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We present a recommendation system to help rebuild sustainable production systems. Our multi-objective system synergizes the public and private actors of a territory. From know-how proximities in the Product Space, we suggest productive jumps for companies in a territory that consider the expectations of companies not only in terms of diversification but also in terms of the expectations of local authorities who are anxious to build sustainable production systems. We formalize a multi-stakeholder recommendation that is applied to the sustainability of a territorial economy and we propose the following new objectives to consider: (i) Economic growth, based on the concept of territorial economic complexity ; (ii) Productive resilience, defined rigorously from the theory of dynamic systems; (iii) Food security and more generally basic necessities from an original approach based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs; (iv) The need to develop greener productions that respect the environment. The recommendation system that we propose incorporates territorial policy as a weighting of objectives. This "configuration" acts directly on the system to influence the recommended productive jumps. Each objective is defined to be computed directly from open data available for most countries without requiring external data.
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Multiobjective recommendation for sustainable production systems
versité Clermont-Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut Pascal, France
We present a recommendation system to help rebuild sustainable production
systems. Our multi-objective system synergizes the public and private actors
of a territory. From know-how proximities in the Product Space, we suggest
productive jumps for companies in a territory that consider the expectations
of companies not only in terms of diversication but also in terms of the
expectations of local authorities who are anxious to build sustainable pro-
duction systems. We formalize a multi-stakeholder recommendation that
is applied to the sustainability of a territorial economy and we propose the
following new objectives to consider:
Economic growth, based on the concept of territorial economic com-
Productive resilience, dened rigorously from the theory of dynamic
Food security and more generally basic necessities from an original
approach based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs;
The need to develop greener productions that respect the environ-
The recommendation system that we propose incorporates territorial policy
as a weighting of objectives. This "conguration" acts directly on the system
to inuence the recommended productive jumps. Each objective is dened
to be computed directly from open data available for most countries without
requiring external data.
CCS Concepts:
Applied computing Supply chain management
Information systems Recommender systems.
Additional Key Words and Phrases: Multi-Objective Recommender Systems,
Supply-chain resilience, Sustainable production system
The Covid 19 crisis has shown the fragility of our European produc-
tion systems. Years of externalizations have damaged our productive
capacity. However, a general awareness has emerged following the
crisis, and the public and private sector are now ready to collabo-
rate to rebuild a sustainable production system. Financial support
programs have been deployed to help companies relocate their pro-
duction or reinforce their existing activities.
At the same time, companies have understood the importance of
securing their supplies through local production units. This oers
new business opportunities to suppliers to develop their production
towards new products to overcome shortages. To support this eort,
we imagined a recommender system whose goal is to suggest the de-
velopment of new products to companies to ensure their commercial
development, while taking into account territorial policies.
We will start by presenting the area of recommendation. Then,
after describing the previous work in relation to the eld of industry,
Copyright 2021 for this paper by its authors. Use permitted under Creative Commons
License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Presented at the MORS workshop held in conjunction with the 15th ACM Conference
on Recommender Systems (RecSys), 2021, in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Authors’ address: Arnault Pachot,; Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi,; Benjamin Albouy-Kissi,; Frédéric
Chausse,, Université Clermont-Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Cler-
mont, Institut Pascal, , Clermont-Ferrand, France, F-63000.
we will introduce the public and private stakeholders. We will then
detail how our multi-objective recommendation system works and
we will present a rst experimentation on a French territory.
Recommendation systems are very successful in many areas. There
are two types of these systems: content-based and collaborative
]. Several recommendation systems are derived from the
two main types, and it is usual to combine them before generating
the list of recommended objects[10].
2.1 Multi-objective recommendation
Traditionally, recommendation systems are oriented towards the
end-user and seek to optimize a single cost function. However,
recommendation methods can be multi-objective when they aim to
optimize several objectives. For example, by integrating diversity
and novelty in the proposed products[
]. Other uses
concern the consideration of price in recommended products[
Recommendation systems that seek to improve the fairness of results
are also multi-objective recommendation systems[
]. The
diculty is to take into account each objective without signicantly
degrading the accuracy on the main objective.
