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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DOVE CAMPAIGN FOR REAL BEAUTY IN AFFECTING CUSTOMERS’ PURCHASE DECISION TOWARD DOVE PRODUCTS

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The emergence of social marketing campaign strategy has encouraged businesses to adopt it as their marketing strategy. However, although nowadays companies are continuously creating unique social marketing campaigns, many of them end up backfiring. Therefore, companies should create campaigns that are able to draw customers to participate and create purchase decisions. Dove brings a campaign that promotes women’s self-esteem through brand building and serves dual goals to make women feel more beautiful and sell more products, called Dove Campaign for Real Beauty. This study aims to analyze how the campaign affects customers’ purchase decisions toward the products. From the study, the factors in the campaign that affect customers’ purchase decisions toward the products will be identified. Finally, this study aims to develop marketing recommendations for the campaign to affect customers’ purchase decisions toward the products. This study uses semi-structured interviews and online survey methods to collect data and uses open coding and PLS-SEM to analyze the relationship between the variables. The results indicate that positive word-of-mouth significantly affects consumer-campaign (CC) identification, perceived cause-related marketing (CRM) motive significantly affects emotional attachment, and affective reaction, brand trust, and brand community significantly affect customers’ purchase decision through attitude toward the campaign, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. This study is expected to enhance marketer understandings of how the company could improve purchase decisions through social marketing campaign strategy.
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DOI 10.35631/AIJBES.39017
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ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
BUSINESS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMES
(AIJBES)
www.aijbes.com
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DOVE CAMPAIGN FOR REAL
BEAUTY IN AFFECTING CUSTOMERS’ PURCHASE DECISION
TOWARD DOVE PRODUCTS
Dita Indah Syaharani1*
1
School of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Email: dita_indah@sbm-itb.ac.id
*
Corresponding Author
Article Info:
Article history:
Received date: 27.06.2021
Revised date: 21.07.2021
Accepted date: 26.08.2021
Published date: 09.09.2021
To cite this document:
Syaharani, D. I. (2021). The
Effectiveness Of Dove Campaign For
Real Beauty In Affecting Customers’
Purchase Decision Toward Dove
Products. Advanced International
Journal of Business,
Entrepreneurship and SMEs, 3 (9),
244-264.
DOI: 10.35631/AIJBES.39017.
This work is licensed under CC BY 4.0
Introduction
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Dove is a well-known personal care brand that sells a variety of personal care products such as
soaps, body washes, and body lotions manufactured by the Unilever Corporation (Murray,
2013). According to The Brands (2020) ranking, Dove has been listed as one of the top brands
in 78 rankings worldwide since 2009. Other than that, based on the brand value ranking on
Statista (2020) shown on Figure 1.1, Dove is listed as one of the top brands with the 9th highest
brand value among the other personal care brands worldwide in the year of 2020. With these
achievements, it becomes reasonable that Dove is considered as one out of all the leading
personal care companies in the world (Millard, 2009). As a worldwide company, now Dove
products, with developing product lines varying from deodorants, body washes, hair care,
lotions, to facial care products, has been sold to 150 countries including Indonesia. In fact,
Unilever Indonesia, as the company owning Dove brand, became one of the “50 Asia Top
Performing Company” and was awarded as the No. 1 Unilever Company in Asia (Noeryani,
2008).
These successes certainly cannot be separated from the marketing strategies that Unilever has
conducted for its individual brands. Dove, besides having the competitive advantages of
running its brand under the parent brand of Unilever and high R&D spends for the product
development (Marketing91, 2020), has been known for its remarkable marketing strategies.
Other than the advertisements, sales promotion, event, public relations, online and social media
marketing of Dove, one of the most popular marketing strategies that Dove has conducted is
its social marketing campaigns that bring the issues of women’s beauty. On its official website,
Dove stated that they hold to the value that beauty is not merely one dimensional nor defined
by a woman’s shape, age, even size of her body or hair and skin’s colour. Rather than that,
beauty is how a person feels like they are in their best version. Dove also states that they would
like to encourage all women to reach their self potential by having them engaged with the
products that offer superior care for the consumers (dove.com). With these values that Dove is
trying to promote, Dove becomes one of the companies in the world that actively spreads
positivity towards women’s beauty through various social marketing campaigns.
On its official website, Dove stated that they hold to the value that beauty is not merely one
dimension. Through its company’s website, Dove shares all the campaigns they are
undergoing. On its website’s “Campaigns” sections, there are various names of campaigns with
different themes, namely #BeautyBias which is a film series that aim to dig into how the
standards and biases of 2 beauty could affect every aspect of people’s life, Dove Self-Esteem
Project with the missions to help women in the next generation realize their full potential and
to ensure that they are able to grow up with nurturing a positive connection with their
appearance, My Beauty My Say which features stories of women who stand up for the beauty
that they own, Dove Real Beauty Sketches which aims to help women reconsider their view of
their own beauty by involving artists in creating their face sketches, etc (dove.com). These
campaigns are mostly presented in the form of YouTube videos or advertisements. ional nor
defined by a woman’s shape, age, even size of her body or hair and skin’s colour. Rather than
that, beauty is how a person feels like they are in their best version. Dove also states that they
would like to encourage all women to reach their self potential by having them engaged with
the products that offer superior care for the consumers (dove.com). With these values that Dove
is trying to promote, Dove becomes one of the companies in the world that actively spreads
positivity towards women’s beauty through various social marketing campaigns.
