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This qualitative study analysed how aspects of critical consciousness in students played a role in the issue of sexual violence in a higher education institution. This research involved students, lecturers, and elements of higher education leaders of a university in Aceh, Indonesia. For the data collection method, the researchers used semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed using thematic analysis with the utilization of critical consciousness and student agency concept as the theoretical frameworks. This study found that aspects of critical consciousness played a significant role in dealing with sexual violence issues in university. Without critical consciousness, students would potentially err in analysing the issue of sexual violence. Aspects of students' critical consciousness were also influenced by the structure or discourse of higher education in viewing sexual violence. The tendency of campus to be more concerned with its good reputation also exacerbated the handling and prevention of sexual violence cases. The implication of this research is the finding that critical consciousness and institutional structure influence each other, both positively and negatively. To deal with sexual violence, a university must promote critical consciousness among students and academics, create pro survivors’ discourse and underpin students' agency, and most importantly, strive to cultivate gender equity perspective among university leaders. Future research should focus on investigating effective pedagogy to nurture critical consciousness for supporting the anti-sexual violence agenda in a higher education institution.
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Sexual violence in Indonesian University: On students’ critical consciousness and
Ainal Fitri*, Muhammad Haekal**, Almukarramah***, Fitri Meliya Sari****
*Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
**Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
***Universitas Serambi Mekkah, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
****Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
*Corresponding author, email:
Received: June 15, 2021 Accepted: September 1, 2021 Published: September 30, 2021
This qualitative study analysed how aspects of critical consciousness in
students played a role in the issue of sexual violence in a higher education
institution. This research involved students, lecturers, and elements of
higher education leaders of a university in Aceh, Indonesia. For the data
collection method, the researchers used semi-structured interviews. The
data was analysed using thematic analysis with the utilization of critical
consciousness and student agency concept as the theoretical frameworks.
This study found that aspects of critical consciousness played a significant
role in dealing with sexual violence issues in university. Without critical
consciousness, students would potentially err in analysing the issue of
sexual violence. Aspects of students' critical consciousness were also
influenced by the structure or discourse of higher education in viewing
sexual violence. The tendency of campus to be more concerned with its good
reputation also exacerbated the handling and prevention of sexual violence
cases. The implication of this research is the finding that critical
consciousness and institutional structure influence each other, both
positively and negatively. To deal with sexual violence, a university must
promote critical consciousness among students and academics, create pro
survivors’ discourse and underpin students' agency, and most importantly,
strive to cultivate gender equity perspective among university leaders.
Future research should focus on investigating effective pedagogy to nurture
critical consciousness for supporting the anti-sexual violence agenda in a
higher education institution.
Keywords: Critical consciousness; higher education; sexual violence;
student agency.
Penelitian kualitatif ini menganalisis bagaimana aspek kesadaran kritis
pada mahasiswa berperan dalam isu kekerasan seksual di perguruan tinggi.
Penelitian ini melibatkan mahasiswa, dosen, dan unsur pimpinan perguruan
tinggi pada sebuah kampus di Aceh, Indonesia. Untuk pengambilan data,
peneliti menggunakan wawancara semi-terstruktur. Analisis tematik
digunakan untuk menganalis data dengan dilengkapi oleh konsep kesadaran
kritis dan student agency sebagai kerangka teoritis. Penelitian ini
menemukan bahwa aspek kesadaran kritis berperan besar dalam
menghadapi isu kekerasan seksual di perguruan tinggi. Tanpa kesadaran
kritis, mahasiswa akan berpotensi keliru dalam menganalisis persoalan
kekerasan seksual secara komprehensif. Aspek kesadaran kritis mahasiswa
juga dipergaruhi oleh struktur atau diskursus perguruan tinggi dalam
melihat isu kekerasan seksual. Kecenderungan kampus yang lebih peduli
pada reputasi atau nama baik kampus juga semakin memperparah
penanganan dan pencegahan isu kekerasan seksual. Implikasi dari
penelitian ini adalah temuan bahwa kesadaran kritis dan struktur institusi
saling mempengaruhi, baik secara positif maupun negatif. Untuk menangani
kekerasan seksual, perguruan tinggi harus mempromosikan kesadaran kritis
di kalangan mahasiswa dan akademisi, menciptakan wacana pro korban
dan mendukung student agency, dan yang terpenting, berusaha untuk
menumbuhkan perspektif kesetaraan gender di antara para pimpinan
kampus. Penelitian di masa depan harus fokus pada penyelidikan mengenai
pedagogi yang efektif untuk menumbuhkan kesadaran kritis untuk
mendukung agenda anti-kekerasan seksual di perguruan tinggi.
Kata Kunci: Kesadaran kritis; perguruan tinggi; kekerasan seksual;
student agency.
Sexual violence has been a severe issue in higher education on a global scale.
We have noticed many reported forms of sexual violence, including rape, intimidation,
or sexual harassment, such as unwanted touching, stalking, and cat-calling in university.
We have also observed various supported background or motivation, including quid pro
quo aided by power relations. The perpetrators who have a strong background such as
professor, and dominant position in the social structure like male academics, could
make this case more challenging to be solved. Also, the patriarchal culture that has been
deeply rooted in the higher education structure has created a circle of evil that further
lead to nurture survivor-blaming and silencing behaviour for the sake of campus
Globally, research on sexual violence in higher education is considered
abundant. Researchers have investigated this issue from many perspectives, themes, and
intentions. One of the latest studies highlighted the optimistic approach to design
feminist education for the university community as a pedagogical tool for dealing with
sexual violence (Jones, Chappell, & Alldred, 2021). It might be essential as another
study discovered that handling sexual violence cases might be negatively influenced by
how higher education operated in the age of neoliberalism (Hurtado, 2021).
In Indonesia, we also found a growing number of investigations on sexual
violence, despite the amount of research on a local and global scale is incomparable; for
instance, in the latest study conducted in an Islamic Higher Education Institution in
West Java involving 333 respondents (students, employees, and lecturers), it was found
that 27.5 percent of respondents had experienced verbal sexual violence, and 13.8
percent of them had experienced non-verbal sexual violence (Muhsin, Ma’mun, &
Nuroniyah, 2021). The study also indicated that 71 percent of the incidents occurred
during lectures, extracurricular activities, and so forth. However, it is difficult to find
academic research focused on sexual violence cases in higher education settings in the
Acehnese context.