Several approaches to this problem exist. The rst approach draws
its foundations from multi-objective optimization and seeks to opti-
mize all of the objectives at the same time. This approach is based
on Pareto concepts and the associated algorithms are of the evolu-
tionary type[13, 17, 35, 41, 55, 57].
The second approach considers multi-objectives as a hybridiza-
tion of methods in which the combination of results can be done in
]: an objective renes the result of a previous objective
(re-ranking), or mixing[
]. The multi-objective recommendation
is then considered as a weighted hybridization of mono-objective
2.2 Multistakeholder recommendation
Multistakeholder recommendation systems[
] are derived
from multi-sided platforms[
] and reciprocal recommendation
systems. The latter require us to take each stakeholder into account
independently because their strategies, and therefore their objec-
tives, are dierent.
2.3 Recommendation in the field of industry
Pachot et al
. [43]
have developed a recommendation system to
recommend collaborative synergies between companies in the same
territory based on the semantic analysis of product nomenclatures
to nd the productive link that exists (for example) between seed,
wheat, our and bread. A distribution of products in a vector space
allows us to make recommendations.
The recommendations can be similar to client-supplier or co-
production relationships. To improve the industrial resilience of a
, Vol. 1, No. 1, Article . Publication date: September 2021.
2Arnault Pachot, Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi, Benjamin Albouy-Kissi, and Frédéric Chausse
territory, it is appropriate to develop distributed manufacturing by
encouraging the companies of a territory to work with each other.
The recommendation system integrates an alternative operation
when no potential supplier is present on a territory, which suggests
that suppliers are able to make "productive jumps" to produce the
required goods. These productive jumps are made possible by the
productive relationship between the classes of products. This relies
on the data of productive proximity from the Product Space[27].
The modeling of the companies’ productions is based on a sta-
tistical analysis of the productions associated with their economic
activity code. A rst experiment was carried out on French compa-
We also nd recommendation systems dedicated to the supply
chain, specically for distribution[
] or to promote the use of
waste in the context of industrial symbiosis[54].
To our knowledge, no study has aimed at the construction of a
multi-objective recommendation system in the eld of industrial
production, and in particular with the aim of favoring the construc-
tion of sustainable production systems.
3.1 Companies
Companies produce manufactured goods or raw materials. Their
production units are located on a territory and carry out an economic
activity. Firms collaborate with each other within a territory, or
import goods or raw materials from other territories or countries.
Companies follow a commercial strategy that not only encour-
ages them to develop their commercial portfolio by seeking new
customers but also encourages them to diversify their production by
favoring the production of goods that give them a better competitive
advantage. At the same time, they seek to secure their supplies by
diversifying their suppliers and giving preference to local suppliers.
For several years, companies have also been encouraged to improve
their social and environmental impact.
3.2 Local authorities
Building a sustainable ecosystem requires active collaboration be-
tween the private and public sectors. We would like to integrate
local authorities into our recommendation system, which through
their nancial aid, taxation or thanks to their teams on the ground
have a certain number of levers to help build such ecosystems.
The territorial policy that is associated with local authorities is
dened by several objectives related to economic growth, food secu-
rity, industrial resilience, and environmental aspects. We consider
territorial policy as a "conguration" of the recommendation system
in which local authorities indicate their priorities on each of the
We design a recommendation system for the companies of a terri-
tory, whose object is the recommendation of new products to be
developed. These production units have a know-how that oers
them the possibility to make "productive jumps"; that is, to move
from the production of one kind of product to another when the
"proximity of know-how" between the two products is relatively
There is naturally a propensity for companies to adapt their of-
fer to seize new commercial opportunities, but we propose to set
up a recommendation system that also takes into account territo-
rial policy. As mentioned earlier, the territorial policy consists in
weighing the dierent objectives of the referral system. The public
authorities thus have the possibility of inuencing the functioning
of the system by choosing the objectives that are most important to
them. Let
{𝑎1, 𝑎2, . . . , 𝑎𝑛}
be the list of algorithms associated with
each objective. The territorial policy
on the territory
is dened
as follows:
P(𝜏)={𝑤𝑎0, 𝑤𝑎1, . . . ,𝑤 𝑎𝑛}(1)
We start by listing the achievable production jumps for a pro-
duction unit that correspond to the rst objective for companies:
diversifying their production. To do this, we rst calculate the cur-
rent production associated with each production unit. In this task,
we rely on a correspondence table that makes the link between the
economic activity code of the production unit and the associated
production (product codes in the HS nomenclature).
