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Employee work engagement has become a great challenge for today's HR managers globally as hardly 13% of employees are engaged in their work. Therefore, this study investigates the mechanism between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee work engagement considering compassion at work and psychological ownership as mediators. We collected data from 251 employees working in the life insurance company using a self-administered questionnaire through convenience sampling. We applied structural equation modeling using AMOS version 24 to test the hypotheses. The results reveal a significant direct association between CSR and employee work engagement. Further, compassion at work and psychological ownership were found to partially mediate the association between CSR and employee work engagement. Our study highlights the significance of CSR to increase employee work engagement by experiencing compassion at work and psychological ownership. This research contributes to the existing literature on CSR and micro organizational behavior literature from the social identity perspective. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, compassion at work and psychological ownership have not been examined as mediators between CSR and employee work engagement.
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Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
Copyright © 2021 by De La Salle University
Corporate Social Responsibility and Work
Engagement: Mediating Roles of Compassion and
Psychological Ownership
Muhammad Ali1, Talat Islam1*, Khalid Mahmood1, Fouzia Hadi Ali1 and Basharat Raza2
1University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract: Employee work engagement has become a great challenge for today’s HR managers globally as hardly 13% of
employees are engaged in their work. Therefore, this study investigates the mechanism between corporate social responsibility
(CSR) and employee work engagement considering compassion at work and psychological ownership as mediators. We
collected data from 251 employees working in the life insurance company using a self-administered questionnaire through
convenience sampling. We applied structural equation modeling using AMOS version 24 to test the hypotheses. The results
reveal a signicant direct association between CSR and employee work engagement. Further, compassion at work and
psychological ownership were found to partially mediate the association between CSR and employee work engagement.
Our study highlights the signicance of CSR to increase employee work engagement by experiencing compassion at work
and psychological ownership. This research contributes to the existing literature on CSR and micro organizational behavior
literature from the social identity perspective. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, compassion at work and psychological
ownership have not been examined as mediators between CSR and employee work engagement.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility, compassion at work, psychological ownership, employee work engagement
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) impact
overall sustainability by contributing economic
management, social management, and environmental
management (Cazeri et al., 2018). More specifically,
organizations express their commitment to society in
the form of CSR by exhibiting positive attitudes and
acts either locally or globally (Ashley, 2005). This
is because businesses have moral responsibilities
(beyond what is imposed by law) to care for overall
sustainability. Sustainability refers to the “avoidance of
the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain
an ecological balance” (Dahlsrud, 2008). Such actions
protect and develop a society which sparks the concept
of CSR.
The concept of CSR has largely been studied from
an organizational perspective. For example, how it
may affect organizational financial performance, that
is, supply-chain risks (Abner & Ferrer, 2019; Lee &
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
Park, 2009), or how it may impact the organization’s
customers, that is, customer satisfaction and loyalty
(Lee et al., 2012; Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2018).
However, literature is scant about how CSR impacts
organizational employees’ job-related outcomes
(Islam et al., 2016). It has become important to
consider employees because they are the real assets
for the organizations and are a source of competitive
advantage. In this perspective, Boulouta and Pitelis
(2014) suggested that businesses must include CSR as
a strategy because the integration of the organization’s
business strategy as CSR contributes towards overall
organizational effectiveness.
Empirical studies examining the effect of CSR
on employees’ job-related outcomes suggested job
performance (Shin et al., 2016), personal initiative,
job satisfaction, voice and helping behavior (Ali et
al., 2020; Raub & Blunschi, 2014), organizational
identification, and pro-environmental behavior
(Cheema et al., 2020) as its positive consequences.
Amongst these, work engagement remained a
neglected variable that further needs to shed light
(Farrukh et al., 2020; Lu et al., 2020). Employees’
work engagement has become a worldwide issue for
managers worldwide (Islam & Tariq, 2018). A global
survey on employee work engagement has revealed
that only 13% of employees are actively engaged with
their work (Gallup, 2013). This means that almost 87%
of the employees are not enthusiastically engaged in
their routine tasks. Lim (2002) found that employees
usually waste two hours per day talking with co-
workers and internet surfing other than scheduled
lunch breaks, which accumulate a loss of $400-450bn
per annum (Gallup, 2013). Boye and Slora (1993) also
revealed that above 60% of employees admitted to time
theft, which costs US$177 billion annually to United
States companies (McGee & Fillon, 1995). Similarly,
employees spend a significant portion of the day at the
workplace but staying disengaged with the work can
reduce their productivity, which may negatively affect
the employee’s well-being and ultimately resulting in
a social problem (Rupp et al., 2018).
Literature has suggested that organizations
providing a learning culture, leadership, and support
may engage their employees in work. However, the
same is not working for the organizations; therefore,
this study suggests that CSRs may help employees
engage in their work. In addition, considering the
future calls of Wang et al. (2015) and Chaudhary
(2019), there is a need to study mediating variables
that explain the association between CSR and
employee work engagement. This study considers
compassion and psychological ownership as mediating
variables. Chaudhary (2019) identified psychological
availability, safety and mindfulness, whereas Lu et
al. (2020) identified organizational justice and job
satisfaction as mediating variables between CSR and
work engagement.