In this qualitative research, we conducted a phenomenological study involving
ten students and four faculty members from a university in Aceh, Indonesia. We centred
our study on students’ critical consciousness, agency, and structure aspect because we
found limited investigations, both on a local and global scale, which focused on
studying students’ roles in sexual violence issues and how an educational institution
affected them. By conducting in-depth interviews, we tried to explore how those
elements could affect how students responded to sexual violence issues on campus. In
addition, previous works of the literature showed that students had a high probability of
becoming sexual violence victims based on their weak position in the structural
hierarchy of campus and their needs at the personal and academic level. Thus, studying
the students would provide them adequate space to express their voice, idea, and
aspiration against this issue. In addition, by positioning critical consciousness, agency,
and structure as analysis elements, we also believed that students might potentially play
a significant position to tackle this issue on campus.
We believe that studying sexual violence in any settings is a challenging task.
Researchers must be meticulous in dealing with the safety of participants, especially
survivors, and themselves as the investigators. If it is not executed assiduously, the
researchers may potentially put the survivors and themselves in danger. We perceived
those negative consequences might contribute to the lack of available research on this
issue in Indonesia. Thus, this study would contribute to scholarly conversation on
sexual violence in Indonesia or Southeast Asia, particularly in providing space for
students to express their voice.
This section will provide the definition and previous works on sexual violence
issues in higher education and how they provided insightful concepts to our
investigation. We would also explain the prior studies on critical consciousness,
agency, and structure, and how it supported our study as the theoretical framework to
analyse sexual violence issues on campus.
2.1. Definition and type
Many scholars and organisations have conceptualised sexual violence as a
definition. In this study, we selected a definition formed by the World Health
Organization (WHO). It defines sexual violence as:
Any sexual acts attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or
advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person’s sexuality
using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in
any setting. (WHO, 2012, as cited in Islam & Hossain, 2021, p.1)
Sexual violence is often used interchangeably or separately with other terms,
including sexual harassment, sexual abuse, and sexual assault. We are aware that all of
the terms have distinct senses and characteristics. However, in this study, we would
only use sexual violence to encompass all types of sexual misconduct in the hope of
avoiding confusion among readers.
Regarding the variation of sexual violence, a categorisation from the Indonesian
National Commission on Violence against Women (Komnas Perempuan) would be
helpful. It categorises sexual violence into fifteen types:
Rape, sexual intimidation, sexual harassment, sexual exploitation, sexually
motivated human trafficking, forced prostitution, sexual slavery, forced
marriage, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, forced contraception or
sterilization, sexual torture, sexually inhuman punishment, a sexually dangerous
and discriminative tradition for women, and sexual control (Komnas Perempuan,
2012, p.4).
We noticed that not all of the sexual violence types took place in a higher
education context. Nevertheless, we put the categorisation to show how multifarious
sexual violence is. Additionally, the categorisation itself must be seen as fluid. For
instance, sexual violence could encompass other malicious activities in this digital age,
such as revenge porn (Fairbairn, 2015) usually distributed online as shaming,
blackmailing, or extorting weapons.
2.2. Sexual violence in higher education
Historically, one of the earliest reports on sexual violence could be traced from
Kirkpatrick and Kanin’s study in 1957 (Jessup-Anger, Lopez, & Koss, 2018). They
studied the aggressiveness of men in dating-courtship relationships on campus, based on
the reports from women. The respondents in that study reported how men used
aggressive force to have sexual intimacy with them. The study was becoming a
foundation for other studies on sexual violence in that era. Jessup-Anger et al. (2018)
further provided some crucial highlights on essential findings regarding sexual violence
research, including the lack of institutional definition of sexual violence and limited
sexual awareness programs for new students. The unavailability of a formal definition
and adequate campaign of sexual violence on campus would make students unaware of
the violence, even after they had become a victim.
On the other hand, we found difficulty finding when the earliest research on
sexual violence in higher education was conducted in Indonesia. The earliest research
timeframe could show when academics started to have awareness about Indonesian
higher education. However, regardless of the data limitation, we observed that the
research on sexual violence in Indonesia intensified in recent years. One of its causes
was potentially the significant dissemination of the ‘#MeToo’ hashtag circularised in
eighty-five countries, including Palestine, Indonesia, Japan, and South Korea (Gill &
Orgad, 2018).
Sexual violence in higher education could occur in many forms, like rape,
attempted rape, and unwanted touching (Moorman & Osborne, 2015). One of the most
commons sexual violence on campus is related to power relations and quid pro quo. In
Ghana and Tanzania, for instance, it was found that a male professor asked a female
student for sex to get an excellent academic grade (Morley, 2011). Karami, White, Ford,
Swan, and Spinel's study (2020) found that the majority of sexual violence cases often
involved perpetrators from higher social or academic rank (e.g., professor, senior
lecturer, and supervisor) and survivors from the lower rank (e.g., junior staff and
students). In terms of gender, the study also uncovered that 89.99% of harassers were
male, 5.09% female, and 4.92% from other genders (Karami et al., 2020).
Sexual violence could produce a devastating impact on its survivors. A report
from the American Congressional Research Service described that the victim of sexual
violence could suffer much consequence both personally and academically (Gonzalez &
Feder, 2016). They could endure physical and mental issues, including depression, post-
traumatic stress disorder, drug abuse, unintended pregnancy, that could lead them to
encounter a drop in their academic performance.
