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Effects of social position and household affordances on COVID-19 lockdown resilience and coping

Article

Effects of social position and household affordances on COVID-19 lockdown resilience and coping

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Abstract

In France, the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing lockdown measures have created unprecedented circumstances that increase stress and anxiety, thus leading individuals experiencing home confinement to adopt various coping strategies that contribute to building resilience. Given the novelty and recency of the COVID-19 lockdown, factors of coping and resilience in this specific context of home confinement remain undefined. Based on some recent observations, we conducted a study on a convenience sample in France (N = 809) in order to investigate two potential factors of lockdown resilience and coping: social position and household affordances, while also exploring some complementary hypotheses based on the literature. Social position and household affordances were identified as significant predictors of lockdown coping and resilience, and low social position was found to coincide with less social support coping strategies. Results are discussed in relation to the theory and the limits identified in this study. Recommendations are made for potential second waves of COVID-19 spread or similar pandemics in the future.

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... Economic disparities are especially likely to result not only in distinct transmission and infection risks among hosts, but also in variable public health attention and responses [9,17,34,38,57,88,122]. The lack of pharmaceutical interventions, and the heavy reliance on underfunded, or structurally adjusted, public institutions for disease control may exacerbate existing disparities in vulnerability to infection among host populations [4,22,79,120,129]. This is because non-pharmaceutical interventions, ranging from highly targeted case-detection and expansive contact-tracing to population-wide guidelines on physical distancing to lockdowns and economic shutdowns, require both a robust public health infrastructure and high social and economic development to implement successfully [9,33,40,46,48,53,54,71,87,137,141]. ...
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As a public health emergency, a pandemic increases susceptibility to unfavourable psychological outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the buffering role of personal resilience in two aspects of psychological functioning, mental health and stress, among Slovene adults at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Within five days after Slovenia declared epidemics, 2722 participants (75% female) completed an on-line survey measuring mental health and perceived stress as outcome variables and demographics, health-related variables, and personal resilience as predictor variables. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses demonstrated that women, younger, and less educated participants had higher odds for less favourable psychological functioning during the COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, poorer health indicators and COVID-19 infection concerns predicted diminished psychological functioning. The crucial factor promoting good psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemics was resilience , additionally buffering against detrimental effects of demographic and health-related variables on mental health and perceived stress. While previous research suggests that mental health problems increase during pandemics, one way to prevent these problems and bolster psychological functioning is to build individuals' resilience. The interventions should be targeted particularly at younger adults, women, less educated people, and individuals who subjectively perceive their health to be rather poor.
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Background: Social connections are crucial for our health and well-being. This is especially true during times of high uncertainty and distress, such as during the COVID-19 lockdown. This period was characterized by unprecedented social distancing measures resulting in significant changes to people’s usual social lives. Given the potential effects of this disruption on people’s wellbeing, it is crucial to identify factors which are associated with negative health outcomes, and conversely, those that promote resilience during times of adversity. Aims: We examined the relationship between individuals’ levels of social connectedness during lockdown and self-reported stress, worry, and fatigue. Method: Survey data was collected from 981 individuals in a representative sample of Austrian citizens. Data collection occurred during the last week of a six-week nationwide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The final sample consisted of 902 participants. Participants were asked to complete validated questionnaires to assess levels of social connectedness as well as measures of perceived stress, worry—both general and COVID-19 specific—and symptoms of fatigue during the previous two weeks. Results: Our results demonstrate that greater social connectedness during the lockdown period was associated with lower levels of perceived stress, as well as general and COVID-19 specific worries. Furthermore, we found a negative relationship between fatigue and social connectedness, which was mediated by feelings of stress, general worries, and COVID-19 specific worries—respectively, indicating that individuals with smaller network sizes, who were highly distressed during the pandemic, were also likely to report feeling more fatigued. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the important role that social connections play in promoting resilience by buffering against negative physical and mental health outcomes, particularly in times of adversity.