This study extends previous studies to answer
when and why CSR fosters employee work engagement
(Glavas, 2016). In this regard, Chaudhry (2019)
suggested that various mediating variables can
explain the association between CSR and employee
work engagement. More specifically, Farrukh
et al. (2020) suggested that future researchers
examine the explanatory role of psychological
ownership and compassion between CSR and
employee work engagement, specifically in the context
of developing economies (e.g., Pakistan). Therefore,
this study investigates psychological ownership and
compassion as explanatory variables through which
CSR activities can increase employees’ work
The mediating mechanism can further be supported
with social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel, 1974, 1975)
that the favorable assessment of an organization is
associated with positive employees’ work attitudes
(e.g., Maignan & Ferrell, 2001). For instance,
Shin et al. (2016) argued that CSR could affect
employees’ adoption of socially responsible behavior
within organizations (i.e., compassion at work and
psychological ownership). Compassion at work
is noticing the pain of organizational members,
empathizing with their pain, and acting to display
warmth, affection, and kindness to alleviate that pain
(Dutton et al., 2010. Whereas, psychological ownership
is the feelings of possession among employees for their
organization (e.g., “This is my organization”; Pierce
et al., 1991). Applying SIT, when employees identify
that their organization owns the society and feels the
pain for its betterment, they responds with compassion
and psychological ownership and perform their work
enthusiastically (i.e., work engagement).
This study contributes to the existing literature
in four ways. First, we investigated the association
of perceived CSR with employee work engagement,
which allows us to unfold CSR’s significance to
increase employee work engagement in the workplace
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
as employees are the key internal stakeholders of the
organization. Second, the research on CSR perception
and psychological ownership is scarce; we introduce
psychological ownership as a potential employee-level
CSR outcome in the existing literature. Third, drawing
on social identity theory, we suggest compassion
at work and psychological ownership as mediators
explaining the linkage between CSR and work
engagement (see Figure 1). Therefore, we contribute
to the existing literature by developing and testing this
unique perspective. Fourth, this study aims to increase
the generalizability of current findings on CSR and
employee work engagement relationship by using a
diverse sample from a developing economy of South
Literature Review and Hypotheses
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
CSR’s concept remained a researchers’ choice for
a decade and is defined in almost 37 different ways
(Dahlsrud, 2008), which indicates that CSR has not yet
any single definition despite diverse literature (Glavas
& Kelley, 2014). For instance, according to Turker
(2009a), CSR is a “corporate behaviors that aim to
affect stakeholders positively and that go beyond its
economic interests” (p. 189. According to Sarkar and
Searcy (2016, p. 1433), “CSR implies that firms must
foremost assume their core economic responsibility
and voluntarily go beyond legal minimums so that
they are ethical in all of their activities and that
they take into account the impact of their actions
on stakeholders in society, while simultaneously
contributing to global sustainability.” Farid et al. (2019)
viewed CSR from different perspectives as “context-
specific organizational action and policy that takes
into account stakeholders’ expectations and the triple
bottom line of economic, social, and environmental
performance” (p.3). The definitions, as mentioned
above, have identified CSR as a multidimensional
construct that considers various stakeholders. Thus,
this study followed the stakeholder approach by
considering government, employees, customers, and
social stakeholders such as the natural environment,
future generations, non-governmental organizations,
and society to cover the holistic view of CSR as
suggested by Turker (2009b).
CSR has implications for the psychological and
behavioral outcomes of the employees (Baldo, 2013).
Employees usually participate in day-to-day activities
related to CSR, observe the results, and develop their
perception regarding the entire organizational CSR
approach. The role of employees is vital to define
the extent to which organizations are socially liable.
Aguinis and Glavas (2012) noted that employees
should be involved in participating and facilitating the
CSR programs to allow the organization to execute
the CSR events as primary stakeholders successfully.
Likewise, if employees might get aware of these CSR
activities, their perception of CSR might directly
and strongly influence their reaction toward CSR
initiatives (Gangone & Gănescu, 2014). Findings of
existing research have revealed that organizational
attractiveness is also increased through favorable
evaluation of CSR initiatives by the employees (Tsai
et al., 2014).
Employee Work Engagement
Employee work engagement is defined as
“harnessing of the organization members’ selves
to their work roles; in engagement people employ
and express themselves physically cognitively and
emotionally during role performances” (Kahn,
1990, p. 694). According to Mone et al. (2018, p. 4),
employee work engagement is “the condition of an
employee who feels involved, committed, passionate,
and empowered and demonstrates those feelings in
his work behavior.” Organizations need to develop
the relationship between employer and employee
through various factors that boost employee work
engagement, such as working environment, bonuses,
adequate work-life balance, job satisfaction, appraisal,
successful communication, and career progression,
to improve employee work engagement (Robinson,
2010). This study used employee work engagement
as a measure of employee attitude, which influences
the different valued outcomes in the organizations,
such as enhanced economic performance (Galant
& Cadez, 2017), increased job satisfaction, reduced
turnover intentions (Lu et al., 2016), enhanced affective
commitment (Nazir & Islam, 2017), and improved job
performance (Ismail et al., 2019).
However, the current study adopted Kahn’s (1990)
definition of employee work engagement because
numerous features like the cognitive, physical, and
emotional aspects provide an accurate description of
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
employee work engagement. If employees are well
engaged, then they contribute to the company’s growth
and perform their job excellently by understanding the
company’s values and goals.
CSR and Employee Work Engagement
Organizations are facing a challenge to retain and
engage talented employees (Keller & Meaney, 2017).
