Resumen La bioética es una disciplina reciente, tanto descriptiva (meta-bioética) como normativa/prescriptiva. La base de esta normatividad es el consenso que resulta de la deliberación acerca de diversos temas contemporáneos que atañen a la humanidad desde su dimensión moral, biológica, psicológica, social y relacional con otros seres vivos. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la teoría de la argumentación y la estructura del discurso en bioética como un enfoque desde la retórica esta herramienta genera un discurso persuasivo con el fin de lograr un consenso fundamentado en la razón práctica y la reflexión ética. Además, la deliberación fue apoyada en argumentos teóricos que respaldan una "dialéctica para una sociedad democrática" (Reeder, 2007). Entre las evidencias obtenidas se puede hacer mención el aporte de la teoría de la comunicación humana de Watzlawick, la pragmalingüística en Austin, el método triangular de Elio Sgreccia y la retórica contemporánea.
English language tutoring and/or self-access centers are services commonly offered as curricular support to English language program students in educational environments worldwide. This paper argues that the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) from the field of adult education should be considered alongside the equally-important areas of language learning strategies, learner autonomy, and self-regulated learning in the setup of these types of tutoring/self-access academic support centers. The proposition is examined by applying it to a particular case in an English language program of a major research university in the southeastern United States. The paper explicates the commonly-known theory of SDL (Grow, 1991) and relates it to models by put forward by Nakata (2010) and Oxford (2011, 2107). Empirical evidence from studies on encouraging SDL for English language study is summarized from a range of research projects conducted worldwide, and the author concludes by offering implications for educators in any institution-based, adult English language program.
Classroom-based, teacher-directed language learning has been dominant in language teaching and learning for decades; however, the notion of autonomy is not novel to language teachers. Since the publication of Holec’s book, Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning (1981), autonomy in language learning has been a significant issue for discussion in relation to language learning practices and language teaching principles. Many ESL researchers have turned their attention to learner autonomy in classroom settings; however, learner autonomy in the Iranian context within self-access settings, classroom settings, and school curriculum has not been adequately addressed in the literature. To fill the research gap mentioned above, the present study aims to determine: 1. if Betts’s Autonomous Learner Model (Betts & Kercher, 1999) has any significant effect in terms of students’ self-directed learning readiness, and 2. if Betts’s Autonomous Learner Model has any significant effect on students’ English language proficiency. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, the study involved a comparison between the experimental and the control group. Two instruments were used: Gugliemino’s (1977) Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS); and standardized TOEFL test. 30 students (group A) were taught English based on a pedagogical model, which blended Betts’s ALM with classroom instruction and 30 students (group B) were taught through a traditional teacher-directed method. Finally, after six months of treatment, TOEFL test and SDLRS test were administered as the post-test and the results were analyzed by means of SPSS software. The results showed that ALM can work with Iranian students as evidenced by generally average performance on SDLRS and TOEFL post-tests.
The aim of the study is to identify the factors that influence tertiary students' continuation and completion of a self-directed English learning scheme at a university in Hong Kong. The study collected and analyzed both quantitative and qualitative data based on 76 students' attendance records provided by language advisors, 27 completed online questionnaires, and seven interviews with purposively selected students. The findings revealed some factors that influenced students' engagement in independent language learning. They indicated that despite students' increasing wish to become proficient in English, their efforts to engage in language learning decreased over the course of the semester. Students' busy study schedules and the tough requirements of the scheme were identified as the major causes of demotivation among the participants. In contrast, continuous advisor and peer support and evidence of progress contributed to student persistence in the learning process. Another factor that distinguished motivated learners from less motivated learners was their level of autonomous behavior. Some recommendations are made to support teaching and learning in similar language support schemes in higher education to help sustain and promote students’ interest in self-directed language learning.
International student mobility in higher education has gained currency as an important topic in today’s global, political, and economic environment. United States postsecondary institutions are working to expand their international student population to increase revenue and diversity. The current higher education and economic context has produced a “global war” to identify, recruit, and matriculate talented students who have become more mobile when selecting postsecondary education destinations. Thus, in order to provide a clear picture of the current status of international student migration to the United States, we sought to understand the following: 1)prestige as a determining factor in the selection of studying abroad for non-Americans living outside the United States; 2) federal and state financial influences that directly affect institutions’ abilities to enroll foreign students; 3) implications for postsecondary institutions in the United States; and 4) implications for scientific, cultural, and economic advancement for the United States.