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The outbreak of COVID-19 in Spain started at the end of February. By 9th April 2020 Spain was the second country in confirmed cases and in deaths. On March 14, 2020, the Spanish Government declared the state of alarm to limit viral transmission. During such state, citizens must stay confined at home with few justified exceptions. This whole situation drastically changed the life of the population, which can cause a wide range of psychosocial impacts. This study explored the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general adult population (N = 3055) during the first stages of the outbreak in Spain, as well as their anxiety, stress and depression levels. We also examined the extent to which the following variables were associated to participants’ mental health: 1) demographics; 2) degree of concern about the pandemic; 3) environmental conditions during the home confinement, 5) changes in daily life as a consequence of the pandemic; 6) contact with the COVID-19 disease; 7) actual and perceived severity of the crisis; 8) information about the COVID-19, 9) perceived health status and 10) leisure activities conducted within the last 24 hours. Our results show that Spanish consider the current COVID-19 health crisis as fairly severe, and the majority felt that the COVID-19 crisis had greatly impacted on their daily life, including changes in their daily routines and cancellation of important activities. About 36% of the participants reported moderate to severe psychological impact, 25% showed mild to severe levels of anxiety, 41% reported depressive symptoms, and 41% felt stressed. Women, young, and those who that lost their job during the health crisis showed the strongest negative psychological symptoms. What worried Spaniards the most was the likelihood of suffering an economic crisis derived from the pandemic. We found factors associated with better mental health, such as being satisfied with the information received about the health crisis, conducting leisure activities, and the perception of being in good health. These findings can be used to design psychological interventions to help coping with COVID-19 pandemic, both in Spain and other countries.
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Objective How the impact of the COVID‐19 stay‐at‐home orders are influencing physical, mental, and financial health among vulnerable populations, including those with obesity is unknown. The aim of the current study was to explore the health implications of COVID‐19 AMong a sample of adults with obesity. Methods A retrospective medical chart review identified patients with obesity from an obesity medicine clinic and a bariatric surgery (MBS) practice. Patients completed an online survey from April 15, 2020 to May 31, 2020 to assess COVID‐19 status and health behaviors during stay‐at‐home orders. Logistic regression models examined the impact of these orders on anxiety and depression by ethnic group. Results A total of 123 patients (87% female, mean age 51.2 years [SD 13.0], mean BMI 40.2 [SD 6.7], 49.2% Non‐Hispanic white, 28.7% Non‐Hispanic black, 16.4% Hispanic, 7% other ethnicity, 33.1% completed MBS were included. Two patients tested positive for SARS‐CoV‐2 and 14.6% reported symptoms. 72.8% reported increased anxiety and 83.6% increased depression since stay‐at‐home orders were initiated. 69.6% reported more difficultly in achieving weight loss goals, less exercise time (47.9%) and intensity (55.8%), increased stockpiling of food (49.6%) and stress eating (61.2%). Hispanics were less likely to report anxiety vs non‐Hispanic whites (aOR 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05‐0.49; P = 0.009). Conclusions Results here showed the COVID‐19 pandemic is having a significant impact on patients with obesity regardless of infection status. These results can inform clinicians and healthcare professionals about effective strategies to minimize COVID‐19 negative outcomes for this vulnerable population now and in post‐COVID‐19 recovery efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late December 2019 in China, which later developed into a pandemic, has forced different countries to implement strict sanitary regimes and social distancing measures. Globally, at least four billion people were under lockdown, working remotely, homeschooling children, and facing challenges coping with quarantine and the stressful events. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1097), conducted during a nationwide quarantine, aimed to assess whether nutritional and consumer habits have been affected under these conditions. Over 43.0% and nearly 52% reported eating and snacking more, respectively, and these tendencies were more frequent in overweight and obese individuals. Almost 30% and over 18% experienced weight gain (mean ± SD 3.0 ± 1.6 kg) and loss (−2.9 ± 1.5 kg), respectively. Overweight, obese, and older subjects (aged 36–45 and >45) tended to gain weight more frequently, whereas those with underweight tended to lose it further. Increased BMI was associated with less frequent consumption of vegetables, fruit, and legumes during quarantine, and higher adherence to meat, dairy, and fast-foods. An increase in alcohol consumption was seen in 14.6%, with a higher tendency to drink more found among alcohol addicts. Over 45% of smokers experienced a rise in smoking frequency during the quarantine. The study highlights that lockdown imposed to contain an infectious agent may affect eating behaviors and dietary habits, and advocates for organized nutritional support during future epidemic-related quarantines, particularly for the most vulnerable groups, including overweight and obese subjects.