Existing studies have found more job satisfaction
amongst the employees working in companies that
fulfill their ethical and social responsibilities (Glavas
& Kelley, 2014). In contrast, studies have also reported
disillusionment, hopelessness, and frustration among
employees due to unethical organizational behavior
(Andersson, 1996). The ethical temperament of an
organization can be signified through involvement
in CSR, which reflects the trustworthiness of that
organization (Hansen et al., 2011). The significance
of stakeholders for an organization is signaled to the
employees through organizational involvement in CSR
(Rupp et al., 2018). Drawing on the SIT, employees’
higher-order needs such as meaningful existence and
belongingness can be presumably satisfied through
CSR by caring for the external stakeholders, that is,
customers, environment, government and society, and
internal stakeholders, including employees (Rupp et al.,
2006). Therefore, as an additional engagement source,
CSR increases the experienced meaningfulness among
employees when their morality and relational needs are
catered through CSR (Aguinis & Glavas, 2019). CSR
can be used as a tactic to motivate employees toward
a greater purpose (Rosso et al., 2010). Similarly, a
consciousness of organizational identity is increased,
and their self-concept is improved among employees
when they know that they serve a greater purpose
(Grant et al., 2008).
Employee work engagement might increase when
the organization’s CSR practices resonate with their
feeling of accountability for personal actions (Afsar
et al., 2020). This CSR- employee work engagement
linkage might be explained through the lens of social
learning theory (Bandura, 1977). It is argued that role
models enhance the learning of norms and behavioral
expectations. Employees tend to show intentions to
be involved in actions that can make life better for
everyone and feel responsible. When organizations act
as global citizens and role models, they take various
CSR initiatives to improve society’s environment
and uplift. The employees will follow the behaviors
of leaders and management in their actions in the
organizations, where socially responsible actions
are emphasized, valued, and regarded as normative
standards of conduct, and hence become more
engaged. Employees’ positive attitudes heighten when
an organization displays genuine concerns for the
environment and society. This may result in increased
engagement levels due to enhanced employees’ purpose
at work and a sense of meaningfulness (Klimkiewicz
& Oltra, 2017).
Engaged employees exert effort to achieve the
organization’s mission, goals, objectives, and good
corporate reputation because they are enthusiastic,
energetic, and fully absorbed in work (Harter et al.,
2002). The perception of CSR programs and actions of
an organization for taking care of the society and planet
result in strong identification of employees with the
organization. The employees may engage in behaviors
aligned with the organizational goals due to increased
intrinsic motivation through this perception of pride,
prestige, and value (Klimkiewicz & Oltra, 2017).
They bring their true selves to increase organizational
effectiveness because they want to maintain this
reputation and image. Hence, employees are likely
to display greater engagement and bring more energy
when they perceive organizational involvement in CSR
initiatives as favorable (Afsar et al., 2020).
The studies investigating the association between
CSR and employee work engagement are still at the
early stages, particularly in developing economies such
as Pakistan. Self-determination theory influenced the
intrinsic motivation of engagement and was confirmed
as a predictor of employee work engagement (Wang
et al., 2017). Contrarily, a study on Portugal’s private-
sector employees revealed that the dimensions of
employee work engagement were insignificantly
predicted by the external and internal CSR (Ferreira
& de Oliveira, 2014). The previous studies have also
found a positive association of CSR with employees’
attitudes similar to employee work engagement, such
as job satisfaction (Duarte et al., 2019; Singhapakdi
et al., 2019) and organizational commitment (Rodrigo
et al., 2019), which provide additional support for an
association of CSR with employee work engagement.
Accordingly, we hypothesized that:
H1: CSR has a positive and significant influence
on employee work engagement.
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
The Mediating Role of Compassion at Work
Compassion has a long association with
sociology, medicine, and religion. Still, organizational
psychologists have recently paid attention to
compassion from the organizational context in the
micro-OB literature, whereas macro-OB literature has
predominantly discussed CSR for decades (Frost et al.,
2006). The role of compassion is pivotal to lessening
co-workers’ pain in organizational life (Dutton et
al., 2002). Researchers have agreed that compassion
involves caring for others through behavior and
communication and sympathetic awareness of others’
pain and sorrow (Moon et al., 2014). Kornfield (2009)
defined compassion as “the heart’s response to sorrow”
(p. 326). According to Kanov et al. (2004), compassion
is a relational process that comprises feeling the pain
of colleagues, sympathizing with a person suffering
from the pain, and eliminating that pain. Moon et al.
(2014) also defined “compassion as a response to the
suffering of another that involves an individual seeing
with the eyes of others, hearing with the ears of others,
feeling with the heart of others, and taking action in
a way which reveals his or her compassion” (p. 52).
The research has revealed that the organization’s
actions make sense of the employees, which affects
their attitudes and behaviors in the workplace
(Cropanzano et al., 2001). The various attitudinal and
behavioral responses of employees are evoked by the
CSR perception (Rupp et al., 2006). Organizational
members have extra favorable identity association
with an organization, which positively evaluates their
organization because of CSR based on the social identity
perspective, which develops intrinsic motivation
among members to increase their involvement in
discretionary actions like compassion (Zedeck,, 2011).