All these campaigns are held under the main campaign of Dove called Dove Campaign for
Real Beauty, which is known as a campaign that promotes women’s self-esteem by generating
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awareness through campaigns and brings two main goals, which are to help women feel more
beautiful and to sell more products by Dove (Feng et al., 2019). The practice of this campaign
fits with the idea of social marketing, which is described as the use of commercial marketing
technologies to the process of analysing, planning, executing, and evaluating programs aimed
to affect the target audiences’ voluntary behaviours, hence improving the society’s personal
welfare (Andreasen, 2002). Dove Campaign for Real Beauty is constructed from the global
Dove’s 2003 research regarding “The Real Truth of Beauty” (Murray, 2013) and was initiated
in the year of 2004 to challenge the standards of American beauty by presenting ordinary
women who are not flawless or skinny and are able to represent a variety of races, sizes,
ethnicities, and ages. It turned out that over the decades, Dove has launched a number of new
categories within its campaign which also target new audiences, but all bring the same value
to be spread, that all women are beautiful (Prior, 2004) which could already be seen in the
previous figure. As a result of the campaign, Dove owned the Real Beauty’s brand equity,
hence without having to mention Dove products, sales could rise (Morel, 2009).
The emergence of social marketing campaign strategy similar to Dove Campaign for Real
Beauty discussed above, has encouraged various industries to adopt it as their marketing
strategy. However, as a response to the emergence of social marketing campaigns existing these
days, Arli & Dietrich (2017) argued that although more and more businesses were continuing
to create various social marketing campaigns that encourage audiences to share the messages
carried within the campaigns, many of them still ended up backfiring, such as receiving anger
and outrages from the audiences or experiencing backlash, decrease in sales, until product
boycotts by the customers. Therefore, as a way to prevent these campaign backfires, companies
need to ensure the effectiveness of the social marketing campaigns that are able to draw the
customers to participate. This participation can be in the form of likes, comments, and shares
for online campaigns, or word-of-mouth spread to the people around them. Il-Hyuna &
Zamrudi (2018) suggested that an overall understanding of the consumers are needed to help
the brands make effective and efficient campaigns that can also especially be led toward
specific motivation, which is to promote the expected behaviors of contribution, consumption,
or creation.
A social marketing campaign consists of stages which start from building awareness and
creating interest to get the attention and understanding of the audiences toward the messages,
changing attitudes and conditions of the stage to establish audiences’ positive intention and
attitude toward the messages delivered, and finally, motivating consumers in making purchase
decisions. Therefore, it can be concluded that social marketing campaigns aim to transform the
intention of the consumers into a real action, which is to make a decision to buy (Purba &
Mawardi, 2017).
Several campaigns are brought under the name of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty which
serves as the main campaign conducted by Dove. Each campaign has its own theme, purpose,
and program to deliver its purpose and attain its goal. Nowadays, even though Dove is already
one of the top brands of personal care brands worldwide (Millard, 2009), the market
competition in the beauty and personal care sector in Indonesia also keeps getting tighter
(Roesfitawati, 2017). Therefore, besides initially being created to spread the positivity about
women’s beauty as its purpose, the campaign must be done effectively and efficiently in order
for Dove to keep up and compete with other personal care brands. Ideally, the goal of these
campaigns should also be for companies to make a purchase decision, as the issues regarding
the behavior of purchasers in the market is considered a highly important and crucial
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component in the process of creating the modern business marketing strategy (Wiśniewska,
2005). And in order to make the purchase decision, Dove should understand what factors affect
customers’ purchase decisions towards the products.