2.3. How Indonesian university dealt with sexual violence
A massive reported case of sexual violence in Indonesian higher education
institutions was initiated in 2019 by four Indonesian mass media companies:,
The Jakarta Post, VICE Indonesia, and BBC Indonesia. The reportage was entitled
‘#NamaBaikKampus’ or ‘#CampusReputation’ and involved 179 sexual violence
survivors from seventy-nine (state, private, and religious) higher education institutions
in twenty-nine cities in Indonesia (Adjie, 2020). The report uncovered sexual violence
allegation cases in Indonesian universities. The title ‘#CampusReputation’ outlined how
Indonesian universities concealed sexual violence cases for campus reputation. The
universities would try any possible way to save their reputation and silencing the
Several international studies also supported the findings above. For example, a
study found that victims of sexual violence in university often hesitated to report the
cases because they feared that their issue would not be taken seriously (Kirkner, Lorenz,
& Mazar, 2020). In addition, universities often neglected the victim of sexual violence
with very little attention on seriously dealing with their cases (Marshall, Dalyot, &
Galloway, 2014). Therefore, it would be inevitable that sexual violence survivors in
university were experiencing isolation. One of the causes was the structuration of the
communication process (Dykstra-DeVette & Tarin, 2019) that further led them to feel
alone and alienated while seeking justice.
A study in Indonesia also found that policies on dealing with sexual violence
could be found in Indonesian universities. However, it would be challenging to get
justice for the survivors if it was not supported by knowledgeable university staff and
convenient campus bureaucracy (Nikmatullah, 2020). Furthermore, another study in the
country also found that the patriarchal culture could negatively impact female survivors
(Munir & Junaini, 2020). The patriarchal culture is considered rooted in Indonesian
academia as the cause of the low female participation and the limited gender equity
knowledge among male senior faculty members (Haekal & Fitri, 2020).
2.4. Critical consciousness, agency, and structure
Freire, a distinguished critical theorist and educator from Brazil, originated the
conscientização or critical consciousness concept. He believed that the oppression could
be defeated when the oppressed people had critical consciousness to analyse their social
condition and living world (Shih, 2018).
Christens, Winn, and Duke (2016) provided an essential synthesis of the critical
consciousness concept from other scholars who categorised it into three components:
critical reflection, political efficacy, and critical action.
Table 1
Critical consciousness components
Brief Description
Critical reflection
The ability to analyse inequities and injustices connected to
one’s social conditions.
Political efficacy
The sense that the individual or a collective has the ability
and capacity to change their political and social conditions
(Watts et al. 2011, as cited in Christens et al., 2016, p.17).
Critical Action
Critical action occurs when individuals actively seek to
change their unjust conditions through policy reform,
practices, or programs.
(Christens et al., 2016, p.17)
Thomas et al. (2014) had also provided important stages of critical
consciousness: precritical, beginning critical, critical, and post-critical.
Table 2
Critical consciousness stages
Brief Description
Issues of inequity and oppression are not recognised.
Beginning critical
Individuals would begin to recognise oppression and
The person has a solid sense of critical consciousness.
Some form of personal or social action in response to
oppression or inequity.
(Thomas et al., 2014, p.489)
We found minimal studies correlated critical consciousness and sexual violence
issues in higher education regarding the prior research. For example, a study from the
United States of America reported that when students (as the bystanders or witnesses)
had critical consciousness, they would tend to intervene in sexual assault incidents
(Rojas-Ashe, Walker, Holmes, & Johnson, 2019). However, the study had not
investigated whether there were other factors (besides critical consciousness) supporting
students to survive or motivating them to act against the sexual violence cases.
We also utilised student agency and structure as other theoretical frameworks.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) presented an
insightful explanation about student agency:
Student agency relates to the development of an identity and a sense of
belonging. When students develop agency they rely on motivation, hope, self-
efficacy and a growth mindset (the understanding that abilities and intelligence
can be developed) to navigate towards well-being. This enables them to act with
a sense of purpose, which guides them to flourish and thrive in society. (OECD,
2019, p.5)
In addition, structure is defined as “rules and resources recursively implicated in
social reproduction; institutionalized features of social systems have structural
properties in the sense that relationships are stable across time and space” (Giddens,
1984, as cited in Powell, 2018, p.3).
We would utilise all of the concepts above as the theoretical frameworks to
analyse the sexual violence issue from students’ perspectives.
This qualitative study used phenomenology as its research genre. The approach
centralised on investigating the synthesis of essential lived experiences, events, and
concepts from research participants (Saldaña, 2011). The participants of this research
were ten undergraduate students and six faculty members from a university in Aceh,
Indonesia. We selected the participants using purposive (or purposeful) sampling
(Leavy, 2017) to get the best data for our investigation. In terms of defining the sample
size, we used the concept of saturation (Dworkin, 2012), in which we finished
gathering the data after finding no new information or insights. The participants would
remain anonymous during this study to protect their safety and privacy. As the data
collection method, we used offline and online semi-structured interviews. According to
Brinkman (2014), semi-structured interviews would allow researchers to get better data
because it would enable them to follow respondents’ perspectives during interviews.
Additionally, we utilised thematic analysis to analyse the findings with the enrichment
of the aforementioned theoretical frameworks. The thematic analysis is a deliberative
process of understanding the intricacy of meanings by organising the data into
explorable patterns and themes (Sundler, Lindberg, Nilsson, & Palmér, 2019).
In this section, we would discuss the findings by utilising thematic analysis and
the aforementioned theoretical frameworks. We would present the discussion in three
subsections. On reporting the respondents’ perspective, we would use pseudonyms (if
necessary) to protect their privacy.
4.1. Students’ critical consciousness of sexual violence
We found that most of the students’ respondents did not have a complete
concept of sexual violence. Some of them even knew firstly about sexual violence from
this study. Some respondents had vague or incomplete definitions of the concept. For
instance, a female student described sexual violence as a non-consensual sexual
intimacy, while a male student defined it as raping underage children or minors. Their
inability to provide a complete definition of sexual violence makes students more
susceptible, especially as victims. They might not know that they had already become
victims. Like a testimony of one female student, she could not determine whether a
male student had harassed her, but she felt uncomfortable with it. She said, “I am
uncomfortable with his act, but I don’t want to take it seriously.” She also did not report
the case because she did not want to get into any more trouble with the university.