Based on the social identity theory, intrinsic motivation
to develop organizational identity is further triggered
by the CSR perception among employees (Ellemers et
al., 2004). SIT explains that categorizing individuals
into groups, and people cognitively identify others and
themselves (Tajfel, 1975). Employees want to become
a member of those groups having a positive identity to
increase their respected imaginings and are interested
in showing their organization’s identity (Ellemers et
al., 2004). Employees would become a member of
the in-group at the expense of the out-group based on
social categorization. This identification with their
organization results in prosocial behaviors within the
organization, such as compassion (Dutton et al., 2010).
The past research has confirmed that employees’
work attitudes are affected by their favorable evaluation
of the organization based on the social identity theory
(Maignan & Ferrell, 2001). Hence, corporate reputation
is improved through CSR (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004).
Individuals exhibit positive attitudes and behaviors
in the workplace, such as compassion, because they
feel proud to identify with their organization due to
CSR engagement (Dutton et al., 1994). Contrarily,
employees become hesitant to identify themselves
with the organization and even leave the organization
when they perceive an organization as an uncaring
place and find non-social support from colleagues
(Ellemers et al., 2004). Employees are more likely
to become members of the out-group and leave the
in-group when members’ identity and organizational
identity are undermined due to a negative perception
of the organization (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). Thus, the
tendency to be involved in voluntary behaviors in the
workplace will decrease, such as compassion (Meyer &
Allen, 1997). Therefore, we expect that CSR perception
drives compassion at work among employees.
The previous studies reveal that CSR activities
with various employee outcomes such as affective
organizational commitment and creativity are mediated
by compassion at work (Abdelmotaleb et al., 2018).
Moreover, social identity theory (Tajfel, 1974) proposes
that a firm’s CSR-specific activities lead to increased
motivation to maintain a positive corporate social
reputation and pride among employees, profoundly
influencing their helping and caring behavior (Dutton
et al., 2010). This caring and helping behavior (a
reflection of compassion), due to its other-oriented
nature, leads employees to work together for the sake
of collective benefits and hence enhances employee
engagement (Nazir & Islam, 2020). Based on the
arguments mentioned above, we can hypothesize that:
H2: Compassion at work mediates the positive
association between CSR and employee work
The Mediating Role of Psychological Ownership
As noted by Etzioni (1991), ownership is a
“dual creation, part attitude, part object, part in the
mind, part real” (p. 466). According to Pierce et al.
(2003), legal ownership differs from psychological
ownership. For example, psychological ownership
is generally featured as a self-derived perception of
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
the individual, while legal ownership is endorsed by
the law and recognized by others. The others do not
formally recognize psychological ownership, and
it is the individual in which boundaries related to
ownership are determined and feelings of ownership
are manifested. Psychological ownership “relates to
employees’ feelings of possession to the organization
as a whole; e.g., this is my organization” (Van
Dyne & Pierce, 2004, p. 442). The previous studies
have found various factors that may increase the
psychological ownership of employees. For instance,
transformational leadership positively predicts
psychological ownership (Avey et al., 2009), which
in turn negatively related to their intention to quit
(Bernhard & O’Driscoll, 2011), and positively
predicted employee job attitudes, including job
satisfaction and organizational commitment (Bernhard
& O’Driscoll, 2011), and organizational citizenship
behaviors (Park et al., 2013). Liu et al. (2012) found
participative decision-making as a strong predictor of
psychological ownership among employees. Studies
have also found that employee participation strongly
influences their psychological ownership in profit-
sharing schemes or stock ownership (Chi & Han,
2008). Employee autonomy also positively affects
psychological ownership, which, in turn, partially
mediated the association of psychological ownership
with organizational commitment and job satisfaction
(Mayhew et al., 2007).
The respective organizations’ social standing is
vital for the employees to evaluate their self-worth
(Aberson et al., 2000). Employees would become
more identified with their organizations when they
perceive that employing organizations have attractive
and distinctive practices, characteristics, attributes,
and values in contrast to competitive organizations
(Dutton et al., 1994). When organizations enforce
the policies and practices that protect stakeholders’
interests, it may enhance employees’ self-concept and
self-esteem (El Akremi et al., 2018). This responsible
and distinctive behavior of an organization increases
employees’ pride, and they also respect and value the
fulfillment of the organization’s responsibility toward
the society in front of other stakeholders. The tendency
to become identified with the organization among
employees might diminish when organizations do
not fulfill their social obligations because nowadays,
stakeholders in general and particular in society, are
well aware of the environmental and social problems
(Cheema et al., 2020). Studies have also found that
when employees believe that their organizations fulfill
all their stakeholders’ obligations and are genuinely
responsible (i.e., CSR), they identify themselves
with their organizations (Farooq et al., 2017). Hence,
perceiving themselves as members of the socially
responsible organization, employees’ organizational
ownership may be enhanced (Korschun et al.,
2014). Therefore, we argue that the perception of
CSR increases the psychological ownership of the
organization among employees.
Psychological ownership comprises cognitive and
affective elements (Pierce & Newstrom, 2003), which
satisfice social and genetic human motives (Pierce
et al., 2001). Thus, psychological ownership serves
belongingness, efficacy, and self-identity needs (Dai et
al., 2020) and is mostly seen as encouraging employees
towards tasks (Brown et al., 2014). The need for
efficacy and belongingness drives the individual from
identifying with a group or organization. Collective
belongingness enhances the feelings of safety among
the individual as a member of the group. Self-efficacy
increases employees’ self-identity, and the level
of uncertainty is also decreased that an individual
attributes to oneself due to self-categorization
(Ashforth et al., 2008). Hence, employees facilitate the
company to attain its value and objectives by engaging
in their work. In a most recent study, Dai et al. (2020)
noted that psychological ownership positively affects
employees’ work engagement. However, Sieger et
al. (2011) suggested examining the mediating role of
psychological ownership. Therefore, drawing upon
SIT, we hypothesize.
