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How Newton’s gravity gave us Big Bang

John-Erik Persson

john.erik.persson@gmail.com

Abstract

The Big Bang model is described as an illusion, with roots far back in Newton’s time. A too simple

gravity model is found to be the basic reason to the Big Bang absurdity.

Résumé

Le modèle Big Bang est décrit comme une illusion, dont les racines remontent loin à l'époque de

Newton. Un modèle de gravité trop simple s'avère être la raison fondamentale de l'absurdité du Big

Bang.

Newton’s model for gravity

Newton’s gravity model is a pure mathematical work, based on Kepler’s laws for planetary motion.

Newton’s model describes the effects of gravity, but does not explain the cause of gravity. However,

such an explanation was presented to Newton by his friend Fatio, but Newton said that a hypothesis

was not needed. This famous statement by Newton was a very important mistake, and caused great

confusion in physics. A confusion that has a clear manifestation in the absurd Big Bang cosmology,

stating that God’s week-long work was done in a fraction of a second.

An important test on Newton’s model is found in modern and advanced systems for satellite

navigation. These systems tell us that the field of gravity deviates from spherical form in a very short

distance from a celestial body. These small deviations appear to be related to deviations from spherical

symmetry in the form and density of the gravitating body. This fact indicates that Newton missed

something important, namely the fact that the field of gravity has spherical form only if the gravitating

body also has spherical symmetry. Since gravity produces approximate spherical bodies, Newton’s

mistake is difficult to see, but has now been revealed in advanced satellite navigation. However, these

relations mean that Newton’s law is just an approximation, and not a true description of gravity. So,

we can say that gravity is hiding its secrets behind a property of symmetry – and also by the fact that

gravity is a very weak force.

An improved version of Newton’s model

The gravity from a large body must be a sum of contributions from different parts of the body. We

therefore can split up a large body in small parts, and appley Newton’s law to each part. Then, we can

find the total effect by doing an integration over volume. This integral describes gravity in a way

independent of spherical form, and this means that this improved version can describe the observed

deviations from spherical symmetry in the field of gravity. This improved model of gravity is therefore

more general and more realistic, although also more complex and more difficult to use. The cause of

gravity is still not found.

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Fatio’s model describing gravity

This improved version has another advantage, in the fact that this model can be united with Fatio’s

model, based on an omnidirectional flow of very fast neutrino-like ether particles. To do this unification

we only have to assume that the flow of ether particles is attenuated by absorption, in proportion to

density, in each point in the gravitating body. This attenuation causes the flow of ether particles

moving away from the body to be reduced in relation to the flow in opposite direction. This reduction

will result in an ether wind in negative radial direction, that can cause an attractive force on another

body, since ether particles can deliver energy to matter, if they are absorbed. The absorbed ether

particles in the first body can also deliver energy to the first body and thereby cause a force in opposite

direction to the force on the second body. These 2 forces must be equal, since we have no more forces.

We get 2 forces in opposite directions. So, we have arrived at Fatio’s model and can explain gravity to

be quantized at a neutrino-like level – different from Planck’s quantization based on observations on

light detecting matter in the form of electrons from a photodetector. Therefore, Planck’s constant is

representing an electron property – and not Fatio’s neutrino-like quantization at a lower level.

Fatio’s neutrino-like ether particles seems to be extremely difficult to detect as individuals. (So,

perhaps they can explain the concepts dark matter and dark energy.) But they must nevertheless have

a finite mass in order to explain the transfer of gravity. However, an ether with mass should interact

with matter in both directions. Since matter generates a surrounding radial motion in the ether, we

can say that matter is entraining this ether motion, blowing in negative radial direction. We can also

suspect that this (falling) ether is the cause of gravity from a celestial body. But ether to matter

interaction should work in both directions. So, the ether is also entraining matter ‘by telling matter

how to move’. An ether wind different from zero (in relation to a body) can be assumed to cause an

acceleration proportional to ether wind squared, and a free-falling body becomes controlled by the

free-falling ether into the same state of motion as the ether. This explains why we see no gravity (or

ether wind) from distant celestial bodies, and this is also telling us that the radial ether wind is equal

to the escape velocity, since the free-falling body seems to be guided by the free-falling ether.

Gravity contributions from Sun and Moon are slightly different in different parts of our planet, and

different parts of our planet are therefore in slightly different states of motion. So, we can explain tides

by this effect. This small anomaly can be explained by Fatio’s model, but not with Newton’s original

(and approximate) model.

Another kind of anomaly is observed in solar eclipses. Gravity contribution from the Sun has to pass

through the Moon and is therefore slightly reduced. However, this effect is not real in the form of

gravity on Earth. Instead (according to the principle of equivalence) this effect is converted to planetary

motion. This means that a part of Earth (of a size defined by the Moon) is moved a very small amount

away from the Sun-Moon-system. So, the form of our planet is slightly changed, and this change should

be detectable in the beginning, and in the end, of the eclipse. This effect should be detectable in a long

pendulum at rest, during an eclipse in a low elevation angle. The reason is that the effect on

surrounding Earth is an average value in relation a point value in the pendulum. Newton’s model

cannot explain this anomaly. This anomaly is also a possible explanation to the fact that the distances

Earth to Moon and Earth to Sun are increasing a few centimeters each year.

