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The state, transnationals and the dynamics of tourism evolution in small island nations /

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"Graduate Program in Urban Planning and Policy Development." Thesis (Ph. D.)--Rutgers University, 1994. Includes abstract. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 316-335). Facsimile photocopy.

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... Nowadays, scholars strongly agree that tourism cannot be reduced solely to economic effects, including cashflows and employment generation (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2006;Saarinen & Rogerson, 2015). Indeed, the understanding that, far from being a 'clean sector', tourism has a darker side, especially with regards to its environmental and sociocultural effects, had already taken root in the early 1970s (Ioannides, 1994). Nevertheless, it took Mathieson and Wall's seminal publication to launch the study of tourism's various effects as a major area of preoccupation of scholars and policymakers who sought to identify ways to reap the sector's benefits while reducing its negative externalities on host communities. ...
... For more than six decades, various international, national and local-level actors have stimulated tourism in the hope that it might generate various positive impacts in the host society. Back in the 1960s, it was the World Bank that was a major proponent of economic development, especially in countries of the Global South that had recently gained their independence (Ioannides, 1994). Over the years, several other institutions have also promoted tourism as a quick-fix, especially (but not only) in regions facing serious economic growth challenges. ...
... This has meant that, for decades, politicians and policymakers have promoted tourism as a politically neutral agent that can lead to rapid growth in host communities and whose employment and income multiplier effects are significant (Archer, 1989). Indeed, public sector support and investments in tourism-related activities can be noteworthy and have often been implemented with little attention to the potential negative effects these measures might cause (Ioannides, 1994). ...
... Despite the long history of island tourism and the increasing academic research, emphasis on the literature tends to be focused on tourism in island microstates, such as: Caribbean islands Chen-Young, 1982;Hills & Lundgren, 1977;McElroy & de Albuquerque, 1998;Seward & Spinard, 1982;Weaver, 1993;Wilkinson, 1987), or the Pacific islands (Choy, 1992;Crocombe & Rajotte, 1980;Farrel, 1985;Milne, 1992Milne, , 1997Milne & Nowosielski, 1997); and tourism research on Mediterranean islands has been mainly focused on Malta (Boissevain, , 1979(Boissevain, , 1996Lockhart, 1997a;Lockhart & Ashton, 1990;Oglethorpe, 1984Oglethorpe, , 1985Young, 1983) and Cyprus (e.g. Andronikos, 1979Andronikos, , 1986Ioannides, , 1994Ioannides, , 1995bKammas, 1993;Lockhart, 1997a). For many islands which are constituent parts of metropolitan countries (e.g. ...
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This book examines the development of mass tourism in coastal regions of Southern Europe. It provides a critical assessment of two influential policies intended to promote sustainable development, these being attempts to make mass tourism resorts more sustainable, and the development of smaller-scale, 'alternative' tourism products.
... Meanwhile, in an exercise of "disaster capitalism", powerful stakeholders in destinations like Thailand and Sri Lanka, which were devastated by the massive tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004 used the catastrophe as an opportunity to implement land grabs, leading to brand new large-scale developments that quickly enticed international visitors to return (Cohen, 2011). If a particular tourist destination is affected by an unforeseen sudden event such as a volcanic eruption or a terrorist attack, the major international travel suppliers (e.g., tour operators and airlines) substitute this with another one offering similar attractions and facilities (Ioannides, 1994). Obviously, this ability of footloose international players to shift their turf, aerospace or fairway around the globe is currently a moot point. ...
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... I have already mentioned that since the 1990s Greenland has regarded strengthening its tourism and mining sectors as important in achieving economic diversification, enabling the country to escape its traditional heavy reliance on fishing (Nuttall, 2008a;Ren and Chimirri, 2018). This step reflects the modernization-led economic dogma of the 1950s and 1960s that drove the economic policy making of numerous emerging post-colonial states throughout the world, especially those highly dependent on extractive industries Ioannides, 1994;. ...
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This chapter (i) explores the connection between short-term accommodation growth and overtourism in two major Portuguese cities, Lisbon and Porto, where this growth has been most notable; and (ii) makes a comparison with the medium-sized city of Aveiro, where the tendency to be governed by tourism-focused growth has recently emerged. The chapter examines whether the overtourism phenomenon emerged as a consequence of the short-term accommodation boom, or if overtourism led to expansion of this accommodation type, in the context of urban tourism in the three Portuguese cities
... This is especially true for numerous island territories (both sovereign and dependent territories) many of which have a narrow economic base, often dependent on extractive sectors such as fishing and agriculture and depend heavily on imports of vital resources (Fisher & Encountre, 1998;Watts, 2000). Especially in the case of newly independent island states, since the early 1960s tourism has often been regarded as a key strategy for strengthening the economy (Baldacchino, 2006a(Baldacchino, , 2006b(Baldacchino, , 2015Baum et al, 2000;Briguglio et al, 1996;Ioannides, 1994;McElroy, 2003;Scheyvens & Momsen, 2008). Nevertheless, whereas previously it was common for top-down government-led actions to promote tourism's growth, during the past two decades there has been a marked shift in numerous destinations towards governance structures whereby policymaking involves a mix of public and private sector stakeholders (Cornelissen, 2005;Mosedale, 2014). ...
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Following its achievement of Self-Rule status in 2009 Greenland embarked on a series of measures to diversify its economy with an eye towards eventually gaining full independence from Denmark. Tourism was underlined as a key sector for reaching this goal and, consequently, over the last few years there has been a concerted effort to develop the island as an important polar destination. Significantly, the Greenlandic government created the tourism development policy for 2016-2020, which it views as a key instrument for shaping the sector’s future. In this paper, we adopted a policy network approach to determine the relational architecture among various stakeholders from the public and private sectors who are seen as relevant to tourism’s development. Inter alia, we examined how these actors were linked to each other while examining what kind of tourism networks existed in Greenland and what obstacles might hinder or foster their formation. A thematic analysis of qualitative data on Atlas.ti reveals that though there exist networks in the Greenlandic tourism sector, they are not policy networks and that the Greenlandic government’s approach to developing this tourism policy has been top-down, reflecting a ‘government’ rather than a ‘governance’ approach. Barriers to the formation of policy networks included lack of a shared image for the future; lack of trust among actors; lack of time and spatial fragmentation hindering iterative interactions, and lack of institutional enabling of information and knowledge sharing. Keywords: governance, Greenland, islands, networks, policy development, tourism
... I have already mentioned that since the 1990s Greenland has regarded strengthening its tourism and mining sectors as important forces towards achieving economic diversification, enabling the country to escape its traditional heavy reliance on fishing (New European Community, N.D.; Nuttall, 2008a;Ren & Chimiri, 2018). This step reflects the modernization-led economic dogma of the 1950s and 60s that drove the economic policymaking of numerous emerging post-colonial states throughout the world, especially ones, which were highly dependent on extractive industries (Britton, 1982;Ioannides, 1994;Jóhannesson et al. 2010). ...
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