Article

Processing technologies, phytochemical constituents, and biological activities of grape seed oil (GSO): A review

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Background The grape seed is one of the most valuable constituents of grape pomace, a by-product generated during winemaking. Using grape seed as a raw material to develop valuable products will contribute to the recycling and reuse of grape pomace, as well as to the sustainable development of the wine industry. The grape seed oil (GSO) is rich in bioactive compounds with various health-promoting properties and has great potential application in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Scope and approach In this review, we first elaborate on the processing technologies of GSO in terms of requirements for raw materials, current extractive technologies, and oil stability. In the second part, we summarize the characteristics of GSO phytochemical compounds, such as fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamin E, and phenols. Finally, we focus on recent studies related to the GSO biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic disease alleviation. In addition, the latest developments of GSO products and their derived foods are also illustrated concisely. Key findings and conclusions For the product design of GSO, the key may be to fully exploit and utilize the inherent characteristics of grape seed to produce functional oil with high phenol content, which requires further improvements in the extraction and storage strategy of GSO, as well as increasing the lipid solubility of phenolic compounds. In terms of technology, designing more environmentally friendly, efficient, and low-cost processes and equipment for making GSO is also a trend. Concerning physiological activity, studies combining lipidomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and nutriomics may provide further insights into the mechanisms of the health benefits induced by GSO.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Nowadays, a new process for the controlled disposal of waste is converting these materials into other bio-products. One of the main by-products generated by the wine industry is grape pomace, which is composed of grape seeds, skin and stem remains [3]. Over 0.2 kg of grape pomace is produced per 1 kg of grapes, which contains approximately 25% seeds. ...
... Bearing in mind that world grape production in 2020 was 78,034,332 t [4], more than 0.3 kg of solid side-stream waste is generated per kg of freshly mashed grape fruit [5]. Several studies have shown that grape seed (dry base) contains about 35% crude fiber, 29% extractable components, 7-20% oil, 11% protein, 3% minerals and 7% moisture [3]. ...
... Replacing sunflower oil with grape seed oil leads to a barely noticeable difference in the particle size distribution curve. Encapsulated bioactive components (E) also have a very desirable particle size distribution as an additive in the production of cocoa spread products, but also contain particles in the range of 100-500 μm which leads to an increase in the volume mean diameter D [4,3] of samples Cg10 and Cg15 (Table 1). Replacing sunflower oil with grape seed oil leads to a barely noticeable difference in the particle size distribution curve. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to utilize grape pomace, as a polyphenol-rich by-product of wine production, in the manufacture of enriched cocoa spread. The formulation of the cocoa spread has been modified by substitution of refined sunflower oil with cold-pressed grape seed oil. The spread with grape seed oil (Cg) was further enriched with grape seed extract encapsulated on maltodextrins (E), where 10% and 15% of E was added to Cg obtaining the samples Cg10 and Cg15. The results showed an increase in volume-weighted mean in spread samples, from 19.17 μm in Cg to 19.71 μm in Cg10 and 21.04 μm in Cg15. Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased from 16.41 Pa and 1.58 Pa·s in Cg to 29.45 Pa and 5.70 Pa·s in Cg15 due to the reduction of the fat-phase content in enriched spreads. The addition of E had no significant effect on the melting temperature (Tpeak) of the enriched spreads, while increasing the amount of E significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased their hardness. The incorporation of grape seed oil in the cocoa spread formulation contributed to an increase in total polyphenols and flavonoids. Moreover, the addition of 10% and 15% of E to Cg resulted in approximately 1.5× and 2× higher content of phenolic compounds in Cg10 and Cg15 compared to control spread with sunflower oil (Cs). Flavonoids increased from 0.43 mg CE/g in Cs to 0.74 mg CE/g in Cg 10 and 1.24 mg CE/g in Cg15. Encapsulates positively affected sensory characteristics of enriched spread samples by reducing their grape seed oil aroma and sweetness.
... Grape seed, one of the representative components, accounts for about 25% of the total wine waste and it is also a good source of grape seed oil and polyphenols [7]. Currently, grape seed oil and polyphenols have been considered as a high value-added dietary supplement and food additive because it is rich in high content of unsaturated fatty acids and has the excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activity, respectively [8,9]. ...
... 8.0 g of powdered grape seed and 32 mL aqueous ethanol were blended in a 100-mL Erlenmeyer flask, which was placed in a water bath for 2 h with magnetic stirring. The extraction conditions were explored to obtain the high yield of grape seed oil and polyphenols by single factor test, including pH (6,7,8,9,10), ethanol contents (25%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%), and temperature (30,40,50,60, 70 • C), where the pH was adjusted with 5 M of NaOH and 5 M of HCl solutions. After extraction, the mixture was divided into oil phase, liquid phase and solid phase by centrifugation at room temperature (6000 rpm 10 min). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study developed an innovative strategy for wine waste management towards zero-waste discharge with full energy and resource recovery. Waste grape seed, as one of the most typical wine wastes, was first treated by aqueous ethanol, after that the grape seed oil and polyphenols were recycled, and the rest of solid residues were subjected to anaerobic digestion for methane production. It was found that the obtained grape seed oil rich in about 82% unsaturated fatty acids, of which all the parameters met the vegetable oil standard, this in turn suggested that the harvested grape seed oil is a high value-added and safe edible oil. While the produced polyphenols with outstanding antioxidant and antibacterial activity respectively verified by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays and MIC and agar well diffusion assays could be used as food additives. Furthermore, the generated digestate after anaerobic digestion can meet all the requirements for organic fertilizer standard. Based on the obtained data from aqueous ethanol extraction and anaerobic digestion, it is estimated that about 122.2 kg of grape seed oil, 23.8 kg of polyphenols, 109.3 m³ of methane and 352.3 kg of organic fertilizer could be produced from 1 ton of grape seed by adopting the proposed strategy. As such, it is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in wine waste management with the ultimate target of zero waste discharge.
... When studying muscadine grape seed oils from 48 cultivars (Vitis vinifera), Zhao et al. (2017) reported phenolic compounds ranging from 124.79 to 358.04 mg GAE/kg oil. As cited by Yang et al. (2021), TPC in grape seed oils is usually low and phenols contribution to oxygen radical absorbance capacity can be as high as 20.00 ± 5.65 μmol TE/g oil as determined by Dalposso et al. (2022) in Vitis labrusca grape seed oil. On the other hand, as mentioned by Chakka & Babu (2022) on health benefits of grape seed extracts, various studies were conducted to demonstrate their role in controlling postprandial hyperlipidemia, which refers to elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood. ...
... Grape seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (especially linoleic acid) and lipid-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D and E), conferring grape seeds oil with various health-promoting activities [22]. Recently, some lipid-embedded substances in grape seed oil, such as tocopherols, phytosterols and phenols, have attracted increasing attention from researchers because of their diverse biological activities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [107]. In this respect, the recovery of oil from grape seeds is of considerable significance with respect to the exploitation and utilization of grape. ...
Article
Full-text available
Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most popular fruits worldwide. It contains various bioactive compounds, such as proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes, the contents of which could vary considerably in grape skin, pulp and seed. Many studies have revealed that grape possesses a variety of health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gut-microbiota-modulating, anticancer and cardioprotective effects. Grape is eaten as fresh fruit and is also used as raw material to produce various products, such as wine, grape juice and raisins. Moreover, the byproducts of grape, such as grape pomace and grape seed, have many applications in the food industry. In this paper, the bioactive compounds in grape are briefly summarized based on literature published in recent years. In addition, the health benefits of grape and its bioactive components are discussed, with special attention paid to the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, the applications of grape in the food industry are elucidated, especially the applications of grape pomace and grape seed. This paper can contribute to understanding the health benefits and mechanisms of grape and its bioactive compounds, as well as the promotion of the use of grape in the food industry.