The radial ether wind

The radial ether wind was found to be equal to the escape velocity, vE. This ether wind can also explain

the effect in GPS clocks provided by GRT. Instead of gravity potential affecting 1-way light speed for

light moving in all directions, we can use radial ether wind to change 2-way light speed for light in radial

direction only. (Observe that ether wind appears as squared in clock speed, indicating effect on 2-way

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light speed.) Since the ether wind affects light moving in radial direction, and gravity potential affects

light moving in all directions, this idea seems to be testable in light radial to Earth. An idea for such a

test is to use 2 HeNe lasers with high frequency stability connected with optical fiber over a length of

a couple of meters then compared in phase. This equipment1 should be mounted on an advanced

platform where direction of measurement could be changed in elevation and in azimuth. So, we should

try to detect a radial to Earth ether wind in 1-way light.

The dominating method for detecting ether wind has been Michelson-Morley’s tests, suggested by

Maxwell, and based on second order Sagnac effect in 2-way light. The method is based on 2 anti-

parallel forces in light moving between mirrors. Unfortunately, 2 anti-parallel forces are moving

between atoms in a crystal for controlling atomic separation. The searched effect, is therefore

compensated by physical contraction 2 times the FitzGerald contraction, and the method is useless.

The clock effect according to SRT can also be explained by ether wind from motion instead of by motion

itself. So, we get one model (ether wind) instead of 2 (SRT plus GRT). Observe also that ether wind

affects electron motion in 1 dimension of 2 in the electron’s orbit. So relative clock frequency becomes

1-v2/2c2. (Different from relative physical length equal to 1-v2/c2.) It is plausible to assume that an ether

wind transverse to the electron’s orbiting plane also has the same effect, but this idea is not addressed

here. This difference by a factor of 2 seems to have confused scientists.

The anomalies in gravity near Earth are not present at a range of 4.2 times radius of Earth, where GPS

satellites are. So, we can assume a very good spherical symmetry in the field of gravity from Earth as

well as in the GPS system, and this can be united with the very high precision in the system, and also

united with the hypothesis that the ether wind is the cause of gravity. Gravity anomalies in the

receivers are essentially the same radial errors for all satellites and not important.

The radial ether wind from the Sun can give us an explanation to the Pioneer anomaly, since 2-way

light speed becomes increasing with range. This increase can simulate a decrease in the speed of the

space station, and the anomaly can be a measurement error, due to changed light speed. This idea is

in agreement to observations – as easily can be found by a simple calculation.

The radial ether wind can also explain light bending near the Sun without faking mass into light. Instead

of one bending towards the Sun, we get bending in two positions1. First, we get one bending away

from the Sun, and later we get one bending towards the Sun. The second bending is back to the original

direction, but a small remaining positional error is observable from Earth. These phenomena are very

roughly estimated to be in line with observations, but not calculated in detail here, since these

calculations seem to be complex. This explanation means that we do not need to fake mass into light.

The radial ether wind means that gravity can be explained as a force, proportional to ether wind

squared.

The bending of light near our sun can also be explained by a changed refractive index in the plasma

near Sun. Observations done by NASA indicate plausibility for this interpretation, although it is difficult

to decide where the corona ends. So, we have 2 possible explanations (not excluding each other).

The radial ether wind can also explain the cosmological red shift as a second order Doppler effect,

produced when light from a celestial body is produced inside an ether wind equal to the escape

velocity, vE. When source and observer have the same speed in relation to the ether, the first order

terms in the Doppler effect add up to zero and we get second order Doppler effect from 1-way light.

Therefore, we almost never see cosmological blue shifts; Big Bang is an illusion caused by a radial ether

wind equal to the escape velocity. The fact that we have a very few examples with very small blue

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shifts does not disprove this idea. This fact can be explained by the possibility for a small and fast object

to have a blue shift due to motion larger than the red shift due to radial ether wind.

The radial ether wind and Big Bang

If the radial ether wind is β=vE/c in relation to source as well as to observer we get a blue shift when

light is generated and red shift when light is observed. So, the total Doppler effect becomes:

f’=f(1+β)(1-β)=f(1-β2)

Therefore, in this special case we get a second order effect in 1-way light. So, if all celestial objects are

in the same state of motion, we will observe a red shift equal to vE2/c2. This redshift is telling us the

escape velocity. The escape velocity of our sun is about 2·10-3·c. Therefore, we should expect a red

shift of 4·10-6 in light from our sun.

Summary

Newton preferred a mathematical description, and abolished a physical explanation. He did not see

that production of spherical form in the field of gravity demanded spherical form in the gravitating

body. So, his model needed an improvement to explain this dependency. The mistake of not observing

this had the effect that he could not see how his mathematics could be united with Fatio’s physical

mechanism, and he also missed how Fatio explained a radial ether wind. This ether wind has the

possibility to explain gravity and also to explain the cosmological red shift.

This radial ether wind is found to be equal to the escape velocity, vE. If a celestial object is observed by

an observer, in the same state of motion as the object, the radial ether wind, vE, causes red shift equal

to vE2/c2. So, we get a second order Doppler effect from 1-way light.

Conclusion

The absurd cosmological model, called Big Bang, of today, has its roots in Newton’s famous

statement: ‘I do not need any hypothesis’. This mistake has caused much confusion in physics. This is

an example on how a great scientist, with a very good reputation, easily can find acceptance for an

idea that is wrong.

Reference

1J E Persson, PHYSICS ESSAYS 23, 4 (2010)