During the past decades, there have been a number of social marketing campaigns that
eventually failed to affect the purchase decision of customers, which can be caused by the
wrong messages brought through the campaigns or because of other factors that eventually led
the company to backlash or decreasing financial performances. An example of a failed social
marketing campaign is Pepsi's campaign in 2017 which depicted the celebrity and model,
Kendall Jenner, participating in a street protest while lending a bottle of Pepsi to the police
officer. This campaign resulted in anger and outrages by the viewers due to the insensitivity of
how it trivializes the topic of racism and political activism arising those days (EZMarketing,
2019). Another campaign that is very famous for its failure is the New Coke Switch by Coca-
Cola which caused backlash from the customers, decrease in sales, until product boycotts
(Jones, et al., 2015). Dove, through its Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, had also experienced
a backfire from the body positive packaging in which they produced limited edition packaging
in different shapes to represent women's bodies. This campaign instead evoked negative
perceptions from the customers that they are forcing women to pick a bottle that only matches
their body shapes (Lally, 2020). Nevertheless, in the case of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty,
it has been discovered that overall, 76% of the viewers perceived the women in the ads as
beautiful and 68% described that the ads are able to make them think differently about the
brand (Russell, 2009). Therefore, Morel (2009) argued that the campaign turns out to be
effective in terms of the society and the brand. Through the campaign, Surdu also argued that
Dove has been able to achieve the objective of empowering women to be aware of their beauty
instead of targeting an unattainable standard. Dieny (2015) furthermore explained that through
the campaign, Dove was able to draw customers' emotions to generate brand equity and positive
response toward the company.
However, despite having been conducted for many years and was found to be able to increase
the awareness of customers about women’s beauty and generate positive responses from
customers, Dove Campaign for Real Beauty is still perceived by the audiences to have so much
controversy, from being called “hypocritical” until “sneaky”. Many critics are thrown to the
messages brought by the campaign advertisements, which caused the customers to feel doubtful
towards the Dove brand (Celebre & Denton, 2014). Negative responses have been given to its
advertisements, such as the three-second body wash advertisement released on October 2017
which showed black women lifting their shirts to reveal a white women and ended up making
Dove denounced for racism (Zed, 2019). With these controversies, it becomes reasonable that
Dove experienced a crisis on 2017 (Zed, 2019) and Dove Campaign for Real Beauty
advertisements are seen as nothing more than a marketing ploy to make profit for a greedy
company that cares more about pushing their products sales (Scott, 2013), hence this problem
needs to be solved since consumers might reject the legitimacy and trustworthiness of Dove
Campaign for Real Beauty (Celebre & Denton, 2014) and this may affect to the purchase
decision of the customers toward Dove products.
Therefore, this particular study is necessary to understand the perception of customers or
audiences regarding Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, specifically the campaign that is in the
form of advertisements, and how it finally affects their purchase decision. The advertisements
are chosen as the focus of this study since Dove Campaign for Real Beauty is mainly created
and brought to customers in the form of videos that are advertised in the media. The
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advertisements, as previously discussed, have also had some controversies and problems which
caused backlash to the company, hence strengthening the reason to focus on these
advertisements of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty in this study. This study then discovers the
effectiveness of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty in affecting customers’ purchase decisions
towards Dove products in order to help solve the problem discussed previously by
understanding the factors in Dove Campaign for Real Beauty that can positively affect the
customers' purchase decision. From the study, the factors that affect customers’ purchase
decisions are identified and finally, after the first and second steps are examined, the study can
provide marketing recommendations to be implemented on Dove Campaign for Real Beauty
to positively affect customers’ purchase decisions towards Dove products.
Literature Review
There are fourteen points that will be discussed in literature review, as follows.
Word of Mouth
Dove Campaign for Real Beauty is recognized as a movement that has inspired and results in
resulting in worldwide success through one of the most powerful forms of advertising, which
is word of mouth (Harris, 2020). Women began entering blogs willingly and conversing with
friends, neighbors, and teachers about the campaign (Morel, 2009). Word-of-mouth is defined
as “oral person to person communication between a receiver and a communicator whom the
receiver perceives as non-commercial, regarding a brand, a product or a service” (Arndt, 1967).
Similarly, Harrison-Walker (2001) then defined WOM as “informal, person-to-person
communication between a perceived non-commercial communicator and a receiver regarding
a brand, a product, an organization, or a service”. Based on previous studies, positive word of
mouth significantly influences consumer- campaign identification (Arli and Dietrich, 2017).
The study by Chiu and Tseng (2016) supports this statement with the findings that when
consumers perceive the presence of a positive word of mouth, they will have a higher level of
customer-community identification towards the community. In contrast, it has been found that
negative word of mouth from a campaign would negatively influence the consumer-campaign
identification, in which the consumers will less likely identify themselves with the company
(Arli and Dietrich, 2017).
Consumer-Campaign Identification
Dove Campaign for Real Beauty delivered advertisements that compelled people to rethink
their own perceptions of beauty by strongly connecting them with relatable individuals (Morel,
3009). Previously, study had shown that 76 percent of women wished the media portrayed
female beauty as more than just physical attractiveness and 85 percent agreed that every woman
has something about her that is beautiful (Mitchell, 2005). With the message brought by Dove
Campaign for Real Beauty, Dove is able to make women connected and identify themselves to
the discourse of the campaign (Goins, 2016). The concept of consumer-campaign identification
came from the concept of consumer- company identification in social identity theory which
defines identification as the perception of oneness with or belongingness to a group, involving
direct or vicarious experience of its successes and failures (Ashforth and Mael, 1989) and the
concept of organizational identification which Dutton, Dukerich, and Harquail (1994) defines
as the sense of connection between an individual and an organization. Consumer-company
identification itself is described as s a cognitive state of connection and proximity of consumers
to a company (Bhattacharya and Sen, 2003) or a cognitive state related to consumer closeness
and connection to a company or brand (Dutton, Dukerich, & Harquail, 1994). Prior study by
Chaudary and Ali (2016) has found that higher customer-company identification leads to better
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attitudes towards an organization or product. In this research, the consumer-company
identification is specified as consumer-campaign identification.