... Using grape seed as a raw material contributes to a sustainable development of products, as well as to the recycling and reuse of grape pomace. Since the grape seed oil (GSO) is rich in bioactive compounds it has great potential application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry (13). This oil present high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (90%), such as linoleic acid (58-78% w/w), oleic acid (12-28% w/w) and antioxidants such as tannins, phenolic compounds and tocopherol 41 (vitamin E) (14,15) which are capable of improving UV protection and epidermal antioxidant activity responsible for premature aging and photoaging (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the grape seed oil (GSO) on the sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreen emulsified formulations containing butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone (AVO)) and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) developed by phase inversion temperature (PIT) employing a Central Composite Design. Formulations were prepared by PIT emulsification process. Seventeen emulsions containing different amounts of GSO, AVO and OMC were obtained according to experimental design. In vitro SPF was determined using a spectrophotometric method. As expected, formulations with the highest concentrations of UV filters, AVO and OMC, resulted in the highest SPF values, while the lowest SPF values were obtained by formulations containing concentrations of these filters below the central point. In the tested concentrations, the variable OMC and its combination with GSO showed to influence the SPF linearly as a function of their concentrations in formulations. The combination of GSO with OMC contributed to increase in vitro SPF. The use of natural compounds with antioxidant activity, such as GSO, is a viable strategy to increase the effectiveness of sunscreens to protect the human skin against UV-induced damage.
... Grapeseed oil is an example of active extract deriving from grape pomace generated during winemaking. It is rich in bioactive molecules, exhibiting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties [12], and it has been successfully employed to preserve cheese and fish products from oxidative deterioration during storage [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The most common preservation process for chili peppers is drying, which inevitably causes oxidative degradation of thermolabile molecules. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential protective effect exerted by an active ingredient based on grape seed oil, on pepper fruits. Grapeseed oil is rich in antioxidant compounds and was applied to pepper’s surface in form of a sol–gel product, before fruit thermal treatment. In this work, chili peppers samples were preventively treated with an active solution, and controls (untreated peppers), were submitted to a drying process performed at two different temperatures: 45 and 65 °C. Analysis of capsaicinoids, carotenoids, apocarotenoids, and phenolic content was performed to evaluate possible differences between the sets of samples. Oxidative stability of oil enriched with chili pepper powder aliquots was also measured to evaluate the antioxidant power of the samples. Obtained data showed that treated samples retained a higher amount of capsaicinoids and carotenoids. Oxidative stability of pepper powder was also higher for treated samples than for controls. Furthermore, the thermal treatment performed at 45 °C caused milder modifications than the 65 °C treatment. The applied pre-drying treatment can be proposed to prevent bioactive compounds loss and to enhance product stability and shelf-life.
... After sowing, the seedling stage may suffer blight or be inhibited by improper cultivation conditions [11]. Previous studies on grape seed germination and seedling formation examined differences of germination rates among different populations and varieties, differences of seedling formation rates among different cultivation and transplanting methods or characterized the physiology of germination and the optimal way to release dormancy [12,13]. Chai et al. compared the germination and seedling rates of cultivars V. vinifera, V. labrusca, and Franco-American, with V. vinifera and Franco-American varieties displaying higher and lower germination rates, respectively [2,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intraspecific recurrent selection in V. vinifera is an effective method for breeding of high quality, disease-, cold-, and drought-resistance grapes. Exploring the optimal treatment methods for grape (V. vinifera) seeds can help to accelerate the process of intraspecific recurrent selection and improve breeding efficiency. In this study, seeds of six V. vinifera varieties were used as experimental materials, and the germination and seedling formation characteristics were studied by single factor treatment and orthogonal compound treatment, respectively. To do this, stratification, chemical substances, beak cutting, and pre-germination treatments were tested, and the optimal treatment combination was determined for each variety. The results indicated that the optimal conditions obtained in the orthogonal experiments were not completely consistent with those in the single-factor experiments. Single factor experiment results demonstrated that two stratification methods (chilling gauze-storage and chilling sand-storage) and two pre-germination methods (pre-germination in petri dishes and pre-germination in a bean sprouter) vary in effectiveness for different varieties. gibberellin acid (GA3) soaking and beak-cutting promote the germination and seedling rate of the tested varieties. Orthogonal test results demonstrate that, for Dunkelfelder and Cabernet Sauvignon, the optimal treatment combination was chilling sand-storage + GA3 soaking seed + beak cutting + pre-germination in petri dishes. For Meili, the optimal treatment combination was chilling sand-storage + acetic acid (HAc) soaking seed + beak cutting + pre-germination in petri dishes. For Ecolly, the optimal treatment combination was chilling sand-storage + GA3 soaking seed + beak cutting + pre-germination in a bean sprouter. For Garanior, the optimal treatment combination was chilling sand-storage + HAc soaking seed + no beak cutting + pre-germination in petri dishes. For Marselan, the optimal treatment combination was chilling gauze-storage + GA3 soaking seed + beak cutting + pre-germination in a bean sprouter. This study identified the optimal conditions for seed germination and seedling formation of six grape varieties, which will facilitate future work to characterize the seed germination and seedling formation of seeds obtained by intraspecific hybridization of these varieties. This work also provides a reference for addressing problems of low seed germination rate and suboptimal seedling formation for better utilization of grape germplasms.
Article
Full-text available
The goals of this work were to screen physiological and biochemical indexes to assess a set of V. vinifera germplasm resources, to compare evaluation methods for cold hardiness, and to establish a comprehensive method that can be used for more accurate screening for cold hardiness in V. vinifera. Four single methods were used to evaluate the cold hardiness of 20 germplasms resources and 18 physiological and biochemical indexes related to cold hardiness were determined. The LT50 values determined by electrical conductivity (EL), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and recovery growth (RG) methods showed extremely significant positive correlation. Bound water content (BW), proline content (Pro), total soluble sugar content (TSS), malondialdehyde content (MDA), catalase content (CAT), and ascorbic acid content (ASA) exhibited significant correlation with LT50 values measured by different evaluation methods. The comprehensive cold hardiness index calculated by principal component analysis (PCA) combined with subordinate function (SF) was negatively correlated with LT50 values measured by different evaluation methods. Meili and Ecolly exhibited the highest cold hardiness, indicating their potential for use as parents for cold hardiness breeding. EL, DTA, TTC, and RG methods successfully distinguished cold hardiness among different V. vinifera germplasm lines. Measurements of BW, Pro, TSS, MDA, CAT, and ASA in dormant shoots also can be used as main physiological and biochemical indexes related to cold hardiness of V. vinifera. Comprehensive evaluation by PCA combined with SF can accurately screen cold hardiness in V. vinifera. This study provides a reference and accurate identification method for the selection of cold hardiness parents and the evaluation of cold hardiness of germplasm of V. vinifera.
Article
Full-text available
An active film composed of corn starch/κ-carrageenan and ethanolic grape seed extract (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt% of GSE on corn starch basis) were successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effects of the different concentrations of ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant properties, and antibacterial properties of CS/κC films were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of GSE inhibited the recrystallization of starch in the composite film. The glass transition temperature of composite film is 121.65 °C. With the addition of GSE, the surface roughness of the composite film increased, and the cross-section displayed a stratification phenomenon. Meanwhile, when GSE was added to the composite film, the tensile strength of the composite film decreased (3.50 ± 0.27 MPa), the elongation at break increased (36.87 ± 2.08%), and the WVP increased (1.58 ± 0.03 g mm/m2·d· kPa). With the increase of the concentration of GSE in the composite film, the a* value and b* value of the composite film increase, the L* value decreases, and the opacity increases. The lipid oxidation test proved that the composite films containing 1% GSE has a significant inhibitory effect on the oxidation of lard (p < 0.05). The above results indicate that the GSE can be used as a food-grade packaging material and has a good application prospect in the food industry.
Article
A method for simultaneous determination of 14 functional components of squalene, tocopherols, and phytosterols in edible oil was established based on solid phase extraction (SPE), saponification, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Depending on the characteristic ions of the target substances, 14 compounds were well separated in 20 min. The limit of detections (LOD) and the limit of quantifications (LOQ) were in the range of 0.010–0.050 and 0.033–0.167 μg/mL, respectively. Method validation showed linearity of calibration curves (α = 0.05) with the recoveries at three spiked levels between 91.29 and 111.93%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 6.11%. The results derived from the established method demonstrated a wide variation of detected compounds in 15 kinds of common edible vegetable oils. The proposed SPE combined with saponification and GC-MS provides a rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of the functional compounds in oils and detection of the adulterated vegetable oil.