The majority of respondents were aware of the position of women as the
susceptible group on sexual violence issues. However, some students, particularly the
male, believed that protection against sexual violence is a personal obligation, not an
institution. A male respondent, for instance, stated the importance of female students to
dress politely and not going outside after 10 PM. “If they (female students) are away in
the late evening, they will put themselves at risk of becoming sexual violence victims,”
he said.
On the other hand, most female respondents believed that the students had to
dress politely and religiously. However, a female respondent said that if sexual violence
still happened, it did not correlate with female outfits. “In my opinion, all female
students in this university have dressed politely following the regulation. So, if sexual
violence still occurs, it must be because of other reasons,” she described. Regarding the
outfits, The Body Shop Indonesia had held a virtual exhibition of sexual violence
survivors (Magdalene, 2021). From the exhibition, we could observe that despite the
female survivors had dressed appropriately, and sexual violence still took place. Thus,
the claimed that outfits linked to sexual violence did not have solid factual standings, as
also supported by Moor’s (2010) research. Additionally, the claim of female outfits as
the cause of sexual violence on women had been widely campaigned by the mass
media, as suggested by Najib’s (2020) study. It would put more burdens on the female
survivors as the ones who often got blamed.
Figure 1. Outfits of sexual violence survivors on a virtual exhibition conducted by The
Body Shop Indonesia (Magdalene, 2021). For full access to the exhibition, please click:
Despite their low number, we also found that few female respondents demanded
that the university provide specific education on sexual violence, especially for students.
“I think the students still have limited knowledge on sexual violence, including myself.
So, I think it’s crucial,” said a female student.
Based on the findings, most students have reached the precritical stage of
critical consciousness on the sexual violence issue. At the very best, some of them had
reached the beginning critical stage of critical consciousness. In consequence, it was
difficult for the majority of students to understand the issue of sexual violence. Only a
few students recognised the issue, but only at a beginning level, not a complete
understanding. Therefore, we argued that with their current stage of understanding the
issue, they had not reached the level of critical consciousness. They had the minimal
potential to do critical reflection, political efficacy, and critical action against the issue
of sexual violence. They even had more possibility of falsely understanding this issue,
for instance, by positioning victims or survivors as the ones who were responsible for
any sexual violence incidents. In addition, we also examined that the university
structure negatively affected the students’ critical consciousness and agency on the
sexual violence issue. We would discuss it further in the following subsection.
4.2. The hidden sexual violence incidents on campus
The majority of male students and some female students believed that their
campus was safe and free from sexual violence cases. During their study, they never
heard any incidents related to sexual violence. One male respondent even said
confidently that no way sexual violence could happen on campus.
However, different insights were given by some faculty members. A female
lecturer said that she knew about two sexual violence incidents during her job on
campusboth of the cases involving male lecturers as the perpetrators and female
students as the survivors. The first case was an unwanted touching during a lecture that
happened in an uncrowded classroom. The second case was related to sexual intimacy.
Both of the cases were resolved through mediation. No cases were brought to police or
end in a lawsuit. The campus often treated sexual violence cases as consensual
intimacy, especially male lecturers and female students. She was afraid that this kind of
settlement would never deter the harassers.
Another female lecturer also knew about one sexual violence case on campus. A
male lecturer sexually harassed a female student. The perpetrator had a strong social
and academic position on campus. He had a doctoral degree and a structural position.
Later, he was asked by the university to resign. He resigned, and later he found a new
teaching job in another university. Moreover, surprisingly, the survivor was also
expelled from the university. “The case settlement is not pro-victim,” she said. In
addition, the university did not bring the case to the police. It has never been opened to
the public, including among academicians. Only a few faculty members knew about the
case. The carelessness of the campus to ‘release’ the perpetrator without bringing him to
justice would also potentially put people at his new workplace at risk.
A female university leader explained another sexual violence case. It involved a
lecturer who was considered a religious figure on campus. He committed sexual
violence by sending raunchy text messages to some female students. The university
punished him by suspending him to teach for one year. However, the case only ended
there. Currently, the perpetrator was still teaching and even had a structural position on
campus. She added, “We didn’t report his misconduct to his faculty because it would
affect the campus reputation.” It showed that the campus worked hard to protect its
reputation without thinking about the safety of its students and academics, especially the
recovery of the sexual violence survivors.
A study in Indonesia highlighted that the tendency to conceal and protect
institution reputation might be potentially influenced by religious and cultural aspects
(Istiadah, Indah, & Rosdiana, 2020). It described the difficulty of dealing with sexual
violence cases as the institution often showed limited support, and the survivors tended
to remain silent (motivated by socio-cultural and religious dogma) to shield themselves
and the institution. However, regarding the link between religiosity and students’
position as bystanders, another study found that the religious aspect in individual level
could elevate students’ confidence to report sexual violence incidents (Rusyidi, Bintari,
& Wibowo, 2021). As the study conducted in Aceh (the only Sharia province in
Indonesia), the religious aspect might be either seen as an inhibiting factor or a
motivating factor in handling sexual violence cases.
4.3. University structure and student agency
The university did not have specific regulations on sexual violence. One of the
university leaders said that there was a general regulation from the Ministry of Higher
Education. However, she was unsure that the university had socialised it widely to the
students and lecturer, nor it is integrated into university policy. She added, “We don’t
have any formal reporting systems for students to reports sexual violence cases. So, they
usually report the cases by communicating to faculty members, like a student advisor.”
For instance, she explained a case where two female students reported a male lecturer
who sexually harassed them by sending raunchy text messages. The case was noticed
after the survivors reported the villainy to a faculty member. Even though it showed that
the ‘informal’ report worked, but it could not be seen as the success for the institution to
prevent and deal with sexual violence cases. Since there was no formal report system,
any act of resistance could only be seen as a sign of individual courage and it might not
be perceived as a collective and systemic movement.
In addition, a male university leader also said that the regulation of sexual
violence was not needed since there was no ‘extraordinary’ case of sexual violence.