Perceived Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) Motive
Murray (2013) identified the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty as one form of cause-branding
effort, by utilizing the concept of "real beauty" in their marketing techniques to engage and
increase the customers, while disguising corporate strategy as a selfless cause (Breen, 2014).
It is also perceived as a revolutionary cause marketing campaign that encouraged women all
around the world to reconsider their perceptions of beauty (Morel, 2009). Cause-related
marketing (CRM) is defined as the general alliance between business and non-profit cause that
provide resources and funding to address social issues and business marketing objectives (Cui
et al., 2003). More specifically, Varadarajan and Menon (1988) described cause-related
marketing as “the process of formulating and implementing marketing activities that are
characterized by an offer from the firm to contribute a specified amount to a designated cause
when customers engage in revenue-providing exchanges that satisfy organizational and
individual objectives”. The consumers’ positive perceptions of motive for CRM campaigns
serves as an important antecedent of CRM effectiveness (Pertiwi and Balqiah, 2016).
The previous study by Dunn and Hoegg (2014) found that the perception that the consumer
and the brand shared the same or relatable experience will mediate the relationship between
fear and emotional brand attachment. Similarly, So, Parsons, and Yap (2013) found that
consumers’ favorable perceptions towards functional benefits and symbolical benefits which
include the brands’ values, meanings, and attributes, can result in emotional attachment
between the consumers and the brand. The study by Barreda, et al. (2020) supported these
findings by suggesting that affective relations that result in consumers’ commitment and
influence their perceptions should be constantly built to establish emotional connections with
the consumers. In this research, the consumers’ perception is specified as the perceived cause-
related marketing (CRM) motive of consumers towards Dove Campaign for Real Beauty.
Emotional Attachment
Dove Campaign for Real Beauty employs consumer-appealing tactics such as attaching
customers through emotional appeal to empower women to believe in its beauty. This fits the
argument that an advertising should not only inform the customers about the product, but it
should also attempt to establish an emotional connection with the customer (Morel, 2009).
Attachment is an emotion-laden target-specific bond between a person and a specific object
(Bowlby, 1979) and is also defined as a disposition to seek proximity and contact with another
individual who is the object of attachment (Bowlby, 1988). In the context of a brand, emotional
brand attachment is defined as the bond which connects a consumer to a brand characterized
by feelings of affection, connection and passion, in which affection represents consumers’
feelings of peace, love and friendliness towards a brand, connection describes the feelings of
being attached and bonded with a brand, while passion explains the feelings of consumers’
delight and captivation with a brand (Thomson et al., 2005).
Prior study by Mogaji and Danbury (2017) found that when a consumer can relate to an
advertisement, an emotional connection will be developed, hence affecting the attitude of the
consumers in which they want to engage and see what the brand of the advertisement offers.
In other words, the study suggested that an emotional attachment can enhance attitudinal
loyalty to the brand. The consistent result is also found by Sciulli, Bebko, and Bhagat (2017)
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that there is a positive relationship between the emotion aroused by an advertisement and the
attitudes toward the advertisement.
Affective Reaction
Dove is seen to be able to produce a stimulus in the form of a good campaign design and put it
correctly on Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, hence drawing customers’ attention and assisting
consumers in comprehending the message until it eventually results to the affective responses
and attitudes that Dove expects (Hardianto, 2019). According to Solomon et al. (2013), an
attitude consists of three components known as the ABC model of attitudes, namely affect (the
way a consumer feels about an attitude object), behaviour (the person’s intentions to do
something with regard to an attitude object), and cognition (the beliefs a consumer has about
an attitude object). In the context of advertisements, the attitude toward ads consists of two
dimensions, known as the cognitive dimension and emotional or affective reaction (Shimp,
1981). The affective component of attitude is defined as a person’s feelings or emotions about
the attitude object (Solomon et al., 2013) and affective reaction as the immediate emotional
response to the product or service that are usually resulted based on a whim (Lantos, 2011).
Wibisono (2017) stated that affective reaction has a positive relationship with the attitude
towards Tokopedia storytelling ads on Youtube. These findings are consistent with the study
by Machleit and Wilson (1988) that suggested the emotional feelings, which in this research
was described as having the same meaning with affective response, affects attitude toward the
advertisement.