Article
Background: Worldwide, grapes (Vitis vinifera L.; family: Vitaceae) are one of the most important fruits. Grapeseed oil is rich in bioactive constituents that could be beneficial to the health and aesthetic features of human skin. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a novel grapeseed oil-loaded dermocosmetic nanoemulgel on biophysical parameters of facial skin. Methods: This was a split-face, blinded, placebo-controlled study. A novel grapeseed oil-loaded dermocosmetic nanoemulgel was developed, and its effects on the biophysical parameters of the facial skin were evaluated and compared to those of a placebo formulation on the cheeks of 15 healthy volunteers. Melanin, erythema, sebum production, fine and large facial pores, moisture, and elasticity levels were measured using Mexameter®, Corneometer®, Sebumeter®, Cutometer®, and VisioFace®. Measurements were made on weekly basis for 12 weeks. Results: Compared to the placebo, the novel grapeseed oil-loaded dermocosmetic nanoemulgel received significantly higher sensory scores with regard to appearance, color, odor, consistency, adhesion, sensation, cohesiveness, and spreadability (p-value < 0.05). Additionally, the novel nanoemulgel continuously and significantly reduced skin melanin, erythema, sebum production, and fine and large pores (p-value < 0.05). On the contrary, the novel nanoemulgel continuously and significantly increased skin moisture contents and elasticity (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: The novel grapeseed oil-loaded dermocosmetic nanoemulgel had attractive cosmetic attributes that could be useful for improving imperfections of the human skin. Future studies are still needed to test and evaluate the benefits of this novel grapeseed oil-loaded dermocosmetic nanoemulgel in disease conditions.
Article
In this study, the stability mechanism of grape seed oil/rice hydrolyzed protein emulsion was studied. The grape seed oil (10% v/v) and rice hydrolyzed protein (2% w/v) were homogenized under high pressure to prepare the emulsion. It was observed by CLSM and Multiple light scatterometer that the emulsion had long-term storage stability, and the average particle size of droplets was 0.984–1.363 µm. ζ-potential ranged from −37.733 mV to −25.633 mV. It is found that the emulsion has strong resistance to temperature, ions and other environmental factors from the macroscopic and microscopic structure, and no emulsion stratification phenomenon occurs. The composite emulsion can be used in the field of food industry and fine chemical industry, which can provide nutrition and functionality of products, its research has certain value and has a wide space for development.
Article
Winemaking constitutes an important industry in many countries with relevant economic and environmental impacts. As a result of the winemaking process, a number of lignocellulosic residues are obtained on a renewable yearly basis. These residues and those from grapevine cultivation have so far been underutilised. This review provides state-of-the-art information on the different proposals reported to take advantage of these residues from a biorefinery perspective. In addition, the main reports available on the techno-economic assessment of biorefineries based on viticulture and winemaking-derived residues are presented, along with the identification of bottlenecks for biorefinery deployment.
Article
Full-text available
The study’s aim was to characterize the composition of Nigella sativa seed (NSO) and grape seed (GSO) oils, and to evaluate their cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effect on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced ischemia in rats. Materials and Methods: NSO and GSO supplements were physicochemically characterized. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were used to determine the phytochemical composition in the oils. Total polyphenol content (TPC) and in vitro antioxidant activity were also determined. Pretreatment with 4 mL/kg/day NSO or GSO was administered to rats for 14 days. The experimental ischemia was induced by a single administration of ISO 45 mg/kg after 14 days. An electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed initially and 24 h after ISO. Biological evaluation was done at the end of experiment. Results: The HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and FTIR analyses showed that both NSO and GSO are important sources of bioactive compounds, especially catechin and phenolic acids in GSO, while NSO was enriched in flavonoids and thymol derivatives. Pretreatment with GSO and NSO significantly reduced ventricular conduction, prevented the cardiotoxic effect of ISO in ventricular myocardium, and reduced the level of proinflammatory cytokines and CK-Mb. Conclusion: Both NSO and GSO were shown to have an anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced ischemia.
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle plays an important role in the development of noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, in addition to a poor diet loaded with simple carbohydrates and saturated fats. This was a trial with a randomized, analytical, longitudinal, and prospective quasi-experimental design, which was divided into 2 phases: the first with healthy subjects with an age range between 18 to 30 y and normal BMI (18.5–24.9). The second phase was subjected with familial hypercholesterolemia aged between 18 to 45 y and overweight (25–29.9). For those subjects who frequently consumed vegetable oil of both Vitis vinifera L., or Persea americana L. (10 mL), they presented a significant reduction in anthropometric measures and in biochemical variables such as capillary glucose and increased HDLc. The vegetable oils of Persea americana L., and Vitis vinifera L., can act as adjuvants for the treatment of noncommunicable diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Gel microemulsion combines the advantages of the microemulsion, which can encapsulate, protect and deliver large quantities of active ingredients, and the gel, which is so appreciated in the cosmetic industry. This study aimed to develop and characterize new gel microemulsions suitable for topical cosmetic applications, using grape seed oil as the oily phase, which is often employed in pharmaceuticals, especially in cosmetics. The optimized microemulsion was formulated using Tween 80 and Plurol® Diisostearique CG as a surfactant mix and ethanol as a co-solvent. Three different water-soluble polymers were selected in order to increase the viscosity of the microemulsion: Carbopol® 980 NF, chitosan, and sodium hyaluronate salt. All used ingredients are safe, biocompatible and biodegradable. Curcumin was chosen as a model drug. The obtained systems were physico-chemically characterized by means of electrical conductivity, dynamic light scattering, polarized microscopy and rheometric measurements. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity was accomplished by MTT assay. In the final phase of the study, the release behavior of Curcumin from the optimized microemulsion and two gel microemulsions was evaluated. Additionally, mathematical models were applied to establish the kinetic release mechanism. The obtained gel microemulsions could be effective systems for incorporation and controlled release of the hydrophobic active ingredients.
Article
Full-text available
The demand for consuming low-fat or nonfat dairy products, especially fat-free yoghurt, has increased considerably because of the effects of high-fat diet on human health during the two past decades. Generally, consumers prefer low-fat products to the same high-fat products. For this reason, manufacturers are looking for an ideal source for replacing fat substitute. In this research, the effect of grape seed oil (GSO) as a fat replacement on different quality attributes of the produced set yoghurt was determined. The effect of diverse ratios (3:0, 1.5:1.5, and 0.5:3%) of milk fat and GSO on the change in the quality attributes of the set yoghurt for up to 22 days of refrigeration period (4 ± 1°C) was investigated. Statistical analysis revealed that increase in GSO concentration leads to a significant increase (p < .05) in viscosity, acidity, and water-holding capacity (WHC), whereas syneresis and pH value decreased during the storage time. Furthermore, increasing the proportion of fat replacement to 3% (w/w) in set yoghurt increased the samples hardness while in case of cohesiveness; negative effect was observed because of the action of fat globules within the protein system. Result of fatty acid analysis revealed that the yoghurt samples containing GSO have higher unsaturated fatty acid content than the control yoghurt sample. In conclusion, the best fat replacement concentration of GSO in producing low-fat yoghurt was found in 1.5%, which also had the highest overall acceptance score between different yoghurt samples containing different levels of GSO.
Article
Full-text available
Wine production is an ancient human activity that generates several by-products, which include some constituents known for their potential in health care and for their role in the food or cosmetic industries. Any variety of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) contains nutrients and bioactive compounds available from their juice or solid parts. Grape seed extract has demonstrated many activities in disease prevention, such as antioxidant effects, which make it a potential source of nutraceuticals. Grape seed is a remarkable winery industry by-product due to the bioactivity of its constituents. Methods for recovery of oil from grape seeds have evolved to improve both the quantity and quality of the yield. Both the lipophilic and hydrophilic chemicals present in the oil of V. vinifera L. make this wine by-product a source of natural nutraceuticals. Food and non-food industries are becoming novel targets of oil obtained from grape seeds given its various properties. This review focuses on the advantages of grape seed oil intake in our diet regarding its chemical composition in industries not related to wine production and the economic and environmental impact of oil production.