Further, he believed that the university must protect its reputation at all costs. He said,
“If sexual violence cases on campus exposed, it would bring destructive effect on the
institution reputation.” He further asserted that when a sexual violence case could be
settled peacefully/ amicably, then he did not have any logical reasons to make it
complicated, for instance bringing the perpetrators to justice. His response at one point
showed that he had limited sensitivity towards the sexual violence issue, especially from
the survivor’s perspective.
The findings that there were no regulations, rules, and the intention to disclose
the sexual violence incidents had weakened the anti-sexual violence campaign on
campus. The university structure did not support the anti-sexual violence narrative, and
it did not support the growth of student agency on sexual violence issues. This essential
element might be used to understand the institutional norms and perceptions used to
design sexual violence prevention strategies (Banyard, Rizzo, Bencosme, Cares, &
Moynihan, 2021). It even perpetuated and normalised the sexual violence incidents on
campus by indirectly defending the perpetrators and neglecting the survivors.
Another negative impact was that most students did not have critical
consciousness of sexual violence and even had a false conception. Most of them only
sat on the precritical stage of critical consciousness. It would make them unable to even
identified sexual violence cases. Few of the students had a position on beginning
critical stage that they started to recognise sexual violence cases. However, to initiate
social action, they need to position themselves in the critical and then post-critical
stage, as suggested by Thomas et al. (2014). Furthermore, the lack of critical
consciousness in the advanced stage would make students unable to engage in critical
reflection, which might later develop into political efficacy and critical action. Further,
we argued that university structure would always play a vital role in affecting critical
consciousness and later agency, both in positive and negative ways. Therefore, to create
the reform, a university must have a healthy structure that might not be actualised by
hoping the university leaders (and its adherents) change, but by the reform initiated by
the oppressed students and faculty members.
The study has found two essential findings. Firstly, without critical
consciousness on sexual violence, students would never initiate any reform to deal with
the issue. Secondly, university structure could affect the positioning of student agency
and critical consciousness on the sexual violence issue. The university must be run by
individuals who had a gender equity perspective and critical consciousness to recognise
or analyse any oppression in university, including sexual violence. If the reform is
difficult to achieve from the university leadership position, then any academics,
students, or faculty members must act to initiate the change.
This research was funded by the Ministry of Research and Technology of the
Republic of Indonesia (RISTEKBRIN), Novice Lecturer Research Cluster (PDP) in
Higher Education Institution without Legal Entity, 2021 Fiscal Year.
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... Given the aforementioned literature, it seems to be that availability of research reports in the locus related the treatments handled by counselors and child workers at the Bangka Belitung Islands Province are inadequate. Many research reports connective to the topic are based on rigorous studies in other provinces outside Bangka Belitung ranging from roles of family and parents in solving problems of children sexual abuse (Nursiti et al., 2019;Solehati et al., 2021), the stress disorder suffered by children victims of sexual violence (Fatmawati, 2016), roles of society and academics to take stand for rejecting sexual abuse against children (Fitri et al., 2021;Nisah, 2017), to roles of provincial governments to combat such cases (Nashriyah et al, 2021;Nursiti et al., 2019). Thus, to address the gap, this study aims to carry out an in-depth exploration of how the Regional Child Protection Commission (KPAD) of the Bangka Belitung Islands Province handles the children victims of sexual violence. ...
... Given that many child victims of sexual violence in this province, governmental and non-governmental institutions should shoulder in shoulder to mitigate the problem. As mentioned by Fitri et al. (2021), academics whether are students, researchers, or faculty members should take stand for this matter. Furthermore, according to Nashriyah et al. (2021) and Nursiti et al. (2019), the government of Aceh Province has sought to combat the child sexual violence through education and adequate information being socialized to society in order to prevent the negative consequences of the sexual violence as well as cure the child victims via various humane programs such as trauma healing, rehabilitation, physical and psychological restoration, economic empowerment, education, and preparation for life development. ...
... As such, the contribution of the Regional Child Protection Commission (KPAD) of Bangka Belitung Islands Province in dealing with the children victims of sexual violence and abuse should be supported by local stake holders, such as educators, activists, local governments, local cultural and religious leaders, and the KPAD. These organic and non-organic governmental bodies have tremendous roles according to their capacities as a handful of researchers supported these findings (Fatmawati, 2016;Fitri et al., 2021;Nashriyah et al., 2021;Nisah, 2017, Nursiti et al., 2019. ...
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Over the last two decades, the government has paid much more attention through imposing laws to minimize sexual violence against children. This mostly has been perpetrated by people close to them or extended family members. Accordingly, detrimental effects of such an immoral act case lead to physical problem and psychological disorder in children. Many cases are just the tip of the iceberg whereby disclosure has not been made because perpetrators fully know victims who always face threat in their lives. The interview was conducted with three counselors and key person or supervisor in the Regional Child Protection Commission (KPAD) to raise a concern about victims and to investigate the contribution of the KPAD in dealing with children victims of sexual violence. This study is undertaken as a result of the phenomena of sexual violence occurring in the Bangka Belitung Islands Province. Field research with qualitative descriptive-analysis method was employed in this study, and technique for data analysis applied a model of Miles et al. (2014). The findings showed that the contribution of KPAD in handling with victims of sexual violence against children includes providing assistance and advocacy, recovering trauma, boosting motivation, offering counseling, and giving assistance for legal justice technically and substantively. With the treatment, the KPAD of the Bangka Belitung Islands Province also provide the opportunity to assist the provincial government in facilitating the needs of the community who are able to contribute considerably to deal with the issues of sexual violence against children.
... Therefore, aspects of critical consciousness played a significant role in dealing with sexual violence issues in university. Fitri, et al (2021) explained that without critical consciousness, students would potentially err in analysing the issue of sexual violence. To deal with sexual violence, a university must promote critical consciousness among students and academics, create pro survivors' discourse and underpin students' agency, and most importantly, strive to cultivate gender equity perspective among university leaders. ...
