Full Length Review Article
A SURVEY ON TEXT ANALYTICS AND CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR TEXT DOCUMENTS
Nihar Ranjan, Abhishek Gupta, Ishwari Dhumale, Payal Gogawale and *Rugved Gramopadhye
Department of Computer Engineering, Sinhgad Institute of Technology and Science, SavitriBai Phule Pune
University, Pune, India
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Text Mining is termed as extraction of relevant yet hidden information from the text document.
One of the essential concepts in the field of text mining is Text classification (Also called Text
Categorization). Through the sudden growth in digital world and available documents, the task of
organizing text data becomes one of the principal problems. The classification problem has been
widely studied in data mining, machine learning, database, and information retrieval. On the basis
of text information processing, we have made a study of support vector machine in text
categorization. By introducing the basic principle of SVMs, we described the process of text
classification. Comparative Study of other classification algorithm is done and this paper states
that how SVM is an effective machine learning algorithm for classification. A theoretical study of
SVM and other machine learning techniques can be found in this paper along with their
advantages and disadvantages.
Copyright © 2015 Nihar Ranjan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Text Mining (Kroeze, 2007) (Sebastiani, 2002) refers to the
process of deriving high-quality information from text. 'High
quality' in text mining means that information extracted should
be relevant to the user, and according to the interest of the
user. Text mining is similar to data mining, except that data
mining tools (Navathe et al., 2000) are designed to handle
structured data from databases, but text mining can work with
unstructured or semi-structured data sets such as emails, full-
text documents and HTML files etc.
Text mining, also known as Intelligent Text Analysis, Text
Data Mining or Knowledge-Discovery in Text (KDT), refers
generally to the process of extracting interesting and non-
trivial information and knowledge from unstructured text. The
corporate data is becoming double in size. In order to utilize
that data for business needs, an automated approach is Text
mining. By mining that text required knowledge can be
retrieved which will be very useful. Knowledge from text
usually refers to some combination of relevance, novelty, and
*Corresponding author: Rugved Gramopadhye,
Department of Computer Engineering, Sinhgad Institute of
Technology and Science, SavitriBai Phule Pune University, Pune,
Typical text mining tasks include text categorization, text
clustering, concept/entity extraction, production of granular
taxonomies, sentiment analysis, document summarization, and
entity relation modeling (i.e., learning relations between
named entities). Text analysis involves information retrieval,
lexical analysis to study word frequency distributions, pattern
recognition, tagging/ annotation, information extraction, data
mining techniques including link and association analysis,
visualization and predictive analytics. A typical application of
text mining is to scan given set of documents written in a
natural language and either to model them for predictive
classification or populate a database or search index with the
Text (or Document) classification is an active research area of
text mining, where the documents are classified into
predefined classes. Text Classification tasks can be broadly
classified as Supervised Document Classification and
Unsupervised Classification. In Supervised Document
Classification some external mechanism (such as human
feedback) provides information on the correct classification
for documents or to define classes for the classifier, and in
Unsupervised Document Classification (also known as
document clustering), the classification must be done without
any external reference and the system do not have predefined
International Journal of Development Research
Vol. 5, Issue, 11, pp. 5952-5955, November,
International Journal of
Received 17th August, 2015
Received in revised form
15th September, 2015
Accepted 24th October, 2015
Published online 30th November, 2015
Available online at http://www.journalijdr.com
There is also another task called Semi-Supervised Document
Classification, where some documents are labeled by the
external mechanism (means some documents are already
classified for better learning of the classifier). There is a need
to construct automatic text classifier using pre-classified
sample documents whose accuracy and time efficiency is
much better than manual text classification because to classify
millions of text document manually is an expensive and time
consuming task. In this paper we will be stating various
algorithms and techniques used for text mining and
categorizing them. Most of the techniques are explained by
simplifying them as they can be understood by the reader. This
paper provides reasons for choosing SVM in our project along
with other algorithms like NLP as well. Improving classifier
effectiveness has been an area of intensive machine-learning
research over the last two decades, and this work has led to a
new generation of state-of-the-art classifiers, such as support
An SVM is a kind of large-margin classifier: it is a vector
space based machine learning method where the goal is to find
a decision boundary between two classes that is maximally far
from any point in the training data. A Support Vector Machine
(SVM) is a discriminative classifier formally defined by a
separating hyper plane. In other words, given labeled training
data (supervised learning), the algorithm outputs an optimal
hyper plane which categorizes new examples.
