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Sponsored consumer-generated advertising in the digital era: what prompts individuals to generate video ads, and what creative strategies do they adopt?

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Abstract

This study investigates individuals’ motivations to create sponsored video ads in response to corporate online advertising competitions, and the creative strategies they employ when so doing. The findings from two studies that combined qualitative (42 semi-structured interviews and netnography) and quantitative (content analysis of 1,102 ads) research methods showed that individuals are motivated to produce sponsored video advertising by six factors: learning, enjoyment, self-expression, remuneration, recognition and influencing others. In turn, these motivations can be categorised as intrinsic, extrinsic, rational and affective, leading to a typology of four advertising creators. It was found also that individuals tend to use narrative forms of advertising more when creating commercial ads, and expository forms more when creating nonprofit ads. The study demonstrates that individuals are willing to co-create and transmit brand value by producing sponsored video ads, and have become an essential element of marketing communications in the digital era. Organisations may benefit from sponsored CGA by gathering consumers’ insights, through improved individual-organisation relationships and by obtaining promotional material that might persuade audiences and stimulate online conversations.

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I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Companies increasingly involve consumers in the process of developing advertising and other marketing actions. An important question that has not been explored is whether brands benefit from communicating to consumers who had not been involved in the co-creation process that a target ad was developed by a fellow consumer. The authors propose a skepticism—identification model of ad creator influence, which hypothesizes that disclosing to an audience that an ad was created by a consumer triggers two opposing effects: skepticism about the competence of the ad creator and identification with the ad creator. Four studies demonstrate that the effectiveness of disclosing advertising co-creation depends on factors that hinder skepticism and heighten identification with the ad creator. Specifically, attributing the ad to a consumer is shown to increase persuasion when the audience (1) has limited cognitive resources to scrutinize the message, (2) is given background information about the ad creator that enhances source similarity, and (3) has high loyalty toward the brand. The implications of these findings on marketing theory and practice are discussed.
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