H3: Psychological ownership mediates the
positive association between CSR and
employee work engagement.
Sample and Procedure
We collected data from the employees working
in a large life insurance company located in Lahore,
Pakistan. The company consists of 8,000 direct
employees and are involved in various CSR initiatives.
We visited the regional office of the company and had
a meeting with the regional manager. The manager was
explained the objectives of the study, and permission
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
was obtained. As we used simple random sampling
to select a sample of 480 employees (as we followed
the criteria of Jackson (2003) for having 20 responses
against each item, i.e., 24*20 = 480), therefore, the
regional manager, after contacting with their HR
department shared the email IDs of selected 480
employees (these include branch managers, assistant
branch managers, team manager, senior relationship
officers, and relationship officers).
We approached 480 employees via email, where
the link to Google form (i.e., questionnaire) was
shared with them. The questionnaire is comprised of
three parts. First, a cover letter was shared with the
information that “the employees’ responses would
be kept confidential and would only be used for the
research.” The second part contains the information
regarding demographical variables (e.g., age, gender,
qualification, and work experience). The third part
of the questionnaire is comprised of 24 questions for
CSR, compassion, psychological ownership, and work
The demographical statistics show that 23% of the
participants were female, whereas the rest were males.
Moreover, 36% of the participants had ages between
26–30 years, 29% had an age between 31–35 years,
24% had an age between 20–25 years, and 12% of the
respondents had an age above 35 years. With respect to
qualification, 52.6% of the participants hold a master’s
degree compared to 31% who possess a bachelor’s
degree. Only 16.7% of participants hold research-
based degrees equivalent to Masters in Philosophy
or above. Moreover, 31% of the participants have
work experience between 1–3 years, 28% have work
experience above five years, 23% of participants have
work experience below one year, and 18% have work
experience between 3–5 years.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
The perceived CSR was measured using the 6-item
scale developed by Turker (2009b) with scales anchors
ranging from “1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly
agree.” A sample item is “This organization contributes
to campaigns and projects that promote the well-being
of the society.” The alpha reliability for this scale was
Psychological Ownership
The six-items scale developed by Van Dyne
and Pierce (2004) was used to assess psychological
ownership. A sample item includes “I feel a very high
degree of personal ownership for this organization.”
The anchors ranged from “1=never to 5=always.” The
alpha reliability for this scale was 0.91.
Compassion at Work
Lilius et al.’s (2008) 3-item scale was used to
measure compassion. A sample item includes “How
frequently you experienced compassion on the job?”.
The anchors ranged from “1=never to 5=always.”
Alpha reliability for this scale was 0.74.
Employee Work Engagement
Employee work engagement was measured
by using Schaufeli et al.’s (2006) 9-items scale on
Figure 1. Conceptual Model
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
three subdimensions, namely, vigor, absorption, and
dedication. A sample item gauging vigor includes,
“At my work, I feel bursting with energy.” A sample
item assessing dedication includes, “My job inspires
me.” A sample item assessing absorption includes “I
feel happy when I am working intensely.” The anchors
ranged from “1=never to 5=always”. Alpha reliability
for this scale was 0.86.
Control Variables
We control employees’ demographic characteristics,
including gender, age, education, and job experience,
because previous studies have shown that these
variables might influence our variables (CSR and
employee work engagement). Females show more
favorable concerns toward CSR than males (Brammer
& Millington, 2005). Farrukh et al. (2020) also found a
strong association between CSR and women than men.
Research demonstrated that CSR has a low positive
effect on employee satisfaction among younger relative
to older employees (Wisse et al., 2018). Because
more educated employees may be more aware of the
organization’s social responsibility initiatives, educated
employees are more informed of the organizational
responsibilities toward the society, which demonstrates
that education level affects CSR perception (Hansen et
al., 2011). Job tenure within a particular organization
also influences employee behaviors (Chapman et al.,
Analyses Strategy
SPSS was used to analyze the data. Moreover,
to test the proposed conceptual model, AMOS 24
was used. Initially, the goodness of measures was
established using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
Common method variance was evaluated through
Harman’s single-factor analysis. For testing the
conceptual model, all the items in the structural model
appeared to be distinct and fit well with the variables
for which they were developed. Lastly, based on the
analysis through structural equation modeling, the
multiple parallel mediation model was tested.
Primary analysis
We applied structural equation modeling to test the
hypotheses; therefore, the data were first examined for
its basic assumptions (e.g., missing values, outliers,
and normality). The data for the study were collected
through Google Forms, where responding to each
question was mandatory; therefore, no missing values
were identified. The 480 responses were examined
for outliers where we followed Kline (2005) to apply
Mahalanobis distance at P < 0.000, and 13 responses
were excluded from the final study (Islam et al., 2021
; Ahmad et al., 2020). Finally, we followed Byrne’s
(2010) instructions, and the values of kurtosis and
skewness were noted well within the limits of ±3 &
±1, respectively; hence, data were normally distributed
(Islam et al., 2020).
