chapter eight deals with the energy transition, one of the most pressing
sustainability topics. Three methods derived from transition governance
(Multi-actor Perspective, Strategic Niche Management, and Multi-Level
Perspective), are introduced to analyse, evaluate and reflect on (energy)
transition processes.
Chapter nine explains how carbon footprinting and accounting works. It
provides a step-by-step approach to identify greenhouse gas emissions
of a city, organization or a product, to calculate the total greenhouse gas
emissions, converted into a comparable amount of CO emissions, and to
draw up a carbon footprinting report.
Chapter ten is about analysing the circularity of supply chains by using
material and value flow mapping. The method of material and value flow
mapping helps us to understand where resources and materials come
from, where they are being produced and used, where they go to, and
how they can be recuperated throughout the system.
Chapter eleven presents a ‘System for Evaluation of Mobility Projects’,
which is a method that has been specifically designed for planning, moni-
toring and evaluating sustainable mobility projects that require behaviour
change.
Chapter twelve takes a look at the business perspective of Smart Sustain-
able Cities. Business is important to society as it provides employment,
opportunity, products and services to satisfy public demand, and as such
creates an economy. This chapter introduces the Business Model Canvas
as a business planning tool that can help with setting up a viable business
model.
The availability of big data can provide interesting opportunities for (sus-
tainability) innovations in the urban context. Chapter thirteen therefore
discusses the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-
DM), which is a structured approach for developing successful big data
projects.
The final chapter, Chapter fourteen, deals with the design of more integrat-
ed policies for Smart Sustainable Cities. It introduces Social Value Innova-
tion (SVI) as a public procurement approach that considers a broader set
of economic, environmental and social criteria in the procurement process
than traditional cost-oriented decision-making frameworks.
10
A common accomplishment
We are grateful to all the authors that contributed to the various chapters in
this textbook. With their ambition, dedication and eorts we have been able
to publish this textbook on very short notice. We thank the following persons
for their valuable inputs: Chris Keyashian, Erlijn Eweg, Gary Pagenstecher,
Madison Steele, Malou van der Vegt, Marije Braun, Nadia Verdeyen, Rachal
Hall, Russell Yates, and Wim Makken.
Martijn G. Rietbergen
HU – University of Applied Sciences Utrecht
August 2021
11
12
13
Table of contents
1. Smart Sustainable Cities: an introduction 21
1.1 Introduction 23
1.2 Sustainable Development 23
1.3 Urbanization, urban growth and the importance of cities 27
1.4 Smart Cities and ICT for sustainable development 29
1.5 Sustainability challenges in cities 31
1.6 Smart Sustainable Cities and competing concepts 32
1.7 Enabling strategies for Smart Sustainable Cities 33
1.8 Smart Cities, a stupid idea? 35
1.9 Exercises 35
2. Systemic Design Thinking 43
2.1 Introduction 45
2.2 Designerly ways of working 46
2.3 The double diamond design model 49
2.4 Case Study: Smart solar charging 56
2.5 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 62
2.6 Assignment 63
3. Probing the Future for Smart Sustainable Cities 69
3.1 Introduction 71
3.2 Probing the future, acting today 75
3.3 Exploring the future of mobility 82
3.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 85
3.5 Exercises 87
3.6 Assignment: Probing the future, Acting today 89
4. Social Design of Smart Sustainable Cities 95
4.1 Introduction: the ‘people’ perspective on sustainable
development 97
4.2 Social design: building blocks for social sustainability 98
4.3 Case study: The former drinking water facility in Amsterdam 107
4.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 114
4.5 Exercises 116
4.6 Assignment 117
5. Urban Psychology of Smart Sustainable Cities 121
5.1 Introduction 123
5.2 Urban psychology: studying behaviour in urban environments 125
5.3 A theoretical framework: six psychological needs for urbanites 126
5.4 Urban psychological tools: researching the needs 132
5.5 Case study: feeling at home in the neighbourhood 134
5.6 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 141
5.7 Exercises 142
5.8 Assignment 143
14
6. Behaviourial Change for Smart Sustainable Cities 147
6.1 Introduction: Social dilemmas and behaviour 149
6.2 Understanding behaviour in a social context 150
6.3 Presentation of the case study 156
6.4 Some criticisms and alternative approaches 158
6.5 Exercises 159
6.6 Assignment 160
7. Healthy Urban Living 165
7.1 Introduction to a new health concept: Positive Health 167
7.2 Positive healthy living environment - a method for
analysis and design 168
7.3 Case study: ‘The Yards of Delfzijl’ 173
7.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 178
7.5 Exercises 178
7.6 Assignment 179
8. Towards Energy Neutral Neighbourhoods 187
8.1 Introduction 189
8.2 Methods for evaluating (energy) transitions 190
8.3 Analysis of the Duurzaam (T)huis Twente case study 194
8.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternatives 205
8.5 Exercises 206
8.6 Assignment 208
9. Carbon Footprinting and Accounting 215
9.1 Introduction 217
9.2 Carbon Footprint Assessment 218
9.3 The carbon footprint of the residential sector in Alcoy 226
9.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 232
9.5 Exercises 233
9.6 Assignment 234
10. Circular Economy: material and value flows in the city 239
10.1 Introduction 241
10.2 Material and value flow mapping 244
10.3 From plastic waste to the uptake of circular plastic 248
10.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 255
10.5 Exercises 256
10.6 Assignment: from linear to circular 256
11. Promoting Sustainable Urban Mobility 263
11.1 Introduction 265
11.2 A system for evaluation of mobility projects 266
15
11.3 F35fan: a campaign to promote the F35 bicycle highway 272
11.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 279
11.5 Exercises 280
11.6 Assignment 281
12. Canvas Business Modelling 285
12.1 Introduction 287
12.2 The Business Model Canvas 288
12.3 The Tesla Business Model explained 292
12.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 294
12.5 Exercises 296
12.6 Assignment 297
13. Big Data Analytics 301
13.1 Introduction 303
13.2 CRISP-DM 305
13.3 Case study 310
13.4 Part 1: Mobility Challenges in Luxembourg 311
13.5 Part 2: The new Belval 316
13.6 Strengths, weakness and alternative approaches 318
13.7 Exercises 319
13.8 Assignment 320
14. Social Value Innovation: from concept to practice 325
14.1 Introduction 327
14.2 A conceptual framework for SVI 330
14.3 Social Value Innovation in practice 337
14.4 Strengths, weaknesses and alternative approaches 348
14.5 Exercises 349
14.6 Assignment 350
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.