Big data technology plays an important role in the prevention and control of public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Current studies on model construction, such as SIR infectious disease model, 4R crisis management model, etc., have put forward decision-making suggestions from different perspectives, which also provide a reference basis for the research in this paper. This paper ... [Show full abstract] conducts an exploratory study on the construction of a big data prevention and control model for public health emergencies by using the grounded theory, a qualitative research method, with literature, policies, and regulations as research samples, and makes a grounded analysis through three-level coding and saturation test. Main results are as follows: (1) The three elements of data layer, subject layer, and application layer play a prominent role in the digital prevention and control practice of epidemic in China and constitute the basic framework of the “DSA” model. (2) The “DSA” model integrates cross-industry, cross-region, and cross-domain epidemic data into one system framework, effectively solving the disadvantages of fragmentation caused by “information island”. (3) The “DSA” model analyzes the differences in information needs of different subjects during an outbreak and summarizes several collaborative approaches to promote resource sharing and cooperative governance. (4) The “DSA” model analyzes the specific application scenarios of big data technology in different stages of epidemic development, effectively responding to the disconnection between current technological development and realistic needs.