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Abstract Faced with the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, regulatory measures aiming to prevent interpersonal contaminations have been undertaken and among these, lockdown. Due to strong restrictions out-of-home movements, we hypothesize that overall physical activity will decrease and sedentary behavior increase. This could result in highest exposure to the well-known risk related to insufficient physical activity. To mitigate physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors health-related risks related to children and adolescents lockdown and school closure, Anses (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety) has adapted, within the first days of the public authorities’ prescription, its former benchmarks. This paper supports and comments Anses’ Opinion by raising the questions of whether, why, and how to deal with short- or medium-term lockdown-related physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increases. Short-term and unknown long term-impacts on mental health and well-being, physical fitness and eating behaviors clearly appearing for children and adolescents as being the main issues of concern are highlighted. Targeting the compensations of the physical inactivity increase, the types, frequencies and durations of physical activity, are adapted to restricted environment. Sedentary behavior limitation and frequent interruptions becomes a priority. Overall, considering children and adolescents, the emerging risk justifies proposing specific adaptations and type of activities in order to ensure maintaining health underpinned, at least partly, by physiological equilibrium and physical fitness and avoid the installation of new unhealthy habits or routines that young people could keep after lockdown.
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In response to the outbreak of COVID 19 cases in Zimbabwe, the government declared a twenty-one-day lockdown beginning the 30 th of March 2020. This study sought to analyse the coping mechanisms that people adopted to survive the lockdown. Specifically, the study explored the social, psychological, religious and physical coping mechanisms adopted by Zimbabweans. A qualitative approach was taken in doing this study, specifically making use of the document analysis design. Data was then collected from a social media platform which is WhatsApp. Forty WhatsApp messages and status updates were analyzed in this research. The lockdown presented challenges and opportunities; some people were struggling to cope yet some saw this as an opportunity to do things that they had no time for. The study revealed that people resorted to WhatsApp groups to connect with workmates, friends, schoolmates and relatives. Most Zimbabweans resorted to indoor games with their family members, exercise, listening to music and gardening. With the restricted movement imposed as a result of lockdown, people had to engage in prayer and other religious activities in their homes. Students found the lockdown as a good opportunity to engage in research and also made use of platforms such as the Google Classroom to continue learning. The study recommends that Zimbabweans should follow government regulations in order to curb the spread of COVID 19 and similar pandemics in the future.
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The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing epidemic of coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome, which has spread recently worldwide. Efforts to prevent the virus from spreading include travel restrictions, lockdowns as well as national or regional quarantines throughout the international community. The major negative psychological outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic is the anxiety caused by it. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of concern and the contributions of modes of resilience, well-being and demographic attributes towards decreasing or enhancing anxiety and depression among two samples: Israeli Jews (majority group) and Israeli Arabs (minority group). These random samples included 605 Jews and 156 Arabs who participated in an internet survey. A previous study, which has been conducted in the context of terror attacks, has shown that compared to Israeli Jews, Israeli Arabs expressed a higher level of fear of war and lower levels of resilience supporting personality attributes. The results of the current study indicated a similar pattern that emerged in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: the Israeli Arabs reported a higher level of distress and a lower level of resilience and well-being.