Article
Full-text available
The current study focused on investigating the renoprotective effects of grape seed oil (GSO) against hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 40 male rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I served as the control group, group II received 1000 mg/L potassium dichromate (353.5 mg/L Cr(VI)) in drinking water for 12 weeks, group III received 3.7 g/kg body weight/day GSO orally for 12 weeks, and group IV received GSO together with potassium dichromate for 12 weeks. Cr(VI) significantly increased serum levels of urea, creatinine, potassium and glucose. In addition, Cr(VI) increased MDA levels and induced renal tissue damage and DNA damage. On the other hand, Cr(VI) decreased serum levels of sodium and antioxidant defence system [reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT)]. However, treatment with GSO prevented elevation levels of serum urea, creatinine, potassium and glucose. In addition, GSO enhanced sodium level, renal tissue antioxidant defense system due to its curative effect ameliorated particularly oxidative stress, renal tissue and DNA damage. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that GSO is a promising nephroprotective agent against Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity
Article
Full-text available
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA), though being treated via various methods and medicines, is still a major healthcare concern mostly due to the increase in diagnosis of these age-related diseases. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of oral and intra articular injection of grape seed oil on OA in male rat models. Methods and materials: Seventy male rats were selected and their anterior cruciate ligament was cut to induce OA. They were divided into 7 groups (n = 10): C1, no treatment; C2, receiving 300 mg/day of Piascledine per os (PO); C3, 1 mg sodium hyaluronate intra-articularly in days 1, 7, 14; C4, 1 mg methyl-prednisolone acetate intra-articularly; E1, avocado and grape seed oil combination (2:1, 300 mg/day) PO; E2, 500 mg/day of grape seed oil PO; E3, 200 mg/day grape seed oil intra-articularly. After 10 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and evaluated radiologically and histopathologically. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: All the groups made significant differences with C1 regarding all inspected radiological criteria (P ≤ 0.05). E1 and E3 showed significantly better effects on medial femoral condyle, medial tibial condyle, joint space width, total osteophyte, and OA scores (P ≤ 0.04). Joint surface, matrix, cell distribution, cell population viability, calcification, and subchondral bone in treatment groups had significantly better scores versus C1 (P ≤ 0.04). E1 and E3 had significantly superior results regarding joint surface, cell viability, and calcification (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions: Grape seed oil has protective effects, both in injectable form and PO in combination with avocado, on OA in rats. Further clinical trials are necessary.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, with an increasing prevalence rate, mostly related to cholinergic system. According to the difficulties and complications in management of AD, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of grape seed oil (GSO) on scopolamine (Scop) induced Alzheimer's in male rats. Methods: 64 healthy male Wistar rats received different treatments such as: normal saline (NS), donepezil (Don), Scop and GSO, according to the previously designed protocol. Morris (MWM) was applied for spatial memory tests. Right after the behavioral tests, the brains were removed and the hippocampus was separated for evaluation of acetylcholine levels as well as cell death and neuro inflammation. Results: The results of the test day indicated that the mean Q2 time was increased in both GSO test groups (P <0.05) and Don treated group (P <0.001).The spectrophotometric findings affirm that both GSO co-treatment and post-treatment were effective in augmenting brain acetylcholine levels (P <0.01 and P <0.05 respectively). The microscopic findings of H&E dyed tissues confirmed the above mentioned results for different treatments except for GSO post treatment, in which the viability of cells were very low. Conclusion: The results implied that supplementation of rats with GSO caused a significant augmentation in spatial memory performance as well as acetylcholine levels and cell viability in the presence of Scop. This effect was comparable to that of Don especially when GSO was used as co-treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Triterpenoids, tocopherols, and phytosterols presented in unsaponifiable fraction of grape seed oil have several beneficial effects comprising antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and antitumor capacities. In this study, the unsaponifiable fraction of three Tunisian grape seed varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), namely Merlot, Carignan, and Syrah, was investigated. The identified compounds were two triterpenic compounds (β‐ amyrin, lanosterol), six phytosterols (campesterol, Δ7‐avenasterol, stigmasterol, β‐sitosterol, β‐sitostanol, cholesterol), and three tocopherols (α, β, and γ tocopherols). The unsaponifiable fraction had significant protection against oxidative damage by modulating NO production and antioxidant activity. Statistical analysis showed the presence of three clusters of varieties associated to specific composition patterns. These results clearly demonstrated that unsaponifiable fraction profiles of grape species could be considered as a complementary.
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin E family is composed of different tocopherols and tocotrienols that are well-known as antioxidants but that exert also non-antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), characterized by motor neuron death. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the changes induced in the transcriptional profile of NSC-34 motor neurons treated with α-tocopherol. In particular, cells were treated for 24 h with 10 µM α-tocopherol, RNA was extracted and transcriptomic analysis was performed using Next Generation Sequencing. Vitamin E treatment modulated MAPK signaling pathway. The evaluation revealed that 34 and 12 genes, respectively belonging to “Classical MAP kinase pathway” and “JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathway”, were involved. In particular, a downregulation of the genes encoding for p38 (Log2 fold change −0.87 and −0.67) and JNK (Log2 fold change −0.16) was found. On the contrary, the gene encoding for ERK showed a higher expression in cells treated with vitamin E (Log2 fold change 0.30). Since p38 and JNK seem more involved in cell death, while ERK in cell survival, the data suggested that vitamin E treatment may exert a protective role in NSC-34 motor neurons. Moreover, Vitamin E treatment reduced the expression of the genes which encode proteins involved in mitophagy. These results indicate that vitamin E may be an efficacious therapy in preventing motor neuron death, opening new strategies for those diseases that involve motor neurons, including ALS.
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: There are concerns that high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may promote inflammation, because the end-product of n-6 PUFA metabolism, arachidonic acid, is a precursor for pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Our aim was to investigate cross-sectional associations of the serum n-6 PUFAs, objective biomarkers for exposure, with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a key inflammation marker. Subjects/methods: The study included 1287 generally healthy men aged 42-60 years from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, examined in 1984-1989. ANCOVA and logistic regression were used for analyses. Results: In the multivariable-adjusted analyses, both serum total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid, the predominant n-6 PUFA, were associated with lower CRP. The mean CRP concentrations in quartiles of linoleic acid were 1.86, 1.51, 1.53, and 1.37 mg/L (P-trend = 0.001). The odds ratio for elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) in the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 0.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.87, P-trend = 0.01). Arachidonic acid or the mainly endogenously produced n-6 PUFAs, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, were not associated with higher CRP, either. Age, body mass index, or serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration did not modify the associations (P-interactions > 0.14). Conclusions: Serum n-6 PUFAs were not associated with increased inflammation in men. In contrast, the main n-6 PUFA linoleic acid had a strong inverse association with the key inflammation marker, CRP.
Article
Full-text available
Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Studies have reported that grape seeds exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Their potential health benefits include protection against oxidative damage, and anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet functions. Recognition of such health benefits of proanthocyanidins has led to the use of grape seeds as a dietary supplement by the consumers. This paper summarizes the studies of the phytochemical compounds, pharmacological properties, and industrial applications of grape seeds.
Article
Full-text available
Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation represents a mechanism common to many diseases linked to atherosclerosis-related pathways. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the combination of food quantity and quality along with genetic susceptibility are able to induce the aberrant activation of innate immune signalling, which initially contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation. Liver represents the central player to inflammatory response. Dietary/metabolic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the main causes of liver disease in the Western world. Enlargement of the spleen, central organ in regulating the inflammation-related immune response, is commonly seen in patients with of NAFLD, depicting the so called “liver-spleen axis.” The aim of this review was to provide an at-a-glance overview of the possible bi-directional mechanisms linking nutrition and inflammation, particularly pinpointing the inflammatory effects stemmed by nutrition on “liver-spleen axis.” In particular, the role of unhealthy diet, healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet style, dietary vitamins and micronutrients, such as vitamin D or Magnesium, and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, a well-known incretin released in response to meal intake, will be discussed. The highly variability of the inflammatory response highlights the role of expert nutritionists in refining methodologies apt to assess nutritional epidemiology and to apply appropriate dietary intervention to counteract diet-induced inflammation mechanisms.