The following figure is been referred from (Upendra Singh
and Saqib Hasan, 2015).
Fig. 1. Steps of Text Classification
With each passing day, automatic classification of documents
in predefined categories is gaining active attention of many
researchers. Supervised, unsupervised and semi supervised are
the methods used to classify documents. The last decade has
seen the unprecedented and rapid progress in this area,
including the machine learning approaches such as Bayesian
classifier, Decision Tree, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Support
Vector Machines(SVMs), Neural Networks.
A Decision Tree is a hierarchical (flow-chart like) tree
structure used for classification of text documents. A Decision
Tree text classifier in (Russell Greiner and Jonathan Schaffer,
2001) is a tree with internal nodes labeled by terms branches
departing from them are labeled by the weight that the term
has in the text document and leafs are labeled by categories. It
can be also specified as each internal node represents a test on
document, each branch represents an outcome of the test, and
each leaf node holds a class label. It is a top-down method.
Decision tree uses ‘divide and conquer’ approach for
classification. The internal nodes which denote tests are
represented using rectangles and the leaf nodes by circles.
Decision trees are simple to understand and easy to
Modifications and addition of new possible scenario can be
Their robustness to noisy data and their capability to learn
disjunctive expressions seem suitable for document
classification. Decision trees are simple to understand and
interpret (Nalini and Jaba Sheela, 2014).
As levels of a tree increases the complexity of calculations
Decision-tree learning algorithms are based on heuristic
algorithms such as the greedy algorithm where decisions
are made at each node locally and cannot guarantee to
return the globally optimal decision tree.
Naïve Bayes classifier
Bayesian classifiers are statistical probabilistic classifiers used
for text categorization. They can predict class membership
probabilities, such as the probability that a given tuple belongs
to a particular class. Naïve Bayes classifier is based on Bayes’
theorem. The Bayes’ theorem provides posterior probability of
the documents belonging to different classes. Naïve Bayes
algorithm uses this posterior probability for classification of
the documents. The document is assigned to the class if it has
maximum posterior probability for that class.
This algorithm computes the posterior probability of the
document belongs to different
It is fast to train and classify the data or documents.
It is not affected by irrelevant features.
Streaming data is handled well.
It is independent feature model so that the present of one
feature does not affect other features in classification tasks
5953 Nihar Ranjan et al.
A survey on text analytics and classification techniques for text documents
KNN is a classification algorithm is used for text
classification. As given in (Tam et al., 2002) KNN classifies
dataset or objects by voting several labeled training data with
their smallest distance from each dataset or object. It uses the
local neighborhood to predict the class of an object. The
majority vote of its neighbors decides the class of an object.
The object is assigned to the class most common among its k
Here k is a positive integer. If k= 1, the object is assigned to
class of that single nearest neighbor. The classes of these
neighbors are decided using the similarity of each neighbor to
new document vector, where similarity may be measured by
for example the Euclidean distance or the cosine between the
two document vectors.
The cost of the learning process is zero
No necessity of assumptions about the characteristics of
the concepts to learn have to be done
It is very simple.
The model cannot be interpreted.
It is computationally expensive, requires more time to find
the k nearest neighbors when there is large number of
It has to compute distance of each test objects with whole
Neural network is related to electronic networks of ‘neurons’.
It is based on neural structure of the brain. It is an iterative
learning process. The neural nework is given input as some
input values with their associate weights. And the output of
network is classified input. The errors made in previous
classification can be corrected in neural network. The errors
from the initial classification of the first record is fed back into
the network, and used to modify the networks algorithm the
second time around, and so on for many iterations.
Neural networks are self-adaptive and data driven.
It provides high accuracy and noise tolerance.
Neural networks are nonlinear models, which makes them
flexible in modeling real world complex relationships.
Lack of transparency.
Learning time is very long.
Support vector machines are supervised learning models
with associated learning algorithms used for text classification.
It is a non-probabilistic binary linear classifier (8). SVM
constructs a hyper plane which is used for regression,
categorization and similar tasks. A good separation is achieved
by the hyper plane that has the largest distance to the nearest
training-data point of any class (so-called functional margin),
since in general the larger the argin the lower the
generalization error of the classifier.