We then directly use the Product Space developed by the Growth
Lab of Harvard University[
] to identify the opportunities for
productive jumps for each of the products that the production unit
manufactures. The Product Space is a graph of products in which
each node corresponds to a product class (from the HS classication)
and the weighting of the edges corresponds to the proximity of
know-how between two product classes. For a given production unit
, we obtain a list of new products
{𝑥0, 𝑥1, . . . , 𝑥 𝑛}
, which are
ranked in descending order with respect to the level of productive
relatedness. We choose an additional objective for companies that
consists in increasing the competitive advantage and four objectives
for territorial authorities that make sense with the development of
sustainable systems[
]. They take into account economic aspects,
resilience, security of basic goods and environment:
Economic growth: we integrate the objective of developing
the economic growth of the territory. This is a wealth cre-
ator, and is essential to ensure economic prosperity and job
creation. To identify the products that are the most eective
in creating economic growth, we will take into account their
level of economic complexity, which is a measure that has
been shown to be highly correlated.
Productive resilience: we integrate an objective to improve
the level of resilience of a territory. Given the fragility of our
production systems, which have been damaged by various
economic or health crises, we absolutely must build more
robust production systems. We are going to integrate a theo-
retical measure of resilience of a territory.
Securing basic necessities: we also want to give the possibility
to favor the basic necessities (e.g., food and pharmaceuticals)
over other products. To do so, we have followed an origi-
nal approach inspired by Maslow’s hierarchy to distinguish
"vital" products.
Green production: nally, we take into account the environ-
mental dimension of production, aware of the importance of
, Vol. 1, No. 1, Article . Publication date: September 2021.
Multiobjective recommendation for sustainable production systems 3
Table 1. Stakeholders in the recommender system
Stakeholders Strategies Objectives Function
Companies Business strategy Diversication 𝑎1
Competitive advantage 𝑎2
Local authorities Territorial policy Economic growth 𝑎3
Productive resilience 𝑎4
Securing basic necessities 𝑎5
Green production 𝑎6
repositioning production systems towards the production of
greener goods.
We present below the technical details of the measurement of
each of these objectives. We perform a weighted hybridization[
from the dierent objectives to re-rank the list A.
For each production unit
we compute the scores
𝑝𝑎2(𝑥𝑖|𝑢), . . . , ˆ
of each product
𝑥𝑖∈ A
for each algorithm
{𝑎1, 𝑎2, . . . , 𝑎𝑛}
. All scores must be normalized. Then we perform a
weighted sum of each score to obtain a nal score for each product:
𝑝𝑎𝑗(𝑥𝑖|𝑢) × 𝑤𝑎𝑗(2)
4.1 Objective 1: Diversify production
Our system makes a recommendation of productive jumps, which
are repositioning or industrial diversication opportunities for com-
panies. As presented in Pachot et al
. [43]
, the Product Space de-
veloped by Hausmann and Klinger
provides a model to make
To make the correspondence between a production unit and the
products it manufactures, we use a correspondence table
. The pro-
ductive proximity between product classes is based on the study of
country co-exports. From a large-scale analysis of the types of prod-
ucts exported by country, Hidalgo et al
. [27]
computed the proximity
of productive know-how (called "productive kinship") between each
type of product and construct a graph of the productive space.
The measurement of the productive proximity between each
product is done by looking for the percentage of times that product
𝑝1is co-exported with product 𝑝2:
𝜙𝑝1,𝑝2=𝑚𝑖𝑛 Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝1𝑀𝑐𝑝 2
Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝1Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝 1𝑀𝑐𝑝2
We consider that a product
is exported by a country
when it
grants the country a revealed competitive advantage (RCA) accord-
ing to the formula of Balassa
. Let
be the exports of product
by country
, then the revealed competitive advantage that country
𝑐has for product 𝑝can be expressed as a function of exports:
RCAcp =
Í𝑐,𝑝 𝐶𝑐𝑝
There are several correspondence tables according to the nomenclatures used
for the classes of economic activities. For example, for the USA, ISIC-HS
(cations/Econ) or NAF-CPF, equivalent to NACE-
CPA for Europe ( See Pachot et al
. [43]
for details
We consider that a country
exports a product
greater than 1.