Common Method Variance
The results of Harman’s single factor analysis
(Podsakoff et al., 2003) show that the percentage
of single-factor variance was around 39%, which is
below the traditional value of 50% (Mattila & Enz,
2002). This shows that all the variables were distinct
from each other.
Descriptive Statistics and Correlations Matrix
The values of descriptive results and correlation
are presented in Table 1. The results revealed that
respondents agree regarding their perception of CSR
(M = 3.75), compassion (M = 3.97), psychological
ownership (M = 3.86), and employee work engagement
(M = 4.00). We also noted a positive correlation of CSR
with compassion (r = 0.49, P < 0.01), psychological
ownership (r = 0.64, P < 0.01), and employee work
engagement (r = 0.58, P < 0.01). Similarly, compassion
(r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and psychological ownership (r =
0.52, P < 0.01) also positively correlate with employee
work engagement.
Measurement Model Evaluation
We applied structural equation modeling (SEM)
to access the uni-dimensionality and structural
model. Uni-dimensionality was examined through
confirmatory factor analysis because we used adapted
scales. We used the 0.50 as the standard value for
factor loading (Hair et al., 2018) and Chi-Square/
Degree of Freedom (X2/df ≤ 3.0), Tucker-Lewis Index
(TLI 0.90), Comparative Fit Index (CFI 0.90),
Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA
0.08) (Islam et al., 2019; Bagozzi & Yi, 1988; Browne
& Cudeck, 1993; Hu & Bentler, 1999). Given that, the
measurement model (uni-dimensionality) was noted as
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
fit, that is, X2/df = 459.66/247=1.86, TLI = 0.920, CFI
= 0.929, and RMSEA = 0.059.
Further, to assess the psychometric properties of
the constructs, discriminant and convergent validities
were computed. We followed Fornell and Larcker
(1981) for average variance extracted (AVE ≥ 0.50)
and composite reliability (CR > 0.70). So, Table 2
shows that AVE and CR values meet these criteria,
and convergent validity is satisfied. The reliability of
the scale is good because CR values are higher than
0.70 of all study variables (Fornell & Larcker, 1981).
The authors also assert that the discriminant validity
will be considered good the values of maximum shared
variance (MSV) and average shared variance (ASV)
are less than the value of AVE (Hair et al., 2018). The
discriminant validity is also satisfied, and the values
shown in Table 2 met this criterion.
Hypotheses Testing
Table 3 represents the values of standardized
regression evaluated through the structural model. We
run the model at 2000 bootstraps with 95% confidence
to access the upper and lower boundary. First, we
noted a significant direct effect of perceived CSR
on employee work engagement (β = 0.18, P < 0.01),
compassion (β = 0.49, P < 0.01), and psychological
ownership (β = 0.64, P < 0.01). These results are
according to the suggested hypothesis; therefore, H1
is accepted. Second, we identified a significant indirect
effect of perceived CSR on employee work engagement
Table 1
Descriptive and Correlation Statistics
Variables M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Age
2 Gender 0.29**
3 Qualification 0.09 -0.14* –
4Experience 0.62** 0.23** 0.11
5Corporate Social
Responsibility 3.75 0.79 0.08 0.08 -0.08 -0.09 (0.84)
Ownership 3.86 0.87 0.20** 0.16* -0.13 0.02 0.64** (0.91)
7Employee Work
Engagement 4.00 0.64 0.14* 0.13* -0.15* -0.04 0.58** 0.66** (0.81)
8Compassion 3.97 0.74 0.04 0.16** 0.04 -0.09 0.49** 0.52** 0.66** (0.74)
Note: ** P < 0.01, * P < 0.05
Table 2
Goodness of Measures
Variables AV E CR MSV ASV
CSR 0.554 0.882 0.40 0.32
Compassion 0.704 0.934 0.42 0.36
Psychological Ownership 0.482 0.892 0.43 0.40
Work Engagement 0.662 0.855 0.43 0.31
Note: “AVE = Average Variance Extracted, CR = Composite Reliability, MSV = Maximum Shared Value,
LASV = Average Shared Square Variance”
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
through compassion (β = 0.20, P < 0.01, LL = 0.131,
UL = 0.274) with no zero values in upper and lower
boundaries. Similarly, we identified a significant
indirect effect of perceived CSR on employee work
engagement through psychological ownership (β =
0.22, P < 0.01, LL = 0.167, UL = 0.358) with no zero
values in upper and lower boundaries. These results
support suggested hypotheses H2 and H3, respectively.
This study’s primary objective is to investigate
the influence of perceived CSR on employee work
engagement through compassion at work and
psychological ownership as mediators. The findings
are in accordance with our expectations that CSR is the
strong predictor of employee work engagement, and
through both paths as well. We found that compassion
at work and psychological ownership work partially
mediate the indirect association between CSR and
employee work engagement. These findings are
consistent with previous studies by suggesting that
employee work engagement increases in response
to CSR perception because CSR serves as a driving
force for employees to be engaged in their work
(Chaudhary, 2019). Lu et al. (2020) also confirmed
a positive linkage between CSR and employee work
engagement via mediating effects of procedural justice
and distributive justice. Farrukh et al. (2020) developed
a model based on the social exchange theory and theory
of engagement, which links CSR with employee work
engagement. They confirmed the association between
these constructs, and this association was stronger in
women than men. Based on the social identity theory,
we suggest that when organizations behave ethically
and show concern for stakeholders, it increases the
sense of pride and level of organizational identity
among employees, which results in improved employee
work engagement. CSR also fulfills the individual
needs for self-enhancement and enhances the self-
concept, which fosters employee work engagement.