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This article aims to uncover preventive efforts against sexual harassment in higher education conducted by UIN KH Abdurrahman Wahid Pekalongan[1], which involved education based on Islamic gender justice. Education based on gender justice values in Islam needs to be carried out because Islam is a Rahmatanlil'alamin religion and is the main pillar of human values. This qualitative study employed interviews, observations, and documentation for collecting data. Meanwhile, the data analysis techniques proposed by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana, like data condensation, data presentation, concluding, and verification. The findings indicated that the portrait of sexual harassment phenomena among students could be considered an urgent condition. The student's understanding of sexual violence, Islamic gender justice, and preventing and handling sexual violence regulations was still inadequate. Moreover, various cases of sexual harassment, ranging from verbal to physical forms, have been identified. However, the preventive efforts against sexual harassment by UIN Gusdur through PSGA[2] and ULT SETARA[3] have been relatively effective. Meanwhile, education based on Islamic gender justice is carried out by socializing the problems cases regarding understanding gender and Islam.[1] K.H Abdurrahman Wahid Pekalongan State Islamic University (UIN) usually called UIN Gusdur Pekalongan, is located on Jl. Hero KM 5 Kajen Pekalongan Regency, Central Java 51156.[2] Center for Gender and Child Studies (PSGA) is a study center that focuses on issues of gender equality and justice in higher education [3] Integrated Service Unit (ULT) SETARA is a service under the center for gender and child studies which focuses on preventing and handling sexual violence at UIN Gusdur Pekalongan
... Berikut ini beberapa penyebab kurangnya pencegahan dan penanganan kekerasan seksual di Kampus : a. Mahasiswa masih kurang memahami konsep kekerasan seksual. Banyak mahasiswa masih berada pada tahap awal kesadaran dan pemikiran kritis tentang kekerasan seksual (Fitri et al., 2021). Salah satu bentuk kekerasan seksual, seperti penggunaan istilah seksis yang membuat tidak nyaman dan memberi komentar terhadap orang dengan istilah seksual yang merendahkan, masih cenderung diabaikan atau kurang dipahami oleh mahasiswa (Alpian, 2022). ...
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Perguruan Tinggi identik dengan kehidupan Kampus yang merupakan salah satu lembaga pendidikan pusat peradaban dan pembentukan manusia berpendidikan. Perguruan Tinggi salah satu lembaga pendidikan yang rawan terjadi kekerasan seksual. Kekerasan seksual di Perguruan Tinggi memberikan citra buruk dan mencoreng dunia Pendidikan Indonesia. Selama ini banyak laporan kasus kekerasan seksual berakhir damai, tidak sedikit pula laporan yang diproses hingga berbulan-bulan, tetapi tidak menemukan titik terang. Perlu adanya sosialisasi peraturan yang dapat dilakukan untuk menambah wawasan mahasiswa/i tentang kekerasan seksual. Hadirnya PERMENDIKBUDRISTEK No. 30 Tahun 2021 tentang Pencegahan dan Penanganan Kekerasan Seksual dan UU no 30 tahun 2022 tentang kekerasan seksual seharusnya dapat dijadikan sarana dan payung hukum bagi para penyintas/korban dan segenap pihak yang terkait. Peraturan ini menjadi sebuah langkah maju, agar pimpinan Perguruan Tinggi bisa mengambil langkah tegas menyikapi setiap laporan dengan berperspektif pada perlindungan korban. Kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat ini berupaya memberikan sosialisasi tentang PERMENDIKBUDRISTEK dan UU yang berkaitan dengan kekerasan seksual. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi kegiatan pengabdian yang dilakukan oleh tim pengabdian Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sriwijaya menunjukkan adanya peningkatan pemahaman dan pengetahuan tentang Pencegahan dan Penanganan Kekerasan Seksual pada Perguruan Tinggi di Kota Palembang. Khalayak sasaran adalah mahasiswa dan mahasiswi sebanyak 37 orang dengan tingkat pemahaman rata-rata sebesar 86,2 persen.
... Selain itu, pengetahuan yang lebih luas tentang kekerasan seksual diperlukan untuk membangun kesadaran civitas akademik dalam mengidentifikasi berbagai bentuk kekerasan seksual. Penanganan kasus kekerasan seksual pada dasarnya merupakan upaya pencegahan munculnya korban baru dari fenomena victim blaming atau kasus kekerasan seksual itu sendiri(Fitri et al., 2021). Doperlukan penanganan yang tepat untuk membuat kampus sebagai Lembaga ramah gender, bebas dari kasus kekerasan seksual, dan jauh dari fenomena victim blaming. ...
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Buku ini membicarakan mengenai isu pelecehan dan kekerasan seksual, khususnya dalam lingkungan kampus beserta dampaknya bagi korban. Buku ini juga membahas mengenai fenomena rape culture yang terjadi dalam budaya Indonesia, victim blaming, dan digital vigilantism. Di dalam buku ini turut dibahas mengenai pentingnya memahami victim mentality dan patologi sosial yang mempengaruhi korban merespons kekerasan seksual. Buku ini juga memberikan informasi terkait dengan regulasi dan upaya preventif dalam penanganan kasus kekerasan seksual di ruang akademik. Buku ini menyajikan model dampingi-peduli-lindungi sebagai suatu tipologi korban kekerasan seksual di kampus dan memberikan strategi untuk melindungi korban dari efek domino fenomena tersebut.
... Although there have been many studies of sexual violence on universities in Indonesia, the phenomenon that occurs in each campus certainly has its own uniqueness and is important to study. Most recently, a study in Aceh found that aspects of critical awareness have a significant role in the issue of sexual violence in universities (Fitri, Haekal, Almukarramah, & Sari, 2021). The results of the preliminary research in this study found the fact that there had been several sexual violence in the form of sexual harassment at one campus in Aceh. ...
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This qualitative study aimed to investigate how the academic community at a university in Aceh, Indonesia, views the handling of cases of sexual violence on campus. After conducting preliminary research, this research was continued by conducting in-depth interviews with nine students, three lecturers, and two university leaders. Through thematic analysis, this study found that although students are at high risk of becoming survivors, some students still deny the potential for sexual violence on campus because of the lack of critical consciousness and the absence of standard rules from the university regarding sexual violence. On another side, the researchers found the emergence of resistance among female students against the sexual violence issue, even though it did not base on critical awareness and collective organization. The implication of this research is the potential for dealing with cases of sexual violence by utilizing the seeds of resistance that arise among students. Future research should explore how the academic community in higher education builds critical awareness in a collaborative and participatory way to deal with the issue of sexual violence.