𝑀𝑐𝑝 =1𝑖 𝑓 RCAcp 1;
0𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒 (5)
From the data of productive proximity available in open data[
we build a function
that for each production unit
will asso-
ciate a list
of products and their associated scores of productive
4.2 Objective 2: Increase the competitive advantage
Now we need to consider the commercial interest for each rm.
Some products are more advantageous for a production unit than
others and we have the
formula to allow us to rank the pro-
ductive opportunities according to the competitive advantage that
they would grant to the production unit.
We use a modied version of
applied to the products of
a sub-national territory. We compare the share of an activity in
a territory with the share of that activity on a global scale. This
prevents the more developed regions of a country from appearing
to have a comparative advantage in each product[9, 45]:
𝑐𝑝 =
𝑋𝑙𝑜𝑐 𝑎𝑙
𝑐𝑝 /𝑋𝑙𝑜𝑐 𝑎𝑙
𝑝/𝑋𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑙 𝑑 (6)
We dene a function
𝑎2(𝑢, 𝜏 )
, which for each production unit
of a territory
will associate a list of products
∈ A
and their
associated score of RCA.
4.3 Objective 3: Improve economic performance
Several studies have conrmed the strong relationship between a
country’s economic complexity and its growth rate: regions spe-
cializing in the manufacture of more complex products experience
faster economic growth[
]. Therefore, we choose to use the
economic complexity indicator (ECI) as a target to improve the
growth of a territory.
The calculation of economic complexity presented by Hausmann
et al
. [24]
is based on two measures: productive diversity and ubiq-
uity. Diversity illustrates the variety of dierent products exported
by a country. Ubiquity is an indication of the number of countries
that export the same product. Let
be a matrix of products ex-
ported by country, such that
𝑀𝑐𝑝 =
1if country
exports product
Diversity :𝑘𝑐,0=Í𝑝𝑀𝑐𝑝
Ubiquity :𝑘𝑝,0=Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝 (7)
, Vol. 1, No. 1, Article . Publication date: September 2021.
4Arnault Pachot, Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi, Benjamin Albouy-Kissi, and Frédéric Chausse
From the measures of diversity
and ubiquity
, we can
recursively dene the variables
corresponding to the
average ubiquity and diversity of products exported by a country
𝑘𝑐,𝑁 =1
𝑘𝑐,0Í𝑝𝑀𝑐𝑝 . 𝑘𝑝 ,𝑁 1
𝑘𝑝,𝑁 =1
𝑘𝑝,0Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝 . 𝑘𝑐,𝑁 1(8)
We wish to express
as a function of
. To do this, we replace
𝑘𝑝,𝑁 1by 1
𝑘𝑝,0Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝 . 𝑘𝑐,𝑁 2and then simplify the equation:
𝑘𝑐,𝑁 =1
𝑘𝑐,0Í𝑝𝑀𝑐𝑝 1
𝑘𝑝,0Í𝑐𝑀𝑐𝑝. 𝑘𝑐,𝑁 2
=Í𝑐𝑘𝑐,𝑁 2Í𝑝
We consider the matrix
as a weighted (and normalized)
diversication similarity matrix. This matrix reects the extent
to which the types of products exported from two countries are
Let us rewrite the equation:
𝑘𝑐,𝑁 =Õ
𝑀𝑐,𝑐. 𝑘𝑐,𝑁 2(11)
We note that
𝑘𝑐,𝑁 =𝑘𝑐, 𝑁 2=
1satises this equation when the
eigenvector of
is associated with the largest eigenvalue. Since
this eigenvector is a vector composed only of 1, it does not contain
any information. Therefore, it is better to look at the eigenvector
that is associated with the second largest eigenvalue. This is the
eigenvector that captures the most variance in the system and is
therefore a relevant measure of economic complexity. We denote
as the i-th eigenvector of
𝑀𝑐,𝑐, ordered in a decreasing order[22]:
The economic complexity index
] is obtained by normal-
izing the eigenvector of
associated with its second largest
corresponds to the mean of
𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑒𝑣 (®
to its standard deviation.
𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑒𝑣 (®
In the same way, the complexity of a product (PCI) is dened by
the following formula, with
the eigenvector of
on the same principle as
, but exchanging the
countries with
the 𝑝products:
𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑒𝑣 (®
We now wish to calculate the economic complexity of a sub-
national territory. We must use a modied version of the equation
13, which combines PCIs calculated using international trade data
with local data:
ECI𝑙 𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝑀𝑙𝑜𝑐 𝑎𝑙
𝑐𝑝 PCI 𝑝(15)
𝑀𝑙𝑜𝑐 𝑎𝑙
is calculated in the same way as equation 5 but
using RCA𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝑐𝑝 instead of RCA𝑐𝑝 :
𝑀𝑙𝑜𝑐 𝑎𝑙
𝑐𝑝 =1𝑠𝑖 RCA𝑙𝑜 𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝑐𝑝 1;
0𝑒𝑙𝑠𝑒 (16)
A pre-calculated table with the complexities associated with each
Harmonized System (HS) product class is available in open data
We choose to retain the values for the latest available year (i.e.,
We dene a function
, which for each production unit
associate a list of products
∈ A
and their associated score of
ranked in decreasing order.
4.4 Objective 4: Improve the resilience of the production
Resilience is dened as the ability to recover quickly after a disrup-
tive shock. For a production system, this corresponds to the ability
of a system to quickly recover its production level or a higher level.
To measure the resilience indicator of a territorial production sys-
tem, we start from an approach derived from the theory of dynamic
]. In particular, the studies of Kharrazi
, Kharrazi
et al
. [33
focus on the denition of a theoretical resilience in-
dicator built from the analysis of imports, while the exports of a
territory are of particular interest to us. The theoretical resilience
of a dynamic system is proposed based on two measures: eciency
and redundancy. Kharrazi et al
. [34]
have conducted a study on
the behavior of the production systems of countries between 1996
and 2012, including the economic crisis of 2009, conrming the
relevance of the theoretical indicator of resilience. The measure of
a territory’s eciency (also called ascendancy) can be considered
as the degree of articulation or constraint of ows in a production
]. The more specialized a system is, the more optimized
its connections are, the more ecient it is, and the less resilient it
is. The theoretical measure of eciency is as follows:
Eciency =Õ
𝑖, 𝑗
log 𝑇𝑖𝑗 𝑇..
is a product export value from country
to country
𝑇𝑖. =Í𝑗𝑇𝑖𝑗
is the total exports leaving country
𝑇.𝑗 =Í𝑖𝑇𝑖 𝑗
is the
total imports entering country
𝑇.. =Í𝑖 𝑗 𝑇𝑖 𝑗
is the sum of all
exports in the system [21].
Conversely, a redundant system has many connections, and will
therefore be "more exible in re-rooting its ows and maintaining
critical functions"[
]. Redundancy can be dened as the "degree
of freedom or overhead of ows in a network"[
]. It is measured
from the conditional entropy:
Redundancy =Õ
𝑖, 𝑗
𝑖 𝑗
, Vol. 1, No. 1, Article . Publication date: September 2021.
Multiobjective recommendation for sustainable production systems 5
From the eciency and redundancy measures of a system, we
can then measure the theoretical resilience level:
𝛼=Eciency/(Eciency +Redundancy)
Resilience =𝛼log(𝛼)(19)
We seek to recommend new products to be developed to com-
panies in a territory that can help to improve the resilience score.
We compute the contribution of a each product
to the resilience.
We dene a function
which for each production unit
associate a list of products
∈ A
and their associated score of their
contribution to the resilience of the territory.
4.5 Objective 5: Secure the production of essential goods
We consider that products can be ordered according to their contri-
bution to the needs of individuals. To do so, we propose an approach
based on the hierarchy of needs of Maslow [37].
provides a table of correspondence between the
categories of needs of Maslow’s pyramid and the categories of prod-
ucts in the CPC nomenclature. All of the indirect products that are
necessary for the production of the goods of each category are also
We weight each product inversely to its corresponding level in
Maslow’s pyramid and we obtain a function
, which for each
production unit
will associate a list of products
∈ A
and their
associated score of their contribution to the needs.
Objective 6: Promote the production of environmental
We want the recommendation system to take the environmental
impact of products into account. As a priority, we propose the pro-
ductive jumps towards products with a lower environmental impact.