Article
Full-text available
In the current study, for the first time, the oxidation stability of the extracted edible oil from Sardasht red grape at three different accelerated deteriorative techniques (oven, microwave, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation) was investigated. In this context, the peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene value (CDV), carbonyl value (CV), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and oil/oxidative stability indices, as well as fatty acid composition and total tocopherol content, were evaluated. Sardasht grape seed oil as a rich oil in unsaturated fatty acid (about 87%) contains linoleic acid in the term of the principal fatty acid (70.4±1.8%). The excessive oxidative stability of crude oil can be correlated to the extreme content of natural antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols). The findings showed that Sardasht red grape seed oil could be approached as a new oil resource with acceptable oxidative stability.
Article
Full-text available
Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05); but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO
Article
Full-text available
Tocotrienol (T3), unsaturated vitamin E, is gaining a lot of attention owing to its potent anticancer effect, since its efficacy is much greater than that of tocopherol (Toc). Various factors are known to be involved in such antitumor action, including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, antiangiogenesis, anti-metastasis, nuclear factor-?B suppression, and telomerase inhibition. Owing to a difference in the affinity of T3 and Toc for the ?-tocopherol transfer protein, the bioavailability of orally ingested T3 is lower than that of Toc. Furthermore, cellular uptake of T3 is interrupted by coadministration of ?-Toc in vitro and in vivo. Based on this, several studies are in progress to screen for molecules that can synergize with T3 in order to augment its potency. Combinations of T3 with chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., statins, celecoxib, and gefitinib) or dietary components (e.g., polyphenols, sesamin, and ferulic acid) exhibit synergistic actions on cancer cell growth and signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the current status of synergistic effects of T3 and an array of agents on cancer cells, and discuss their molecular mechanisms of action. These combination strategies would encourage further investigation and application in cancer prevention and therapy.
Article
Full-text available
Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.
Article
Full-text available
To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars (Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88–77.12 %), sterols (227.99–338.83 mg/100 g oil) and tocotrienols (320.08–679.24 mg/kg oil). Seed oil of V. amurensis exhibited the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acid, total tocotrienols, total tocols and DPPH· scavenging capacity. Seed oil of Carbernet Sauvignon had the highest contents of squalene, total sterols, total tocopherols and total phenolics. Principal component analysis five grape cultivars differentiated on the basis of bioactive components content and antioxidant properties.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims: Hyperlipidemia is one of clear risk factors of diabetes. Regarding its importance, this study was designed to compare the effects of olive oil and grape seed oil on serum lipids and blood pressure in patients with hyperlipidemia in 2015. Methods and Results: In this clinical trial, 60 patients with hyperlipidemia who met inclusion criteria were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned 3 groups: 1) consume 20 ml/day refined olive oil; 2) consume 20 ml/day grape seed oil; 3) the control group received no oil. The study period was six weeks. All participants were under Step I diet. Height and weight measurements were taken by Seca scale. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and fasting blood sugar were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks by standard methods. Low-density lipoprotein levels were calculated by the Friedewald’s formula. Data were analyzed with ANOVA test in SPSS software version 16.0. Sixty participants (36 female and 24 male) with the average age of 47.5 ± 9 y and the mean body mass index of 31.78 ± 5.41 kg/m2 had completed the study. Olive oil intervention decreased systolic blood pressure significantly compared to grape seed oil group (P = 0.01). Triglyceride was significantly decreased in olive oil and also triglyceride groups (P = 0.02 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Overall, the effects of olive oil and grape seed oil were better than control group. However, we suggest the substitution of dietary lipids with olive oil because of its more beneficial effects. Registration number for clinical trial: IRCT2014070218329N1 registration code in Iran Clinical Trial site.
Article
Full-text available
Grape seed extract (GSE) was added to grape seed oil to improve the oxidative stability of the grape seed oil during storage. To measure the oxidative stability of grape seed oil, peroxide value, acid value, and conjugated diene value were measured, and changes in browning, vitamin E, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol content of oil were examined. In the case of grape seed oil with GSE, peroxide value, acid value, and conjugated diene value were lower than those of grape seed oil. The magnitude of increase in absorbance of grape seed oil with GSE was less than that of additive-free grape seed oil, whereas the magnitude of decrease in vitamin E isomers in grape seed oil with GSE was less than that of grape seed oil with no additive. Changes in fatty acid composition were also similar. However, polyphenol contents showed the greatest reduction in grape seed oil containing GSE. GSE contributes to the oxidation stability of grape seed oil, but the antioxidant capacity of GSE was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Grape seed oil (GSO) is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved.
Article
High polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake is recommended for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association of PUFAs with blood pressure (BP) is still controversial. In the present study, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to investigate the causal relationship of PUFAs with BP, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP).Genetic instruments and summary statistics for two-sample MR analysis were obtained from 3 large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly (P < 5 × 10-8) related to 6 PUFAs were used as instrumental variables. Conventional inverse-variance weighted method was adopted to evaluate the causality of PUFAs with BP; the Weighted Median, MR-egger, and Leave-one-out method were used for sensitivity analyses.As a result, there was no evidence of a causal association between all PUFAs and SBP. In addition, arachidonic acid (AA, β = -0.04, P < .001) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, β = -0.47, P = .02) were negatively associated with DBP, while linoleic acid (LA, β = 0.03, P = .005) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, β = 3.83, P < .001) were positively associated with DBP. There was no evidence of a causal relationship between either docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with DBP.In conclusion, a genetic predisposition to plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) had a divergent effect on DBP, independent of SBP. It suggested that it is helpful for lower DBP level to supplemental intake of AA and EPA or promote the conversion of LA and ALA to AA and EPA respectively, which need to be further validated with randomized controlled studies.
Article
Background: Vitis vinifera (black grape) is cultivated worldwide and has numerous oral and therapeutic applications. It has proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of black grape seed (hydroalcoholic) extract (BGSE) and black grape seed oil (BGSO) on experimental colitis. Methods: BGSE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and BGSO (2, 4, and 8 mL/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) in groups of six male Wistar rats, 2 h before induction of colitis and continued further for 4 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and mesalamine (100 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs. Weight/length of colons, macroscopic and histopathologic indices, and biochemical parameters including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated. Results: All doses of BGSE and BGSO significantly decreased the colon weight, ulcer index, and total colitis index in comparison with the control group, although greater doses of both fractions had more significant protection. Data of MPO activity revealed that all treated groups with the exception of BGSE (50 mg/kg) and BGSO (2 mL/kg) showed a meaningful decline in comparison with the control group. Concerning the MDA values in colonic tissue, it was demonstrated that BGSE (100, 200 mg/kg) and BGSO (8 mL/kg) caused a significant dip in this oxidative stress parameter. Conclusions: Oral administration of BGSE and BGSO had an appropriate anti-inflammatory effect and so could be considered as a suitable candidate for treating or preventing ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, detailed studies are warranted to explore the exact mechanism of action and clinical preference of these compounds.
