Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global public health threat. One of the main drivers of this threat is the inappropriate use of antibiotics. In Sri Lanka, antibiotic consumption is increasing, but little is known locally about how patients perceive antibiotics. We conducted a qualitative study to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of patients regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Semi-structured interviews involving 18 patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) admitted to a large, public tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka were conducted. Interviews were analyzed to identify themes regarding the patients’ knowledge of LRTI etiology and treatment, perceptions and attitudes toward LRTI treatment, including antibiotics, and patient–physician communication. Most patients mentioned multiple care visits and the use of multiple pharmaceuticals prior to admission. Patients sought a quick resolution to their ailments and frequently visited several private physicians to obtain a satisfying answer. Self-medication was also common. Patients reused prescriptions for antibiotics, kept antibiotics for later use after prematurely stopping their course of treatment, and bought over-the-counter antibiotics. Patients’ knowledge of disease etiology and antibiotics was poor. Only a few patients were aware of antibiotic resistance. Despite the desire to receive more information regarding disease and treatment, patient–provider communication was limited and mainly confined to prescription instructions. This qualitative study performed in Sri Lanka suggests that inappropriate use of antibiotics is a multifactorial problem. To improve antibiotic use, a multifactorial approach that includes educating the public, increasing awareness among physicians, and implementing systems-level changes to restrict access to antibiotics is urgently needed.