Self-determination theory was also a predictor of
employee work engagement (Wang et al., 2017).
We also noted a strong positive relationship of
CSR activities with compassion and psychological
ownership. The positive relationship of CSR perception
with compassion at work implies that CSR actions
showing concerns for others such as the environment,
future generations, and society provoke the benevolent
signal to employees that their organization is concerned
about other people, and employees reciprocate
by showing concerns for others in the workplace.
Employees are involved in discretionary behaviors
such as compassion at work, feel others’ pain, and
try to eliminate that pain through communication and
behavior. Similarly, the positive impact of CSR on
psychological ownership implies that CSR activities
related to the protection of the natural environment,
creating a better life for future generations, supporting
the NGOs working in problematic areas, and overall
participation in the projects for the well-being of society
Table 3
Hypotheses Testing Through Bootstraps
Relations βSE PBootstraps @ 95%
CSREmployee Engagement 0.18 0.047 0.00
CSRCompassion 0.49 0.052 0.00
CSRPsychological Ownership 0.64 0.054 0.00
CompassionEmployee engagement 0.41 0.041 0.00
Psychological ownershipEmployee Engagement 0.35 0.039 0.00
Indirect effects
CSRCompassionàEmployee Engagement 0.20 0.00 0.131 0.274
CSRPsychological ownershipEmployee Engagement 0.22 0.00 0.167 0.358
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
provoke a positive reaction among the employees and
non-employees as well (Farooq et al. 2014). This
organizational investment in community development
results in improved corporate reputation (Brammer
& Millington, 2005). Therefore, organizational
involvement in CSR activities increases the sense
of belongingness among employees. They have no
legal ownership in the organization, but CSR actions
cultivate an enhanced sense of belongingness in the
form of psychological ownership, and employees feel
like the organization’s owners.
The concept of CSR is still in its fancy in developing
countries, even though it has become a modern concept
(Farooq et al., 2014). The strong association of
CSR with psychological ownership and compassion
indicates that people from South Asia acknowledge
the CSR initiatives towards various stakeholders, such
as community development, environment, and future
generations, compared to the studies conducted in the
Western context. A possible justification could be the
generally high level of CSR in the Western countries
in contrast to South Asia (Krishnamurthy et al., 2007),
which reflect that socially responsible companies
successfully develop a positive image in the mind of
people. This results in an increased overall corporate
reputation (Farooq et al., 2014).
Based on the social identity theory, we suggest
that when organizations behave ethically and show
concern for stakeholders, employees experience
more compassion at work from their supervisor and
colleagues, which results in improved employee work
engagement. CSR also fulfills the individual needs
for self-enhancement and improves employees’ self-
concept, which fosters employee work engagement.
This increased sense of belongingness among
employees results in increased engagement in the
workplace. As a result, they feel more energetic,
enthusiastic, and get involved in work activities. When
employees are more engaged in their work, they may
ultimately contribute toward achieving organizational
goals that increase organizational effectiveness, such
as a firm’s value, competitiveness, and financial
Theoretical Implications and Contribution
Our study advances the existing literature on
CSR and employee work engagement in many ways.
First, this research increases our understanding of the
linkage between CSR and employee work engagement
by developing and testing the multiple mediation
mechanism. This study discussed important and
desired employee outcomes from the organizational
perspective, such as psychological ownership,
compassion at work, and employee work engagement.
This study further extends the theory that CSR strongly
predicts psychological ownership, compassion at work,
and employee work engagement. The previous studies
in Pakistan have used the social exchange perspective
and theory of engagement (Cheema et al., 2020; Farooq
et al., 2014; Story & Castanheira, 2019) to explain the
relationship between CSR and employee outcomes,
that is, employee work engagement. This study used
the social identity theory to develop and demonstrate
the underlying mechanism that provides useful insights
for using a social identity framework to understand the
CSR and employee level outcomes relationship.
Second, this study extends existing research
by developing and testing an underlying mediation
mechanism to strengthen further our understanding of
how CSR fosters employee work engagement because
scant studies discussed the intervening mechanism
between these constructs (Chaudhary, 2019). The
focus of previous studies was on investigating the
direct association between CSR and employee work
engagement (e.g., Al Amri et al., 2019); further studies
were required to understand the mechanism that
explains the process of how CSR impact the micro-
level or employee outcomes (Wang et al., 2015).
Third, previous studies have discussed various
employee-level outcomes of CSR such as well-being
(Su & Swanson, 2019), intentions to quit (Ouakouak
et al., 2019), innovative work behavior (Afridi et al.,
2020), creativity (Tong et al., 2019), organizational
commitment and job satisfaction (Story & Castanheira,
2019), pride and embeddedness (Ng et al., 2019).
As one of the positive organizational behaviors,
psychological ownership is receiving increasing
attention within organizations, and it is an important
predictor of employees’ attitudes, behaviors, and
performance (Avey et al., 2009; Park et al., 2013). To
the best of our knowledge, psychological ownership
has not been discussed in the CSR literature earlier. We
introduce psychological ownership as an employee-
level consequence of CSR in CSR and OB’s existing
research, which explains the CSR- employee work
engagement linkage.