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Objectives: To investigate factors associated with adherence to self-isolation and lockdown measures due to COVID-19 in the UK. Design: Online cross-sectional survey. Setting: Data were collected between 6th and 7th May 2020. Participants: 2240 participants living in the UK aged 18 years or over. Participants were recruited from YouGov's online research panel. Main outcome measures: Having gone out in the last 24 hours in those who reported symptoms of COVID-19 in their household. Having gone out shopping for items other than groceries, toiletries or medicines (non-essentials), and total number of outings, in the last week in those who reported no symptoms of COVID-19 in their household. Results: 217 people (9.7%) reported that they or someone in their household had symptoms of COVID-19 (cough or high temperature / fever) in the last seven days. Of these people, 75.1% had left the home in the last 24 hours (defined as non-adherent). Factors associated with non-adherence were being male, less worried about COVID-19, and perceiving a smaller risk of catching COVID-19. Adherence was associated with having received help from someone outside your household. Results should be taken with caution as there was no evidence for associations when controlling for multiple analyses. Of people reporting no symptoms in the household, 24.5% had gone out shopping for non-essentials in the last week (defined as non-adherent). Factors associated with non-adherence and with a higher total number of outings in the last week included decreased perceived effectiveness of Government "lockdown" measures, decreased perceived severity of COVID-19, and decreased estimates of how many other people were following lockdown rules. Having received help was associated with better adherence. Conclusions: Adherence to self-isolation is poor. As we move into a new phase of contact tracing and self-isolation, it is essential that adherence is improved. Communications should aim to increase knowledge about actions to take when symptomatic or if you have been in contact with a possible COVID-19 case. They should also emphasise the risk of catching and spreading COVID-19 when out and about and the effectiveness of preventative measures. Using volunteer networks effectively to support people in isolation may promote adherence.
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COVID-19 has had disproportionate contagion and fatality in Black, Latino, and Native American communities and among the poor in the United States. Toxic stress resulting from racial and social inequities have been magnified during the pandemic, with implications for poor physical and mental health and socioeconomic outcomes. It is imperative that our country focus and invest in addressing health inequities and work across sectors to build self-efficacy and long-term capacity within communities and systems of care serving the most disenfranchised, now and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 epidemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: Quarantine/confinement is an effective measure to face the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consequently, in response to this stressful situation, people confined to their homes may change their everyday eating behavior. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the association between quarantine/confinement stressors and eating behavior during the COVID-19 outbreak. The secondary objective is to evaluate the association of quarantine/ confinement stressors and eating behavior amongst two groups of participants selected from the population: individuals attending diet clinics and individuals who are not attending diet clinics. Method: A cross-sectional web-based online survey carried out between April 3 and 18, 2020, enrolled 407 participants from the Lebanese population. Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire (EDE-Q) were used to measure the behavioral features of eating disorders. Results: More than half of the sample (53.0%) abide to the home quarantine/confinement, 95.4% were living with someone in the quarantine/confinement and 39.6% continued to work from home. Using the lower scores as reference group, higher fear of COVID-19 was found in 182 (44.8%) participants, higher boredom in 200 (49.2%) participants, higher anger in 187 (46.3%) and higher anxiety in 197 (48.5%) participants. A greater fear of COVID-19 (Beta=0.02), higher BMI (Beta=0.05), and physical activity (Beta=1.04) were significantly associated with a higher restraint score. Higher anxiety, higher fear of COVID-19, higher BMI, practicing physical exercise and higher number of adults living in the quarantine/confinement were significantly associated with a higher shape and weight concern. Conclusion: Our results showed that the fear of COVID-19 was correlated with more restraint eating, weight, and shape concern in the whole sample and more specifically in the dietitian clients group. Public health control measures are needed to define factors of eating disorders during the quarantine/confinement period related to the COVID-19 outbreak.
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Background: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyles at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020, in seven languages, to elucidate the behavioural and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours. Methods: Following a structured review of the literature, the "Effects of home Confinement on multiple Lifestyle Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak (ECLB-COVID19)" Electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists and academics. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform. Thirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format, with questions related to responses "before" and "during" confinement conditions. Results: 1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included in the analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all PA intensity levels (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Additionally, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 h per day. Food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of main meals) were more unhealthy during confinement, with only alcohol binge drinking decreasing significantly. Conclusion: While isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a health compromising direction. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups, which will help develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviours that have manifested during the COVID-19 confinement.