SVM can categorize multi-dimensional data or documents
easily. It partitions the data-space using linear and non-linear
definitions into two parts. SVM classifier uses hyper-plane for
partitioning the data. SVM can handle larger feature spaces
efficiently, as it uses over fitting protection, which does not
necessarily depend on the number of features.
The accuracy of SVM is high.
SVM is robust.
The learned target function is evaluated fast.
SVM can handle multi-dimensional data.
Learned functions are difficult to understand.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
The following experimental data, results and analysis has been
referred from (Zhijie et al., 2010).
Experimental data include four class documentations, and they
are environment, sport, politic, and art. The training data are
different from the testing data.
Performance evaluation of text classification mainly includes
accuracy rate, recall rate and F1 value. The following three
sets of experimental data are the different classification results
with the same training data sets and testing data sets under
different classification methods.
Table 1.The result of KNN classification is shown
Table 2. The result of Naive Bayesian classification is shown
95.92% 70.50% 81.27%
76.86% 93.00% 84.16%
91.76% 78.00% 84.32%
79.67% 96.00% 87.07%
5954 International Journal of Development Research, Vol. 5, Issue, 11, pp. 5952-5955, November, 2015
Table 3. The result of SVM classification is shown
86.03% 86.50% 86.26%
86.07% 86.50% 86.28%
97.31% 90.50% 93.78%
93.48% 86.00% 89.58%
Accuracy rate and recall rate reflect two different aspects of
classification quality, while a comprehensive evaluation index
of the two aspects is the F1 value. As shown in Fig.4, the
figure reflects classification results of the various classifiers
under the composite index F1 value.
By comparing and analyzing Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3, we
can draw the following conclusions: From the view of
accuracy rate, SVM classification method all achieved
86.03%; although the accuracy rate of KNN classification
method in environment and art is higher than SVM,
classification results are lower than 80% in sport and politic;
similarly, the accuracy rate of Naive Bayesian classification
method is higher than SVM only in environment, the other
three types are not better than SVM.
From the view of recall rate, SVM classification method has
also reached 86%; for the KNN classification method and
Naive Bayesian classification method, the recall rate has a
fluctuation up and down, and the difference is obvious. That is
to say, the overall effect is not better than SVM. From the
view of F1 value, Fig.4 has made an intuitive comparison of
classification results for different classifiers. We can clearly
see that, SVM classification method in the four types of texts
is higher than the other two classification methods. As a
comprehensive evaluation index for text classification, F1 test
value is better to reflect the effects of a good or bad classifier,
so as a whole, SVM classification method is superior to other
This paper has stated that classification of documents is one of
the most fundamental problems in the machine learning and
data mining .With the drastic increase in the world
digitization, there has been an explosion in the volume of
documents. Text Classification is hence needed to classify the
documents according to the predefined classes based on their
content. A comparative study has been done among different
techniques which are used for classification such as nearest
neighbor classifiers, SVM classifiers, neural networks,
decision trees, Bayes methods. When compared it was found
that K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) is the simplest
method for deciding the class of the unlabeled documents and
is a popular non-parametric method. But for the high
dimensions, this method is not suitable for such documents.
SVMs and Neural Network tend to perform much better when
dealing with multi dimensions. For SVMs and Neural
Network, large sample size is required to achieve maximum
accuracy of the classifier, whereas Naïve Bayes may need a
relatively less dataset and require little storage space. KNN,
Neural Network is generally considered intolerant of noise;
where association based classification and decision trees are
considered resistant to noise because their pruning strategies
avoid over-fitting the noisy data. Compared to other
classifiers, SVM performs better as it has high accuracy, high
speed of learning, high speed of classification, high tolerance
to irrelevant features and noisy data than other classifiers. But
still it seems difficult to recommend any one technique as
superior to others as the choice of a modeling technique
depends on organizational requirements and the data on hand.
There are still various open questions regarding
implementation of SVMs. Will the algorithm support semi-
structured documents? How does the algorithm works for
unsupervised learning? What kind of relationship can be
established between SVM and various machine learning
algorithms for maximum effectiveness? More research is
needed on these relationships along with the questions from
learning theory. Also Text classification is a widespread
domain of research encompassing Data mining, NLP and
Machine Learning. One can use SVM with NLP for
categorization of documents. The cost effectiveness, wide
scope of further development, implementation in various
sectors and profound study on algorithm are the key aspects to
increase the use of support vector machine algorithms.
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A survey on text analytics and classification techniques for text documents