Cognitive Evaluation
Morel (2009) argued that advertising now should no longer aim to only sell a product and all
ads need to have both a rational and emotional appeal, although one is almost always more
pervasive. Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, besides being known as a cause marketing, should
also be able to not only rely on emotional appeal, but re-establish itself as a quality brand by
delivering product quality messages that are wrapped in rational appeal. Solomon et al. (2013)
stated that an attitude consists of three components known as the ABC model of attitudes which
consists of affect (the way a consumer feels about an attitude object), behaviour (the person’s
intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object), and cognition (the beliefs a
consumer has about an attitude object). Similarly, Schiffman and Wisenblit (2015) presents a
tri-component attitude model which shows that attitude consists of three components, which
are cognitive, affective, and conative components. According to Schiffman and Wisenblit
(2015), the cognitive component of attitude consists of a person’s cognitions which is the
knowledge and perceptions of the features of an attitude object that the person acquired from
direct experience with the attitude object and information from various sources. The study by
Wibisono (2017) whose study shows that cognitive evaluation has a positive relationship with
the attitude toward the advertisement of Tokopedia on YouTube.
Brand Image
Dove Campaign for Real Beauty aims to empower women by promoting the idea of being
themselves and create new ways to perceive beauty, body image and self-esteem which fit their
brand image of simplicity, purity, and innocence (Zeid, 2010). Brand image is defined by
Hofstede et al. (2007) as a set of beliefs held about a specific brand and subjective perceptions
of associations. Image is able to create importance and help consumers gather information,
distinguish the brand, create reason to purchase, create constructive feelings, and provide basis
for brand extension (Aaker, 1991). Therefore, to sustain a brand image is considered as a
strategically important and essential part of a company’s marketing strategies (Roth, 1995). In
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prior study, it has been found that image congruence has a positive and significant relationship
with attitude towards advertisement (Paul and Bhakar, 2017). This is consistent with the study
by Maulina (2020) which verified that brand image has a positive effect on the attitude of the
consumers.
Brand Awareness
Regarding brand awareness, Dove was reported to be among the top of mind brands in the
shower gel, skin and body care segment (Pereira, 2014). According to Keller (1993), the
concept of brand awareness refers to a consumer’s ability to identify the brand under different
conditions and consists of brand recall and brand recognition performance. Macdonald and
O’Reilly et al. (2007) stated that brand awareness is critical to achieving broader strategic
objectives since consumers may feel better about the brand because of the effect triggered
through exposure inside the stadium. A number of previous studies have discussed the
relationship between brand awareness and attitude. The study by Biscaia, et al. (2013) found
that the awareness of sponsorship significantly influences the attitude toward the sponsorship
which will be the strongest predictor of purchase intentions. Jensen and Limbu (2016)
supported this finding with similar result that the awareness of social media presence is
positively associated with attitudes toward the social media campaign.
Brand Trust
Vivek, Beatty, and Morgan (2012) suggested that consumer (or potential customer)
participation on an online campaign may foster trust because people would believe that the
firm cares about them and has their best interests in the heart. In business context, trust can be
defined as a consumer's confident beliefs that he or she can rely on the seller to deliver promised
services, whereas a relational value can be defined as consumer's perceptions of the benefits
enjoyed versus the cost incurred in the maintenance of an ongoing exchange relationship
(Agustin and Singh, 2005). Chaudhuri and Holbrook (2001) defined brand trust as the
willingness of the average consumer to rely on the ability of the brand to perform its stated
function. The previous definitions imply that when consumers trust a brand, they are confident
that their desires will be met by the brand, instead of fearing the opposite (Ballester and
Aleman, 2005). Therefore, brand trust is considered as an important component in determining
an individual’s attitude in a business relationship, hence consequently, managers need to
recognize it as a key driver in the success of business transactions (Toufaily, Souiden, and
Ladhari, 2013). Chaudhuri and Holbrook (2001) stated that brand trust is positively related to
attitudinal loyalty and purchase loyalty. The result is consistent with the findings by
Hershberger (2017) which stated that there is a moderating effect of trust on attitudes toward
the advertisement and the study by Soh, Reid, and King (2009) which shows that consumer
trust is significantly and positively correlated with attitude toward advertisement.
Brand Community
Dove created a connection between women nationally and beyond borders, which was
predicted to drive the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty (Friedman, 2015). Casaló, Favián and
Guinalíu (2008) defined brand community is a group of people who share the same interest in
a particular brand or product. With the rise of mass media, these communities are spread and
reproduced very efficiently, which allows community members to possess a well-developed
sense of vast unmet fellow community members, to imagine them (Muniz and O’Guinn, 2001).