... Memahami kekerasan seksual di lingkungan kampus tidak cukup hanya memahami faktor penyebab dan cara menangani kekerasan seksual saja, melainkan perlu dipahami pula tantangan-tantangan yang terjadi dalam penanganan permasalahan kekerasan seksual tersebut. Beberapa tantangan dalam pencegahan dan penanganan kekerasan seksual di lingkungan kampus seperti: mahasiswa masih pada tahap awal dalam kesadaran dan pemikiran kritis terkait isu kekerasan seksual sehingga pemahaman mahasiswa terkait konsep kekerasan seksual masih sangat minim, laporan atas tindakan kekerasan seksual yang terjadi masih banyak yang tidak terlaporkan, kasus-kasus kekerasan seksual yang terjadi terkesan ditutupi pihak kampus dengan dalih menjaga nama baik kampus (Fitri, Haekal, Almukarramah, & Sari, 2021). ...
... Kekerasan pada dasarnya merupakan sebuah realita yang nyata dan sering terjadi dalam masyarakat dari dulu hingga saat ini (Noviani P et al., 2018) khususnya pada perempuan sebab banyak masyarakat yang berpandangan bahwa kaum perempuan sebagai kaum yang dapat dikuasai, diperbudak, dan dieksploitasi oleh kaum laki-laki. Pelecehan seksual yang terjadi dalam dunia Pendidikan saat ini menjadi hal yang sangat disorot karena dianggap menjadi ladang kasus kekerasan dan pelecehan seksual (Fitri et al., 2021). Suatu institusi Pendidikan yang sejatinya merupakan tempat untuk tumbuh dan berkembang harusnya menjadi suatu tempat dan rumah yang aman dan nyaman justru menjadi tempat yang menakutkan bagi para perempuan dan penyintas. ...
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Isu kekerasan seksual yang saat ini masih dianggap tabu untuk didiskusikan sudah selayaknya mahasiswa sebagai agent of change untuk lebih membuka mata akan isu tersebut. Sebab, kekerasan seksual bukanlah isu perempuan saja, bukan permasalahan segelintir orang, melainkan sebuah isu sosial yang menjadi permasalahan bersama dalam masyarakat dan perlu kesadaran bersama untuk menanganinya. Perlu adanya upaya lebih tegas mengenai sosialisasi anti kekerasan seksual oleh pihak kampus. Hal ini dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kesadaran mahasiswa melalui edukasi tentang kekerasan seksual sebagai upaya pencegahan, penanganan yang berpihak pada korban, dan menumbuhkan moral demi terwujudnya lingkungan kampus yang aman dari kekerasan seksual. Mahasiswa juga diharapkan terus memegang prinsip tersebut dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Dengan diinisiasikan pembentukan Girl Up Community ditiap perguruan tinggi di Indoneisa dapat menimbulkan optimisme dalam gerakan penghapusan kekerasan seksual. Girl Up Community dibentuk untuk menciptakan platform yang ramah terhadap perempuan serta meningkatkan hak perempuan itu dengan belajar tumbuh dan memberi dampak pada tiap perempuan oleh pengetahuan dari diri mereka sendiri.
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Female students are still at risk of experiencing sexual harassment, which can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the impact of social support on PTSD female students who have been sexually harassed, as mediated by the resilience and religious coping. Out of a total of 1,439 female students who filed online self-reports, 170 female students reported being sexually harassed by lecturers, male students, and administrative officers. The PTSD checklist–civilian version (PCL-C), Multidimensional scale of perceived social support, brief resilience scale, and brief religious coping scale (RCOPE) were used to collect data. Partial least squares (PLS) modeling was used to test the developed hypothesis. This study found that social support, resilience, and religious coping all had an impact on PTSD. Furthermore, social support has an indirect effect on PTSD through resilience and religious coping. Because resilience and coping are mediators in recovering PTSD and that both can be intervened and modified, a training program specifically designed to improve both is needed to overcome the PTSD symptoms experienced by sexual harassment victims.
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Sexual violence still occurs these days in the context of the household circumstances. Having viewed from the perspective of gender, Islamic law, as well as K.H Husein Muhammad's thoughts, it turns out that in sexual relations there are not only the husband's rights and the wife's obligations, but the wife also has rights and obligations that must be fulfilled by the husband. Fathul Izaar and Qurrotul 'Uyuun as books of sexology in Islamic boarding schools can actually lead to the achievement of rights & obligations for both husbands and wives in sexual relations. This research seeks to answer how the ethics of sexual relations in the book Fathul Izaar and Qurrotul 'Uyuun can lead to the fulfillment of rights & obligations when having sexual intercourse, both for husbands and wives. The research used a qualitative method, which was carried out using a library research approach. The primary sources in this study are the books of Fathul Izaar and Qurrotul 'Uyuun, while the secondary ones are documents that are compatible with the study that the researchers did. Data analysis in this study used qualitative content analysis techniques. The results indicate that: The ethics of sexual relations that researchers found in the books of Fathul Izaar and Qurrotul 'Uyuun can lead to the fulfillment of rights & obligations for both husbands and wives when having sexual intercourse, with the various ethics listed in the two books
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Sexual violence was prevalent in many settings, including in religious educational institutions. This article analyzed cases of sexual violence at an Islamic higher education institution in West Java, Indonesia, using the maqasid al-shariah and Foucault's theory of sexuality as the theoretical frameworks. This mixed-method research used Google form's surveys, in-depth interviews, and observations as the data collection methods. The data were analyzed using a flow model, which comprised selection, display, analysis or discussion, and conclusion. This study showed that verbal and non-verbal sexual violence was rampant. It occurred between student and student, lecturer and staff, staff and staff, and lecturer and student. Four models of sexual violence were found based on the typology designed by Dzeich and Weiner, who categorized thirteen forms of sexual violence. The maqasid al-shariah analysis outlined that sexual violence was against the fundamental values and objectives of sharia and human rights. Additionally, Foucault's theory identified patriarchal and cultural hegemony aspects in sexual violence. This study's intriguing part was the findings that combined in-depth interviews, observations, and surveys, intended to understand the intensity of existing cases. On the other hand, the power of analysis was centered on normative fiqh and sociological aspects. According to the literature reviews, these two approaches had not been administered by previous researchers.