Several studies have been carried out to integrate this dimension
into the Product Space [19, 23, 28, 39, 44].
Initiatives exist to list green products[
]. We retain the list
provided by APEC
, which is dened as products "that directly and
positively contribute to green growth and sustainable development
be the list of green products, we dene a function
which for each production unit
will associate a list of products
𝑥∈ A
and an associated score
such that if
𝑥∈ G
We tested the recommender system using open data on French com-
panies: production units, import and export amounts by French de-
partment and by product class. We made available the pre-calculated
rankings associated with each objective, as well as a rst experi-
mentation on a French department4.
APEC List of Environmental Goods:
4 for-sustainable-
5.1 Datasets
We relied on the SIRENE
dataset that is available history of French
production units since 1973. It provides information for every com-
pany, relating them to their connected production unit, their NACE
economic sector, their workforce group, and their postal address.
We choose the HS nomenclature limited to 4 digits as the reference
nomenclature for the products. By resorting to a combination of
correspondence tables between activities and products (NACE
CPAHS)6, we associate each NACE class with HS classes.
We use datasets from global trade[
], as well as local datasets
from each French department
. These datasets provide us for a given
territory or country, the amount of exports of each product class,
for each country or french department. We use the year 2019 and
convert the French data (French CPF nomenclature) into the HS
5.2 Recommender System
We retrieve the list of production units on a territory. From their
activity code, our system is able to determine which product classes
are manufactured by this production unit. We then use a proximity
table between the product classes to determine which products are
the closest in the sense of know-how. These products represent the
potential production jumps.
At each productive jump we compute a global score from the
weighted average of 6 pre-computed rankings, associated to the 6
objectives of our recommendation system. We then propose a list of 5
classes of products whose productive jump has obtained the highest
score. You will nd in table 2 an example of recommendation for a
production unit located in Haute-Loire in France, that manufactures
parts and accessories for motor vehicles.
The expectations of the dierent actors in a territory often come
up against the complexity of the production systems. Stakeholders
whose strategies are sometimes opposed can nd a solution in a
recommendation system that takes their objectives into account.
We explored the elds of recommendation, information theory and
economics to nd objectives that can be integrated, and we formal-
ized a rst version of a multi-objective recommendation system.
We will continue our work by validating the system on a territory.
We also consider a Pareto-ecient hybridization to guide the local
authorities in setting the weights of the system.
2014. The Stringency of Environmental Regulations and Trade in Environmental
Goods. OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers 2014/03.
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statistiques/chier/2399243/Nomenclatures_NAF_et_CPF_Reedition_2020.pdf) to ob-
tain a NACE 2 to CPF 2.1 CSV le. NACE is obtained from NAF code by remov-
ing the last letter. CPF and CPA are identical in version 2.1. Matching between
CPA 2.1 and HS 2017 is done using the CPA 2.1 to NC 2017 correspondence ta-
ble ( be-
cause HS code equivalent to the sixth rst digits of the related NC code.
du-commerce- exterieur/
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6Arnault Pachot, Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi, Benjamin Albouy-Kissi, and Frédéric Chausse
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Code Description Score 𝑎1𝑎2𝑎3𝑎4𝑎5𝑎6
HS8406 Turbines; steam and other vapour turbines 3.76 0.61 0.001 0.74 0.41 1 1
Industrial or laboratory electric furnaces and ovens (in-
cluding those functioning by induction or dielectric
loss); other industrial or laboratory equipment for the
heat treatment of materials by induction or dielectric
3.71 0.67 3.7e-06 0.89 0.16 1 1
Electric motors and generators; parts suitable for use
solely or principally with the machines of heading no.
8501 or 8502
3.69 0.68 1.37e-05 0.70 0.31 1 1
Machinery, plant (not domestic), or laboratory equip-
ment; electrically heated or not, (excluding items in
85.14) for the treatment of materials by a process in-
volving change of temperature; including instantaneous
or non electric storage water heaters
3.67 0.72 0.00024 0.78 0.17 1 1
Furnaces and ovens; industrial or laboratory, including
incinerators, non-electric
3.54 0.58 1.8e-05 0.74 0.21 1 1
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