Thus, a brand community can exist everywhere, including virtually (Thompson and Sinha,
2008). The importance of brand communities are found as they represent a form of consumer
agency and represent an important information resource for consumers, and communal
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interaction provides wider social benefits to the members, often affectual, while brand
communities likewise provide these (Muniz and O’Guinn, 2001). In a previous study, Chiang,
Lo, and Wang (2017) has found that perceived social tie which represent a brand community
enhances attitude in the form of sharing, commenting, and creating behaviour related to social
media advertising
Attitude Toward the Campaign
The attitude towards the advertisement is defined as a predisposition to respond in a favourable
or unfavourable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure
occasion, and the determinants include the viewer’s attitude towards the advertiser, evaluations
of the ad execution itself, the mood evoked by the ad, and the degree to which the ad affects
viewers’ arousal levels (Solomon et al., 2013). Therefore, the attitude towards the
advertisement should be a useful predictor of consumers’ behavior towards a product or service
(Oskamp, 1997). In this research, attitude toward the advertisement is defined as the degree of
predisposition to which the customers respond either in favourable or unfavourable manner to
a campaign advertisement of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty.
There have been a number of studies discussing the relationship between attitude toward the
advertisement and attitude toward the brand. The first study was conducted by Shimp (1981),
which introduced the concept termed the attitude toward the advertisement approach and
showed that the attitude toward the advertisement is transferred to attitude toward the brand.
Brown and Stayman (1992) then suggested a significant relationship between ad attitude and a
number of important constructs including brand attitude. The study by Goldsmith, Lafferty,
and Newell (2000) supported these statements with the finding that attitude toward the ad
positively and directly relates to attitude toward the brand. Consistently, the same results that
attitude toward the advertisement has a positive relationship and significant effect on attitude
toward the brand are generated in the study by Friman (2010) and Sallam, Fahad, and
Algammash (2016).
Attitude Toward the Brand
Phelps and Hoy (1996) defined attitude toward brand as a predisposition to respond in a
favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular brand after the advertising stimulus has been
shown to the individual. Spears and Singh (2004) later defined attitude toward brand as a
relatively enduring, unidimensional summary evaluation of the brand that presumably
energizes behavior. Furthermore, brand attitude was conceived as unidimensional and treated
as a summary evaluation to distinguish it from the evaluation which is implicit in beliefs,
feelings, behaviors, and other components and expressions of attitudes. These definitions
support the argument that as the consumer is exposed to an advertisement, its influence can be
observed through consumer’s reactions such as his/her persuasion speech about the brand on
other people and his/her own behavior towards it (Wahid and Ahmed, 2011) and that there is a
strong positive relationship between attitude towards the advertisement and attitude towards
the brand which implies that a consumer who enjoyed or did not enjoy a particular
advertisement is likely to hold a favourable or unfavourable attitude towards the brand
advertised (Sicilia, Ruiz, and Reynolds, 2006).
Goldsmith, Lafferty, and Newell (2000) has found that attitude toward the brand positively and
directly relates to purchase intention, which is supported in the study by Wu and Lo (2009) that
found a significant and positive effect of core-brand attitude on consumers’ purchase intention.
Furthermore, other studies by Sallam, Fahad, and Algammash (2016), Lee, Lee, and Yang
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(2017), and Maknunah and Rachmat (2020) show consistent results that attitude toward the
brand has significant and positive effect on purchase intention.
Purchase Intention
Shah et al. (2012) defined purchase intention as a kind of decision-making that studies the
reason to buy a particular brand by consumer. Purchase intention is an element of a consumer’s
cognitive behaviour revealing the way an individual intends to purchase a specific brand (Su
and Huang, 2010), which consists of some processes starting from identifying problems,
searching for information, assessing alternatives, making the purchase, to post-purchase
behavior (Farr & Hollis, 1997). Purchase intention usually is related to the behavior,
perceptions and attitudes of consumers (Mirabi, 2015) and is considered an effective tool to
predict the buying process of consumers (Ghosh, 1990). Thus, purchase intention has been
regarded as one of the most significant sections in the business field (Xiao, Yang, and Iqbal,
2018). Prior study by Kim, Ferrin, and Rao (2008) found that a consumers’ intention to
purchase positively affects the purchase decision, which is supported in the study by Ariff
(2014) that discovered how purchase behavior is significantly affected by the purchase
intention of the products. Z., Suharyono, and Kumadji (2016) on the study about electronic
word of mouth, showed consistent result that purchase intention has a significant influence
toward purchasing decision, followed with the study by Rachbini (2018) and Harum,
Kusumawati, and Mawardi (2021) that also found positive impact and significant influence of
purchase intention on purchase decision of consumers.
Purchase Decision
Purchase decision is a consumer behaviour to make choices from two or more brand
alternatives through the decision process to reach a choice for the most preferred brand (Karimi,
Papamichail, and Holland, 2015). Kotler and Armstrong (2014) defined purchase decision as a
buyer's decision-making stage in which an individual decides to actually buy the product being
considered. Furthermore, it is explained that a purchase decision is the decision regarding a
brand to be purchased. Liang and Lai (2002) adopted the EKB model which divides consumer
decision processes into five stages, consisting of problem recognition, search for information,
evaluation of alternatives, choice, and outcome evaluation. And the sixth stage becomes the
transaction that occurs after the consumer has chosen the product. Similarly, Kotler et al. (2005)
divided the purchase decision process into five stages, which are need recognition, information
search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and post purchase behavior.