Article
The first half of the year 2020 will be well remembered and recollected by historians,researchers, thinkers over the years for the disruption caused the world over by the coronavirus pandemic. The largest economies of the world were on lockdown to contain the virus. Itpitted the whole of humanity against the virus. There has been severe irretraceable damage toeconomic and human health, wealth and prosperity. These histories of pandemics that haveamputated nations over the years have also seen different measures that have been taken up toarrest the spread of the pandemics. Some of these measures are isolation, quarantine,confinement and more significantly nationwide or region wise lockdown. These measureshave a severe impact on the social, political and economic facets of the nation/nations. PostCOVID-19 there will be a lot of lessons to learn and pick up from and the impact this virusand measures are taken to contain its spread has had on the nation. This paper is intended tolook at living communities and some important dimensions that we believe need attention to create a minimally disruptive ecosystem to sustain such pandemics in the near future.
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Objectives: Some factors influence the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic (health, loneliness, digital access...), but what about the living area? The objective was to compare between rural and urban areas, the psychological and social experiences of the older individuals with regard to the COVID-19 crisis during the first French lockdown. Methods: The sample included participants of three existing population-based cohorts on aging. Telephone interviews conducted by psychologists focused on the lockdown period. Data collected included living environment, professional assistance, social support, contacts with relatives, difficulties encountered, health, and knowledge and representations of the epidemic. The negative experience was defined by the presence of at least two of the following items: high anxiety symptomatology, depressive symptoms, worries or difficulties during the lockdown and insufficient social support. Results: The sample included 467 participants, aged on average 87.5 years (5.2), 58.9% were female and 47.1% lived in rural areas. Persons living in rural area had better social support, greater family presence, a less frequent feeling of imprisonment (OR=0.60, 95CI%=0.36-0.99), 95% had a garden (vs. 56%), fewer depressive symptoms and lower anxiety scores, but also tended to lower comply with the health measures. Finally, they had an almost twofold lower risk of having a negative experience of the lockdown compared to their urban counterparts (OR = 0.55, 95%CI=0.33-0.92, p=0.0223). Conclusions: The oldest old living in rural area experienced the first lockdown better than the urbans. Living conditions, with access to nature, a greater social support and family presence, could have contributed to these findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
OBJECTIVES: Some factors influence the experience of the COVID-19 pandemic (health, loneliness, digital access...), but what about the living area? The objective was to compare between rural and urban areas, the psychological and social experiences of the older individuals with regard to the COVID-19 crisis during the first French lockdown. METHODS: The sample included participants of three existing population-based cohorts on aging. Telephone interviews conducted by psychologists focused on the lockdown period. Data collected included living environment, professional assistance, social support, contacts with relatives, difficulties encountered, health, and knowledge and representations of the epidemic. The negative experience was defined by the presence of at least two of the following items: high anxiety symptomatology, depressive symptoms, worries or difficulties during the lockdown and insufficient social support. RESULTS: The sample included 467 participants, aged on average 87.5 years (5.2), 58.9% were female and 47.1% lived in rural areas. Persons living in rural area had better social support, greater family presence, a less frequent feeling of imprisonment (OR = 0.60, 95 CI% = 0.36-0.99), 95% had a garden (vs. 56%), fewer depressive symptoms and lower anxiety scores, but also tended to lower comply with the health measures. Finally, they had an almost twofold lower risk of having a negative experience of the lockdown compared to their urban counterparts (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.33-0.92, p = 0.0223). CONCLUSIONS: The oldest old living in rural area experienced the first lockdown better than the urbans. Living conditions, with access to nature, a greater social support and family presence, could have contributed to these findings.
Article
Background: The 2019 coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) led out the mental health crisis. Aim: To determine the psychological status and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD) among general population (except confirmed and suspected cases, and close contacts) and their association with the coping strategy types during the COVID-19 outbreak. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants were recruited from the community through snowball sampling with anonymous online questionnaires, using 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), 22-item Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) and 28-item Brief Coping Inventory (COPE) to measure their psychiatric disorders, PTSD level, and coping strategies. Results: Of the total 1109 participants, 42.65% and 67.09% self-reported psychiatric disorders and high PTSD level, respectively. Age, occupation, and education level were significantly association with psychological status. The status of psychiatric disorders was also significantly related to high PTSD level. Using both emotion and problem coping was better for psychiatric status (aOR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98) and problem-focused coping was significantly associated with high PTSD level (aOR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.25-3.51). Conclusions: Negative psychological outcomes were common among the general people during the COVID-19 outbreak, and the findings may provide references for intervention guidelines of mental health for the community population.