Article
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major types of non-communicable diseases with increasing prevalence worldwide. Oil consumption is an important part of the modifiable nutritional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The present study aims to examine the effects of grape seed oil consumption against sunflower oil on lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and weight management among overweight and obese females. In the current randomized clinical trial, 39 overweight or obese women were randomly allocated into the grape seed oil and sunflower oil groups and completed the study successfully. Anthropometric parameters were measured every two weeks. Fasting serum lipid profiles and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were measured at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Dietary data were collected using 3 days of 24-hours dietary recall. The changes in anthropometric measures and nutrient intakes at the end of the study were not significant between the groups. Although lipid profiles improved significantly in both groups, only the changes of the low-density lipoprotein (25.9 ± 6.6 mg/dL vs. 8.63 ± 6.87 mg/dL) and high-density lipoprotein (5.35 ± 2.56 mg/dL vs. 1.73 ± 1.14 mg/dL) were significantly different between the grape seed oil and sunflower oil groups. The changes in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level in the grape seed oil vs. sunflower oil group were statistically significant (P = 0.03). Grape seed oil consumption seems to improve lipid biomarkers and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in overweight and/or obese females.
Article
The effects of using grape seed oil in combination with gelatine and alginate on the physicochemical characteristics of meat emulsions were examined. Four different meat emulsions were manufactured and half the conventional fat was substituted with pre-emulsified grape seed oil with gelatine and/or alginate: T1, only grape seed oil; T2, grape seed oil and gelatine; T3, grape seed oil and alginate, T4, grape seed oil, gelatine, and alginate. Meat emulsion containing only pork back fat was compared as control. Results revealed that T4 was moister, lighter, more viscous, and stable in emulsion than control and value of ash contents of T4 was higher than those of control. Moreover, the value of fat content, pH, firmness, chewiness, toughness, and lipid oxidation of the T4 meat emulsion were lower than those of control. The meat emulsions with emulsified grape seed oil were more principally elastic than viscous and appearent viscosity was the highest in T4. In conclusion, instead of using each ingredient alone, pre-emulsified grape seed oil, gelatine, and alginate can replace partial pork fat with in meat emulsion formulations results in optimized meat processing properties.
Article
Background: Potato protein (PP) has promising potential for utilization in food applications due to its high nutritive value and functional properties. Grapeseed oil (GO) is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant active ingredients. However, its application is limited because of low stability and high volatility. In order to overcome such problems, PP-based microcapsules encapsulating GO were produced by complex coacervation, and characterized by optical, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses. Results: Results indicated that ratio of GO/PP at 1:2 led to the best encapsulation effect with the maximum microencapsulation efficiency and yield. Intact and nearly spherical microcapsules were observed from SEM images. Results of TG demonstrated that thermal resistance was increased in the microencapsulated GO, indicating that PP-based microcapsules could be a good way to protect thermal stability of GO. FTIR spectra indicated that hydrogen bonding and covalent crosslinking might occur among wall materials, but a physical interaction between GO and wall materials. Conclusions: PP can be successfully used to encapsulate GO when combined with chitosan, indicating that PP-based microcapsules had potentials for application in encapsulating liquid oils with functional properties. The possible schematic diagram of interactions was performed to better understand the formation mechanism of microcapsules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Several reports have indicated a positive effect of phytosterols on blood pressure (BP), nevertheless these findings have been controversial. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was aimed to investigate the effects of phytosterol supplementation on BP. An online search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane library and Google Scholar up to May 2019. Weighted Mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. The present meta-analysis of 19 RCTs showed that supplementation with phytosterols can decrease both systolic BP (WMD: −1.55 mmHg, 95% CI: −2.67 to −0.42, p = 0.007) and diastolic BP (WMD: −0.84 mmHg, 95% CI: −1.60 to −0.08, p = 0.03). Dose–response analysis revealed that phytosterol intake change SBP significantly based on treatment dose in nonlinear fashion. Subgroup analysis based on duration showed a significant effect of phytosterol on SBP and DBP in subsets of <12 weeks. In addition, a significant effect of phytosterol was observed in dosage of ≥2000 mg for SBP and <2000 mg for DBP. Based on current findings supplementation with phytosterol may be a beneficial adjuvant therapy in hypertensive patients as well as a complementary preventive option in prehypertensive and normotensive individuals. However, this issue is still open and requires further investigation in future studies.
Article
This study aims to investigate the potential of virgin grape seed oil (VGSO) to improve insulin resistance and energy metabolism disorder in mice fed a high‐fat diet. The results show that respiratory exchange rate and energy consumption in mice can be increased by the administration of VGSO. Insulin resistance is significantly alleviated by VGSO, which can be attributed to its protective effect on hexokinase and α‐glucosidase activities and improvement in leptin resistance. The effect of refined grape seed oil (RGSO), RGSO reinforced with polyphenol, RGSO reinforced with unsaponifiables, and RGSO reinforced with polyphenol and unsaponifiables on oral glucose tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index are determined and compared. The results suggest that polyphenol may be the most critical factor for regulating insulin resistance. Specific linear and polynomial equations are provided to explain the correlation between insulin resistance, energy metabolism, and hyperlipidemia. Practical Applications : The effects of virgin grape seed oil (VGSO) on insulin resistance and energy metabolism disorder in mice fed a high‐fat diet were investigated. In addition, the key component in VGSO for regulating insulin resistance was preliminarily investigated. Furthermore, the correlations among fasting blood glucose, triglyceride/cholesterol concentration, and respiratory exchange rate/energy consumption/activity level were investigated. This research will provide a theoretical basis for the development of functional edible oil for high blood lipid, cholesterol, and diabetes patients.
Article
Grape skin and seed oil are winemaking by-products with a potential nutraceutical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol-enriched grape seed oil (GSO) administration on white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction in obese mice. Male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): the chow diet (CD) group; the high-fat diet (HFD) group was fed fat from milk cream (rich in saturated fatty acids), and the HFD-GSO and HFD-GSO+R groups were fed fat from GSO in absence or presence of resveratrol (200 mg/kg/day), respectively. Glucose tolerance, metabolic profile, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Histological studies were carried out in WAT and brown AT, RT-qPCR and western blot were used to determine the gene and protein expression. In the setting of obesity, our results unveil a novel nutritional value for winemaking by-products by which resveratrol-enriched GSO from Vitis vinifera L. in obesogenic diets favor WAT and immunometabolic homeostasis.
Article
The use of vegetable butters and oils shows promising results in the treatment of skin wounds, as they have an effective impact on the phases of the wound‐healing process through their antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory, and antioxidative activities and by promoting cell proliferation, increasing collagen synthesis, stimulating dermal reconstruction, and repairing the skin's lipid barrier function. In this article, in vitro and in vivo studies of argan (Argania spinosa), avocado (Persea americana), black cumin (Nigella sativa), calophyllum (Calophyllum inophyllum), coconut (Cocos nucifera), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), grape (Vitis vinifera), green coffee (Coffea arabica), lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), mango (Mangifera indica), olive (Olea europaea), pomegranate (Punica granatum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), rapeseed (Brassica napus), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oils were reviewed. In many cases, vegetable oils proved to be more effective than synthetic wound‐healing compounds used as controls. The fatty‐acid components of vegetable oils are assumed to play a major role in the wound‐healing process, in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Evidence shows that oils with a higher linoleic to oleic acid ratio are more effective for lipid barrier repair. However, in depth studies are needed to gain knowledge about vegetable oils' effects on the skin and vice versa.
Article
Various grape seed samples collected in wineries, as a by‐product before and after the fermentation process of pomace and after fermentation and distillation process of pomace, were used for oil extraction by cold pressing. Fatty acid profile, content and composition of tocopherols, content and composition of phenols, as well as the oxidative stability of oils were investigated. Obtained results have shown that cold pressed grape seed oils were characterized by different nutritional quality and oxidative stability, due to peculiar effect of fermentation and distillation processes. Cold pressed oil obtained from cleaned and dried seeds of grapes after fermentation and/or distillation process was richer in bioactive compounds compared to the oil obtained from grape seeds without fermentation. On the other hand, the high temperature in distillation process of pomace had a negative effect on the content of some bioactive compounds and oxidative stability of oil from this waste material. Practical applications In this paper, different cold pressed grape seed oils were analyzed for nutritionally important compounds and oxidative stability. The results have been shown that, depending on the source of grape seeds as waste material, the nutritional quality of the obtained oils differs. In the production of high quality cold pressed grape seed oil, seeds from different sources of waste should not be mixed. It is not recommended to use the seeds from the waste material after distillation process in the production of high quality cold pressed grape seed oil.