Conceptual Framework
The proposed conceptual framework is utilized and evaluated in a future study based on this
research. The conceptual model is checked using mixed method, qualitative methods using
semi-structured interview and quantitative methods by distributing questionnaires and
analyzed with statistical tests. After evaluating the previous study, this study generates 15 latent
variables and 52 indicators with the following conceptual framwork as follows.
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Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
H1: Positive word of mouth positively affects consumer-campaign identification.
H2: Negative word of mouth negatively affects consumer-campaign identification.
H3: Consumer-campaign identification significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H4: Perceived cause-related marketing motive significantly affects emotional attachment.
H5: Emotional attachment significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H6: Affective reaction significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H7: Cognitive evaluation significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H8: Brand image significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H9: Brand awareness significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H10: Brand trust significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H11: Brand community significantly affects attitude toward the campaign.
H12: Attitude toward the campaign significantly affects attitude toward the brand.
H13: Attitude toward the brand significantly affects purchase intention.
H14: Purchase intention significantly affects purchase decision.
Methodology
Qualitative Approach
Qualitative approach is used in this research to have initial information and deep insights
towards the issues being researched, which is used to generate the variables indicators that are
going to be measured and validated in the quantitative approach through survey. The qualitative
approach used in this research is a semi-structured interview which involves a series of open-
ended questions based on the topic areas the researcher wants to cover. For this research, the
respondents are women in Indonesia from any age who have watched the campaign video of
Dove Campaign for Real Beauty and have purchased Dove products and the interviewees are
asked about their perceptions and opinions about Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, the factors
influencing their perceptions and opinions toward the campaign, and how the campaign affect
their purchase decision towards Dove products. In the qualitative approach, this study uses
non-probability sampling, specifically purposive sampling and open coding is used in
analyzing the qualitative data of this research.
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Quantitative Approach
In this research, the quantitative approach is used to generate objective measurement and the
numerical data collected through the survey method, hence transformed to statistical data and
used to break down the problem. Survey method is the method used in this research and will
be done through questionnaire that contains a set of questions to record respondents' answers
(Sekaran & Bougie, 2003). The population of this research consists of women in Indonesia
from any age who have watched the campaign video of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty and
have purchased Dove products. This study collects a total of 250 survey responses as the data
to be analyzed. In this research, purposive sampling technique will be used for the survey.
Descriptive statistics is used to analyze quantitative data in this research to provide a summary
of the samples and measures done on a study (Sharma, Sohil). The researcher uses Partial Least
Square (PLS) to process the data in this study. The PLS-SEM includes assessments of
reliability test, validity test, collinearity test, structural path significance in bootstrapping,
coefficient of determination (R2) and stone-geisser test (Q2), f square effect size,, total indirect
and total effect, and mediating result.
Results
This research shows the respondent's response to some factors from Dove Campaign for Real
Beauty relating to customers’ decision in purchasing Dove products.
Table 1: Hypothesis Testing Result
Hypothesis
Structural Path
Original Sample
(O)
T-Values
P Value
Result
H1
Positive Word-of-
Mouth -> Consumer-
Campaign (CC)
Identification
0,530
8,435
0,000
Accepted
H2
Negative Word-of-
Mouth -> Consumer-
Campaign (CC)
Identification
0,121
2,573
0,010
Rejected
H3
Consumer-Campaign
(CC) Identification ->
Attitude Toward the
Campaign
-0,145
1,638
0,102
Rejected
H4
Perceived Cause-
Related Marketing
(CRM) -> Emotional
Attachment
0,495
7,970
0,000
Accepted
H5
Emotional Attachment
-> Attitude Toward the
Campaign
0,016
0,237
0,813
Rejected
H6
Affective Reaction ->
Attitude Toward the
Campaign
0,431
6,194
0,000
Accepted
H7
Cognitive Evaluation -
0,093
1,288
0,198
Rejected
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> Attitude Toward the
Campaign
H8
Brand Image ->
Attitude Toward the
Campaign
0,031
0,431
0,667
Rejected
H9
Brand Awareness ->
Attitude Toward the
Campaign
0,135
1,646
0,100
Rejected
H10
Brand Trust ->
Attitude Toward the
Campaign
0,254
3,295
0,001
Accepted
H11
Brand Community ->
Attitude Toward the
Campaign
0,140
2,576
0,010
Accepted
H12
Attitude Toward the
Campaign -> Attitude
Toward the Brand
0,690
13,876
0,000
Accepted
H13
Attitude Toward the
Brand -> Purchase
Intention
0,594
9,574
0,000
Accepted
H14
Purchase Intention ->
Purchase Decision
0,583
13,272
0,000
Accepted
Discussion
There are two informants for the interviews, which are two consumers of Dove products who
have watched the video of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty. Based on the interview results,
people’s opinion about the message shared on Dove Campaign for Real Beauty video varied
and showed positive responses. It is concluded that people like the message of Dove Campaign
for Real Beauty video. While for the dislikes about Dove Campaign for Real Beauty video, it
turns out that one of the dislikes is the absence of men in the campaign video. Based on the
interview result, it shows that people’s perception about Dove after watching Dove Campaign
for Real Beauty video is that Dove is an inclusive brand. It is found that watching Dove
Campaign for Real Beauty video influences them to purchase Dove products or to consider
purchasing Dove products. However, it is also found that besides the influence of the campaign
video, they also purchase Dove products because of the good quality.