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The COVID-19 epidemic and the quarantine that children in many countries have had to undergo is a stressful situation about which little is known so far. The coping behaviors carried out by children and adolescents to face home confinement can be associated with their emotional welfare. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine the coping strategies carried out by children and adolescents during the COVID-19 health crisis, 2) to analyze the differences in these behaviors in three countries, and 3) to examine the relationship between different modalities of coping and better adaptation. Participants were 1,480 parents of children aged 3-18 years from three European countries (n Spain = 431, n Italy = 712, and n Portugal = 355). The children’s mean age was 9.15 years (SD = 4.27). Parents completed an online survey providing information on symptoms and coping behaviors observed in their children. The most frequent coping strategies were accepting what is going on (58.9%), collaborating with quarantine social activities (e.g., drawings on the windows, supportive applauses) (35.9%), acting as if nothing is happening (35.5%), highlighting pros of being at home (35.1%), and not seeming worried about what is happening (30.1%). Compared to Italian and Spanish children, Portuguese children used a sense of humor more frequently when parents talked about the situation. Acting as if nothing happened, collaborating with social activities, and seeking comfort from others was more likely in Spanish children than in children from the other countries. Compared to Portuguese and Spanish children, those from Italy seem not worried about what was happening. Overall, an emotional-oriented coping style was directly correlated with a greater presence of anxious symptoms, as well as mood, sleep, behavioral, and cognitive alterations. Task-oriented and avoidance-oriented styles were related to better psychological adaptation, measured as the low presence of psychological symptoms. Results also show that unaffected children or children with a lower level of impact were more likely to use strategies based on a positive focus on the situation. This study provides interesting data on the strategies to be promoted by parents to cope with the COVID-19 health crisis in children.
Article
The 2019 Coronavirus pandemic has brought about significant and unprecedented changes to the modern world, including stay-at-home orders, high rates of unemployment, and more than a hundred thousand deaths across the United States. Derived from the self-medication hypothesis, this research explored how perceived threat and psychological distress related to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with drinking behavior among an American sample of adults. We also evaluated whether links between COVID-19-related perceived threat and psychological distress with drinking behavior are different for men and women. Participants (N=754; 50% women) completed an online Qualtrics Panels study between April 17th and 23rd, 2020. Results suggested that psychological distress related to the COVID-19 pandemic was consistently related to alcohol use indices, and moderation results indicated this pattern was significant only among women for number of drinks consumed during the recent heaviest drinking occasion and number of drinks consumed on a typical evening. COVID-related distress’ link to frequency of drinking and heavy drinking episodes was not different for men and women. Our results suggest that continued monitoring, particularly among women, should be conducted as this pandemic continues to evolve to identify the long-term public health impacts of drinking to cope with COVID-19 distress.
Article
The worldwide corona virus (COVID‐19) has had profound effects on all aspects of life: physical health, the ability to travel locally or to more distant destinations, material and financial resources, and psychosocial wellbeing. Couples, families, and communities and individual persons in those relationships have struggled to cope with emerging depression, anxiety, and trauma, and the rise of relational conflict. In this article, we suggest that the existential nature of the pandemic’s challenges require more than just the usual psychosocial interventions. We propose a taxonomy of responses to foster coping and resilience – “Reaching Up, Down, In, and Around”. “Reaching Up” includes accessing spiritual, religious, and ethical values. “Reaching Down” includes ideas and practices that foster a revised relationship with the Earth and its resources, and that engage families to participate in activities that aid the Earth’s recovery from decades of human‐caused damage. “Reaching In” represents a turn towards experiences available in the mind and in shared minds in relationships that provide pleasure, excitement, joy, and peace, given that external sources of these emotions are of limited availability due to quarantine. “Reaching Around” involves reframing the mandate for “social distancing” as fostering social connection and support while maintaining physical distancing. The challenges for family therapists, whose practices are confined largely to online therapy, and who are struggling with the same fears and constraints as those persons they are attempting to help, are also discussed.