Article
Virgin Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed oil (VGSO) contains high levels of linoleic acid (74%), and total unsaturated fatty acids amount to about 88%. In comparison to other edible oils, VGSO also contains an abundance of endogenous antioxidants, such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and phenolic compounds, the consumption of which has been positively associated with improvements in health status. This study is the first to investigate regulatory mechanisms of VGSO on hyperlipidemia in mice fed a high‐fat diet via exploration of changes in the expression patterns of genes associated with lipid metabolism. Results show that liver CAT and GSH‐px levels are higher and liver MDA concentrations are lower in the VGSO group as compared to those of CO and LO groups. In addition, concentrations of liver pro‐inflammatory cytokines are significantly decreased in mice fed VGSO, likely associated with the down‐regulation of TNF‐α and IL‐6. In addition, hyperlipidemia in mice can be ameliorated by consumption of VGSO through the up‐regulation of PPARα expression and down‐regulation of the expressions of SREBP‐1c, ACC, and FAS. In addition, findings also suggest that unsaponifiables are the most important factor in regulating lipid metabolism and protecting the liver. Practical Applications: Virgin Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed oil (VGSO) is rich in linoleic acid, phytosterols, tocopherols/tocotrienols, and phenolic compounds. VGSO has been reported to have the potential beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia. This study further investigates regulatory mechanisms of VGSO on hyperlipidemia in mice fed a high‐fat diet via exploration of changes in the expression patterns of genes associated with lipid metabolism. This study also investigates the effect of VGSO on improving inflammation and oxidative stress in mice and key component of VGSO for regulating lipid metabolism and protecting the liver. This research will provide a theoretical basis for the development of functional grape seed oil. Virgin grape seed oil (VGSO) is produced to increase added values of the wine industry due to the fact that it contains high level of unsaturated fatty acids and endogenous antioxidants. This study investigates the effect of VGSO on mice fed a high‐fat diet, and finds that VGSO can improve inflammation in mice via down‐regulation of TNF‐α and IL‐6 expression.
Article
This work presents a scale‐up and feasibility study for the establishment of supercritical CO2 extraction plants to produce grape seeds oil. The scale‐up factors are determined using experimental and modelling results based on seeds from six grape cultivars over 2 harvest years. The purchased cost of the production plant is estimated using ‘the six‐tenth rule’ from the cost of a pilot scale unit. The results indicate that, at the current minimum retail selling price of extra virgin grape seeds oil, the proposed project is technically viable and economically feasible with a breakeven point of US$ 7.46 per kg‐oil and rate of return on investment of 28%.
Article
BACKGROUND The seeds of Vitis vinifera grape are well studied, while the knowledge about the interspecific crosses of other Vitis species (e.g. V. vinifera, V. amurensis, V. rupestris, V. riparia, V. labruska) is very limited. RESULTS Oil yield recovered from the grape seeds ranged between 7–160 g kg‐1 dw. The main fatty acids were linoleic (72.5–83.1%), oleic (6.2–15.5%), and palmitic (5.4–13.2%), containing 92.8–97.1% of total detected fatty acids. The total concentration of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3) homologues was between 0.785–9.033 g kg‐1 oil. The concentration of sterols varied significantly and ranged between 2.912–105.962 g kg‐1 oil. The β‐sitosterol constituted 68.2–86.3% of the total content of sterols. The oil yield in grape seeds significantly correlated with the oleic acid, α‐linolenic acid, α‐T, α‐T3, γ‐T3, campesterol, Δ5‐stigmasterol, β‐sitosterol as well total Ts+T3s and sterols. CONCLUSION The present study demonstrated that seed oil recovered from different interspecific Vitis crosses are rich source of minor lipophilic bioactive compounds, especially genotypes with low oil content. They can be used to enrich the plant oils poor in tocotrienols and/or phytosterols, without changing of the fatty acid composition of main oil, due to low enrichment quantities (micro‐blends). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
We aimed to investigate the effect of linoleic acid (LA) treatment on the blood pressure and function of mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR were treated daily with LA (15 mg/kg) or vehicle (control) for 15 days. Compared with controls, LA treatment decreased blood pressure and showed the following in MRA: (1) increased lumen and external diameter, (2) decreased wall:lumen ratio and wall thickness, (3) decreased stiffness and (4) less collagen deposition. LA treatment reduced the contractile response to phenylephrine, although there were no changes observed in MRA in regard to the acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside responses. Incubation with L-NAME left-shifted the reactivity to phenylephrine only in the MRA treated group, suggesting that LA treatment can improve NO bioavailability. This result was accompanied by an increase "in situ" NO production. Incubation with tiron decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine in MRA in LA rats, which was accompanied by decreased superoxide anion production. Moreover, incubation with indomethacin (non-selective COX inhibitor, 10 μM), NS 398 (COX-2 specific inhibitor, 1 μM), furegrelate (TXA2 synthase inhibitor, 1 μM), SQ 29.548 (TP receptor antagonist, 1 μM) and SC 19220 (EP1 receptor antagonist, 10 μM) reduced the vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine in MRA in the treated group. These results were accompanied by a reduction in COX-2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that LA treatment decreases blood pressure. In addition, the improvement of endothelial dysfunction and structural changes in this hypertension model may be responsible for the reduction in blood pressure.
Article
Background: High-oleic (HO) seed oils are being introduced as replacements for trans fatty acid (TFA)-containing fats and oils. Negative health effects associated with TFAs led to their removal from the US Generally Recognized As Safe list. HO oils formulated for use in food production may result in changes in fatty acid intake at population levels. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to 1) identify major food sources of soybean oil (SO) and canola oil (CO), 2) estimate effects of replacing SO and CO with HO varieties on fatty acid intake overall and by age and sex strata, and 3) compare predicted intakes with the Dietary Reference Intakes and Adequate Intakes (AIs) for the essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). Design: Food and nutrient intakes from NHANES waves 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 in 21,029 individuals aged ≥20 y were used to model dietary changes. We estimated the intake of fatty acid with the replacement of HO-SO and HO-CO for commodity SO and CO at 10%, 25%, and 50% and evaluated the potential for meeting the AI at these levels. Results: Each modeling scenario decreased saturated fatty acids (SFAs), although intakes remained greater than recommended for all age and sex groups. Models of all levels increased the intake of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), especially oleic acid, and decreased the intake of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly LA and ALA. Replacement of traditional with HO oils at 25-50% places specific adult age and sex groups at risk of not meeting the AI for LA and ALA. Conclusions: The replacement of traditional oils with HO varieties will increase MUFA intake and reduce both SFA and PUFA intakes, including EFAs, and may place specific age and sex groups at risk of inadequate LA and ALA intake.
Article
This paper investigates the phenolic composition of 17 monocultivar commercial cold-pressed grape seed oils. Chromatographic profiles showed the presence of more than 28 molecules, 11 of which were successfully identified by HPLC-DAD-MS-TOF and HPLC-FLD analysis. Pinoresinol, ethyl caffeate and ethyl gallate were detected for the first time in these oils. The total phenolic content ranged between 0.83 mg/kg for Viognier sample to 15.16 mg/kg for Merlot org sample. The detected ethyl esters can be suggested as markers to evaluate the intensity of fermentation in grape seeds before oil extraction, and to control the sensorial quality of the produced oils. In addition, the inhibitory power of these phenolic extracts against Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B enzyme (PTP-1B), overexpressed in type-two diabetes, was investigated for the first time. Data highlighted a good correlation between total phenolic content and inhibitory power, with pinoresinol, p-coumaric acid and quercetin making the greater contributions.