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This qualitative research investigates the challenges of female lecturers while working during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research involved fifteen female lecturers from various universities in Sumatra and Java. Researchers distributed research questions online and analyzed the findings using the work concept proposed by bell hooks. The findings show that there is still gender exploitation in some workplaces and households, but also contain the hope that there are still private and public places that uphold gender justice. This research contributes to understanding related to gender justice in the context of higher education during the pandemic. The weakness of this study is that the respondents are only female lecturers, without involving other female workers in the administrative, sanitary, and security fields of universities.
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Programmes for sexual violence prevention have focussed historically on university, school or college students rather than staff working at these institutions. The Universities Supporting Victims of Sexual Violence project (USVreact), co-funded by the European Commission, worked across universities in Europe to address this gap in the provision and knowledge of programmes aimed at staff. Each institutional partner in the project designed a programme to enable staff to respond appropriately to disclosures of sexual violence. This paper focuses on one UK university to explore the use of and reception to education principles and feminist pedagogy with staff from across the institution. These diverse pedagogical approaches were significant to the design of the university’s innovative programme. The findings demonstrate the importance of a process of sexual violence pedagogy, as opposed to training, and highlight its positive implications for the whole university community.
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This analysis of Karen Kelsky’s (founder of a blog called The Professor Is In) crowdsourced data on sexual harassment in higher education describes the communication processes involved in the widespread isolation and “chilling effect” of inadequate structural responses to sexual harassment. Through the lens of structuration theory, the data demonstrate how communicative processes of isolation are appropriated throughout higher education. The analysis highlights two themes in the data that demonstrate the role of (1) networks and professionalization and (2) the structural estrangement from agency in the (re)production of isolation and organizational exit. Finally, the analysis identifies resignification and participation in the crowdsourced survey as potentially empowering acts of resistance.
The need for the fulfillment of technology ang information is a necessity in modern life today. Increase sophisticate communication flow makes the distance relationship between a person and another be increasingly. In addition, adolescent relationship are increasingly rife and do not know the limits of new problems in social life. Many young people today who hang out and build the relationship without knowing the time and situation. In 2017 ago at Pekanbaru there was a case of revenge porn commited by a student at one private campus initials M against his girlfriend who had the initials B. after this incident, B feel the trauma and often unpleasant treatment, and even tends to lead to harassment by some of her friends on campus. At the first, B build relationship with her boyfriend the initials M with the good condition, but the over time B often get the treated violently by her boyfriend, example phisically violent, verbally violent, and sexually violent. Her boyfriend also recorded and distributed their sexs video to social media. From this case, the author will be analysis the case of revenge porn into feminist and victimology theory. This research also uses the descriptive and qualitative methods by taking interview data from various sources, such as B as the victim, mother of B, the friends B, observers, and related institutions. In this cases, the authors also giving the reccomendations so that in the future, the similar cases will not be repetaed.
Little is known about the ways in which faculty members understand their role and responsibility in addressing sexual violence and how they engage in sexual violence education efforts. This qualitative study of 10 faculty members gives insight into how faculty members engage in efforts to address sexual violence. Their experiences demonstrate how neoliberalism shapes their ability to truly work toward eliminating sexual violence from campuses. Findings from this study are helpful in understanding how campus educators can move beyond limited definitions of sexual violence, center power in sexual violence education and prevention, and leverage faculty in these efforts.
Sexual harassment in the workplace is an overt form of sexism that helps reinscribe patriarchal power relations within the university. Despite the perception that many people are reporting their harassment in academia thanks to the MeToo movement (and that this constitutes an overreach), we found the problem largely unreported in our sample of faculty and staff at US universities. Little is known about what drives reporting and disclosure behaviors of faculty and staff within higher education institutions. The present study was designed to examine the factors that contribute to disclosing and reporting sexual harassment in academia, using a sample of (N=88) faculty and staff from higher education institutions who experienced some form of unwanted sexual attention at their workplace. Approximately 40% did not report or disclose to anyone, and among those who did disclose the harassment they overwhelmingly chose people outside the workplace. The most common reasons for not reporting or disclosing included not interpreting the event as serious enough to report, concerns of not being taken seriously, and thinking that nothing would be done. Regression analysis showed that experiencing electronic harassment, but not other forms of harassment, predicted reporting and disclosure. This finding reveals the stereotypes behind ‘the perfect victim’ are alive and well in the technological age, continuing to limit the ability of marginalized people (mostly women) to come forward with claims of harassment. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Sexual harassment in academia is often a hidden problem because victims are usually reluctant to report their experiences. Recently, a web survey was developed to provide an opportunity to share thousands of sexual harassment experiences in academia. Using an efficient approach, this study collected and investigated more than 2,000 sexual harassment experiences to better understand these unwanted advances in higher education. This paper utilized text mining to disclose hidden topics and explore their weight across three variables: harasser gender, institution type, and victim's field of study. We mapped the topics on five themes drawn from the sexual harassment literature and found that more than 50% of the topics were assigned to the unwanted sexual attention theme. Fourteen percent of the topics were in the gender harassment theme, in which insulting, sexist, or degrading comments or behavior was directed towards women. Five percent of the topics involved sexual coercion (a benefit is offered in exchange for sexual favors), 5% involved sex discrimination, and 7% of the topics discussed retaliation against the victim for reporting the harassment, or for simply not complying with the harasser. Findings highlight the power differential between faculty and students, and the toll on students when professors abuse their power. While some topics did differ based on type of institution, there were no differences between the topics based on gender of harasser or field of study. This research can be beneficial to researchers in further investigation of this paper's dataset, and to policymakers in improving existing policies to create a safe and supportive environment in academia.