Article
The hidden and often unspoken impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV). This commentary addresses this issue and highlights a study undertaken to address this public health issue by generating empirical research on the relationship between COVID-19 and IPV. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Abstract COVID-19 has wreaked havoc on the lives of persons around the world and social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. While designed to protect people from the coronavirus, one potential and unintended consequence of such orders could be an increase in domestic violence – including abuse of partners, elders or children. Stay-at-home orders result in perpetrators and victims being confined in close quarters for long periods of time. In this study, we use data from Dallas, Texas to examine the extent to which a local order was associated with an increase in domestic violence. Our results provide some evidence for a short-term spike in the 2 weeks after the lockdown was instituted but a decrease thereafter. We note that it is difficult to determine just how much the lockdown was the cause of this increase as the domestic violence trend was increasing prior to the order.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Spanish confinement for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic on the behavior of pet cats and dogs, and the support that pets provided to their owners. We found that the quality of life owners was strongly influenced by the lifestyle and emotional effects of the confinement, and that pets provided them with substantial support to mitigate those effects. However, pets showed signs of behavioral change that were consistent with stress, with dogs that had pre-existing behavioral problems being the most affected.
Article
Some individuals are more psychologically resilient to adversity than others, an issue of great importance during the emerging mental health issues associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. To identify factors that may contribute to greater psychological resilience during the first weeks of the nation-wide lockdown efforts, we asked 1,004 U.S. adults to complete assessments of resilience, mental health, and daily behaviors and relationships. Average resilience was lower than published norms, but was greater among those who tended to get outside more often, exercise more, perceive more social support from family, friends, and significant others, sleep better, and pray more often. Psychological resilience in the face of the pandemic is related to modifiable factors.
Article
This article is a preliminary exploration of the effects of Covid‐19 in Silicon Valley, one of three pandemic ‘hotspots’ on America’s west coast. In particular, it describes how the crisis has deepened and magnified social and economic inequalities in a region where poverty, homelessness and gentrification are rife. Despite the fact that many technology firms are reaping massive profits in the wake of ‘shelter in place’ orders, many Silicon Valley workers have lost their jobs and are struggling to cope with the consequences of Covid‐19. The article also analyzes the different meanings of ‘lockdown’ by comparing examples from China, Brazil, Taiwan and the United States. The authors conclude that anthropologists have a significant role to play in helping to understand how and why communicable diseases emerge, the underlying social and environmental conditions that fuel them and cross‐cultural strategies for the effective mitigation of epidemics and pandemics.
Article
Anxiety is highly prevalent among nursing students even in normal circumstances. In Israel during the covid-19 pandemic and mandatory lockdown, nursing students encountered a new reality of economic uncertainty, fear of infection, challenges of distance education, lack of personal protection equipment (PPE) at work etc. The objective of this study was to assess levels of anxiety and ways of coping among nursing students in the Ashkelon Academic College, Southern District, Israel. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 244 students in the nursing department during the third week of a national lockdown. Anxiety level was assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale with a cut-off point of 10 for moderate and of 15 for severe anxiety. Factor analysis was used to identify coping components. The prevalence of moderate and severe anxiety was 42.8% and 13.1% respectively. Gender, lack of PPE, and fear of infection were significantly associated with a higher anxiety score. Stronger resilience and usage of humor were associated with significantly lower anxiety levels, while mental disengagement with higher anxiety levels. The nursing department's staff may contribute in lowering student anxiety by maintaining a stable educational framework, providing high quality distant teaching and encouraging and supporting students through this challenging period.
Article
Does the coronavirus pandemic level the gender inequality curve? Or does the economic downturn following the coronavirus pandemic enhance gender inequality? To answer these questions, we collected data on Israeli men and women who were employed in the first week of March prior to the lockdown of the economy, and again in the last week of April (after the economy was shut down, but before it was reopened). We find that the consequences of the economic downturn following the coronavirus for gender equality are harsh, with women’s employment and income more severely affected than men’s.