Article
Phytosterols (plant sterols) occur in the cells of all plants. They are important structural components that stabilize the biological membranes of plants. Sterols can occur in the "free" unbound form or they can be covalently bound via an ester or glycosidic bond. Since our previous 2002 review on phytosterols and phytosterol conjugates, phytosterol glucosides have been found to be important structural components in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of plant cells, where they are thought to be essential to the function of plasma membrane enzymes and perhaps other proteins. Phytosterols also serve as precursors in the synthesis of important bioactive compounds such as steroidal saponins, steroidal glycoalkaloids, phytoecdysteroids, and brassinosteroids. Methods for the analysis of phytosterols range from traditional gas chromatography of free phytosterols to modern sophisticated forms of mass spectrometry which have been used for the new field of sterol lipidomics, sometimes called "sterolomics." Phytosterol-enriched functional foods first appeared about twenty years ago and many clinical studies have confirmed the low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering properties of various types of phytosterols. In recent years additional clinical studies and more than ten important meta-analyses have provided insights to better understand the cholesterol-lowering and other biological effects of plant sterols.
Article
Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed has a well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Herein, we report that unsaponifiable fraction (UF) isolated from grape seed oil (GSO) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in human primary monocytes. UF isolated from GSO was phytochemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC. Freshly human monocytes were used to analyse the effects of GSOUF (10-100 μg/mL) on oxidative and inflammatory responses using FACS analysis, RT-qPCR, and ELISA procedures. GSOUF skewed the monocyte plasticity towards the anti-inflammatory non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes and reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human primary monocytes diminishing TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression and secretion. In addition, GSOUF showed a strong reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, reducing significantly nitrite levels with a significant decrease on Nos2 gene expression. Our results suggest that UF isolated from GSO has significant potential for management of inflammatory and oxidative conditions and offer novel benefits derived from the consumption of GSO in the prevention of inflammatory-related diseases.
Article
Hypertension is highly prevalent amongst people with diabetes, and the presence of diabetes amongst those with hypertension portends an increase in cardiovascular risk. This review aims to explore the pathophysiological links between diabetes and hypertension. Renal sodium handling differs in diabetes as there is an upregulation of sodium transporters in the kidneys. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be upregulated in diabetes, leading to hypertension through a direct effect mediated by angiotensin II, as well as indirectly through upregulation of sympathetic activity. RAAS blockade is a mainstay therapy for hypertension, and evidence suggests that it may also reduce the incidence of diabetes. People with diabetes frequently have autonomic dysfunction, which could contribute to hypertension through increased sympathetic tone and through stimulation of renin production in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Furthermore, people with diabetes also frequently demonstrate an abnormality in their circadian blood pressure pattern. Another important link between hypertension and diabetes is both the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease, the pathophysiology of which is mediated through several pathways including endothelial dysfunction and advanced glycation end products. Finally, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, through their effects on various hormones and inflammation, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and diabetes.
Article
To investigate the values of muscadine grape byproduct, seed oils from 48 muscadine grape cultivars harvested in two seasons were evaluated for their vitamin E isomer content and fatty acid profile. The polyphenol profile and antioxidant properties of the oils were investigated from selected muscadine cultivars. The results showed that muscadine grape seed oils (MGSOs) contained 584.7 mg/kg tocopherols and 517.6 mg/kg tocotrienols, higher than those in other common edible oils. More than 85% of the fatty acids in MGSOs were unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid. The vitamin E isomer contents were positively correlated with percent linoleic acid in MGSOs which also contained large amounts of phenolic compounds ranging from 124.79 to 358.04 μg/g oil. In addition, MGSOs possessed strong antioxidant activities, which were correlated with the γ‐tocopherol and total polyphenol contents in the oils. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that MGSOs are edible oils with great nutritional potential. Practical applications This study presents the identification and characterization of vitamin E isomers and phenolic compounds in seed oils from different muscadine cultivars. The information is highly relevant to the ever‐increasing need for natural, renewable sources of nutraceuticals among consumers. The study also shows high contents of tocotrienols and phenolic compounds in the oils, which could lead to a health claim and added value for muscadine processors and growers.
Article
The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard (STD) or CAF diets for 12 weeks. The CAF diet-fed rats were administered different doses of a low-molecular-weight grape-seed polyphenol extract (LM-GSPE) (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg per d) or vehicle daily, and the STD diet-fed rats were administered LM-GSPE (100 mg/kg per d) or vehicle using ten animals per group. Body weight (BW), waist perimeter (WP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) by the tail-cuff method were recorded weekly. The animals were housed in metabolic chambers every 2 weeks to estimate daily food and liquid intakes and to collect faeces and urine samples. The plasma lipid profile was analysed at time 0 and on the 4th, 7th, 10th and 12th weeks of the experiment. Moreover, plasma leptin was measured at the end of the experiment. Results demonstrated that LM-GSPE, when administered with the CAF diet, attenuated the increase in BP, BW, WP and improved lipid metabolism in these animals. However, although the 25- and 100-mg/kg per d doses were sufficient to produce beneficial effects on BP and lipid metabolism, a 200-mg/kg per d dose was necessary to have an effect on BW and WP. The present findings suggest that LM-GSPE is a good candidate for a BP-lowering agent that can also ameliorate other conditions associated with the MetS.
Article
Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation. Moreover, phytosterols have also exhibited properties that directly inhibit tumor growth, including reduced cell cycle progression, apoptosis induction, and tumor metastasis inhibition. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on occurrences, chemistry, pharmacokinetics and potential anticancer properties of phytosterols in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, anticancer effects of phytosterols have strongly been suggested and support their dietary inclusion to prevent and treat cancers.
Article
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and ionizing radiation are well known environmental pollutants that generate free radicals and induce oxidative stress. The liver is the primary and major target organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs, toxic chemicals and affected by irradiation. This study investigated the effect of grape seed oil (GSO) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in γ-irradiated rats (7Gy). CCl4-intoxicated rats exhibited an elevation of ALT, AST activities, IL-6 and TNF-α level in the serum. Further, the levels of MDA, NO, NF-κB and the gene expression of CYP2E1, iNOS and Caspase-3 were increased, and SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST activities and GSH content were decreased. Furthermore, silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1) gene expression was markedly down-regulated. Additionally, alterations of the trace elements; copper, manganese, zinc and DNA fragmentation was observed in the hepatic tissues of the intoxicated group. These effects were augmented in CCl4-intoxicated-γ-irradiated rats. However, the administration of GSO ameliorated these parameters. GSO exhibit protective effects on CCl4 induced acute liver injury in γ-irradiated rats that could be attributed to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. The induction of the antioxidant enzymes activities, down-regulation of the CYP2E1, iNOS, Caspase-3 and NF-κB expression, up-regulation of the trace elements concentration levels and activation of SIRT1 gene expression are responsible for the improvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in the hepatic tissues and could be claimed to be the hepatoprotective mechanism of GSO.
Article
This study investigated the possible beneficial effects of grape seed oil (GSO) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute neurotoxicity in γ-irradiated rats. A statistical significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were exhibited. Further, a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) levels was observed. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were elevated in the γ-irradiated animals treated with an acute dose of CCl4. The pretreatment of GSO exerts significant amelioration of the studied parameters. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that GSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in γ-irradiated rats, which is likely attributed to its ability to scavenge the free radicals, suppress the inflammatory responses, improve the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and inhibit the XO and iNOS gene expression levels.
Article
Recently, the pro-inflammatory effects of linoleic acid (LNA) have been re-examined. It is now becoming clear that relatively few studies have adequately assessed the effects of LNA, independent of obesity. The purpose of this work was to compare the effects of several fat-enriched but non-obesigenic diets on inflammation to provide a more accurate assessment of LNA's ability to induce inflammation. Specifically, 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), LNA, or alpha-linolenic acid enriched diets (50 % Kcal from fat, 22 % wt/wt) for 4 weeks. Chow and high-fat, hyper-caloric diets were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant markers from epididymal fat, liver, and plasma were measured along with food intake and body weights. Mice fed the high SFA, MUFA, and high-fat diets exhibited increased pro-inflammatory markers in liver and adipose tissue; however, mice fed LNA for four weeks did not display significant changes in pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulant markers in epididymal fat, liver, or plasma. The present study demonstrates that LNA alone is insufficient to induce inflammation. Instead, it is more likely that hyper-caloric diets are responsible for diet-induced inflammation possibly due to adipose tissue remodeling.