For the questionnaire result, based on the hypothesis testing, there are eight hypothesis being
accepted and six hypothesis being rejected. It is found that positive word-of-mouth positively
affects consumer-campaign identification, negative word-of-mouth does not negatively affect
consumer-campaign identification, consumer-campaign identification does not significantly
affect attitude toward the campaign, perceived cause-related marketing (CRM) motive
significantly affects emotional attachment, emotional attachment does not significantly affect
attitude toward the campaign, affective reaction significantly affects attitude toward the
campaign, cognitive evaluation does not significantly affect attitude toward the campaign,
brand image does not significantly affect attitude toward the campaign, brand awareness does
not significantly affect attitude toward the campaign, brand trust significantly affects attitude
toward the campaign, brand community significantly affects attitude toward the campaign,
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attitude toward the campaign significantly affects attitude toward the brand, attitude toward the
brand significantly affects purchase intention, and purchase intention significantly affects
purchase decision.
After evaluating the questionnaire and interview result, it is found that Dove Campaign for
Real Beauty affect customers’ purchase decisions toward Dove products through a number of
variables. According to the result of PLS analysis, customers’ purchase decision toward Dove
products are affected by affective reaction, brand trust, and brand community through attitude
toward the campaign, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. These findings are also
consistent with the results obtained through interviews. It is proved that the affective reaction
and brand trust could significantly affect the customers’ attitude toward the campaign
positively, meaning that the better or higher the affective reaction and brand trust, the better
the attitude toward the campaign become. Similarly, an understanding and motivation to
participate in the brand community could significantly affect the customers’ attitude toward
the campaign. Attitude toward the campaign then can significantly affect the attitude toward
the brand, which can significantly affect purchase intention and consequently, the purchase
intention can significantly affect the purchase decisions toward Dove products. Those were
how Dove Campaign for Real Beauty affect customers’ purchase decisions toward Dove
products.
Conclusion
There are a number of factors in Dove Campaign for Real Beauty that affect customers’
purchase decisions toward Dove products, which are affective reaction, brand trust, and brand
community through attitude toward the campaign, attitude toward the brand, and purchase
intention. Therefore, there are some marketing recommendations to be implemented on Dove
Campaign for Real Beauty to affect customers’ purchase decisions toward Dove products,
which are to maintain spreading the message and awareness for the cause brought in Dove
Campaign for Real Beauty, to increase brand trust by delivering true, reliable, and honest
messages on the campaign, and to create a formal community of women who are willing to
support and spread the message of the campaign while creating a call-to-action message on the
campaign video that encourages the existing community to directly participate in the campaign.
However, this research is limited to women in Indonesia from all ages who have watched
campaign videos of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty and have purchased Dove products. And
the videos of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty studied in this research are limited to the “Dove
#RealBeauty Is Universal | Celebrate all types of beauty” and the “Dove Real Beauty Sketches”
campaign videos. The research is conducted for the period of time from April 2021 until July
2021. In reality, the viewers of Dove Campaign for Real Beauty are not only women, and the
users of Dove products also include men, specifically for the men's products since Dove is also
selling personal care products for men. Therefore, it is possible that the video of Dove
Campaign for Real Beauty is watched by men and consequently affect their purchase decision
toward Dove products. Therefore, for future research, it is suggested to include not only
women, but also men respondents. Furthermore, this research tried to find significant factors
in Dove Campaign for Real Beauty that can positively affect customers’ purchase decision
toward Dove products and had evaluated a number of variables, namely positive and negative
word-of-mouth, consumer-campaign identification, perceived CRM motive, emotional
attachment, affective reaction, cognitive evaluation, brand image, brand awareness, brand trust,
and brand community. However, not all of these variables evaluated become the factors that
positively affect customers’ purchase decision toward Dove products. Therefore, in future
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research, it is suggested to find other factors in Dove Campaign for Real Beauty that could
positively affect customers’ purchase decision toward Dove products.
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