Fourth, the previous studies have been conducted
in the Western context, underscoring the need for
Asia-Pacific Social Science Review | Vol. 21 No. 3 | September 2021
evidence from emerging economies to confirm
relationships’ nature. South Asian companies have
not embraced the concept of CSR and its potential to
improve the company’s bottom line and individual-
level outcomes due to a lack of empirical evidence
(Chaudhary, 2019). This study provides evidence
regarding CSR’s effectiveness to improve employee-
level outcomes in the context of a developing economy,
that is, Pakistan from South Asia. This study also
increases the generalizability of existing studies on
CSR and employee work engagement conducted in
the Western context.
Fifth, the studies on CSR conducted in Pakistan
have focused on various companies such as oil and gas,
electronics, banking, and manufacturing (Farrukh et al.,
2020), pharmaceutical (Lu et al., 2020), hotels (Afridi
et al., 2020; Cheema et al., 2020), and organizations
involved in various business including education,
real estate management, and construction (John et
al., 2017). This study investigated CSR in the unique
context of the insurance industry of Pakistan.
Managerial Implications
This research suggests several implications
for managers. First, it has become a challenge
for organizations to retain and engage talented
employees. Managers can use CSR activities as
a talent management strategy to attract and retain
talented employees. Therefore, organizations need to
incorporate the CSR practice in day-to-day operational
activities, which has implications for the different
organizational processes such as employee initiatives,
recruitment and selection, training and development,
and performance management (Morgeson et al.,
2013). Second, the disengagement of employees is
causing severe financial losses for the organizations.
Hence, organizations can use CSR to improve
employee outcomes such as psychological ownership
and compassion at work, which, in turn, increases
employee work engagement. CSR initiatives can
increase engagement in their work instead of wasting
time surfing and discussing with co-workers. Employee
work engagement can lead to superior individual
performance, which results in improved departmental
and organizational performance. Therefore, CSR can
improve the organization’s financial performance
and minimize the losses faced by the organizations
due to employee disengagement. The company’s
improved financial performance can protect the
interests of internal stakeholders such as shareholders
and employees and external stakeholders, including
customers, government, NGOs, and society. Third, the
sustainability of the business organizations is defined
by economic performance, and now organizations
have to focus on the triple bottom line, including
environmental and social performance, along with
financial performance. If business organizations
focus on CSR, it can lead to improved economic
conditions of organization and society and better
natural environment and social conditions, which
all are necessary for the prosperity of any society
or country. Fourth, organizations need to develop a
mechanism to communicate the CSR initiatives inside
the organization to create awareness of the employees
regarding CSR (Peterson, 2004), instead of only
communicating with the external stakeholders.
Limitations and Future Direction
Despite the several theoretical and practical
implications, this study also has limitations. First,
this study used CSR measures focusing on external
stakeholders such as society, natural environment, and
future generations rather than internal stakeholders,
that is, employees. Second, this study adopted a cross-
sectional design which does not explain the causality
between the variables. Future studies should collect
data through a longitudinal approach. Third, this study
focused on a large insurance company from Pakistan’s
insurance sector; the applications of finding in other
industries require fine-tuning. Fourth, future studies
can investigate the thriving at work, perceived insider
status, and creative-self efficacy as mediators to further
explain the underlying mechanism between CSR and
employee outcomes. Fifth, we also suggest a cross-
cultural comparison to enhance the generalizability
of the findings.
Declaration of ownership:
This report is our original work.
Conflict of interest:
Ethical clearance:
This study was approved by our institution.
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... It was mentioned in the same study that corporate social responsibility includes different issues, for example: legal compliance, social and environmental effects, financial sustainability, and ethical standards. Ali et al. (2021) concluded that corporate social responsibility refers to a certain corporation or firm's behaviour for the purpose of having a positive effect on stakeholders, where it concerns more than the economic interest. ...
... The model of this study presents the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, which were developed based on different studies. For example, the study conducted by Ali et al., (2021), where the study took into consideration the environmental dimension of corporate social responsibility. In addition, the studies conducted by Appiah (2019) and Gahlawat (2015), where the studies considered community service and human resource dimensions, respectively. ...
... There are different studies that took into consideration the relationship between the environmental dimension of corporate social responsibility and employees' satisfaction, such as the studies conducted by Ali et al., (2021) and Wong and Kim (2020). ...
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility in terms of its dimensions (environmental, community service, and human resources) on employees’ satisfaction within firms listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and sent by Google Forms to 84 companies in Romania. Respondents included employees at a higher management level within the selected firms. There were 589 questionnaires who were applicable for analysis. Findings: The outcomes of the study found that there is a positive impact of corporate social responsibility through its selected dimensions on employees’ satisfaction in Romania.
... Ali, Islam, Mahmood, Ali, and Raza found a significant relationship between corporate social responsibility and employee engagement. Socially responsible business through the mediation of compassion at work and psychological ownership contributed to an increase in the work engagement of employees [18]. The performance of employees, according to the results of research by Fadlan [19], is significantly influenced by the work environment and organizational culture, but the most significant of all variables was motivation as the highest value. ...
... To make quality business decisions, transformational leadership applies a process approach in which priority is given to users, and quality seekers, while also adopting feedback from employees to improve services [7]. Ali, Islam, Mahmood, Ali and Raza [18] point out that by applying CSR, managers can establish strategies for attracting and retaining the quality and talented personnel in the organization, which will contribute to greater work engagement. In this way, work performance will increase and the performance of the organization will be improved. ...
... In addition, the socially responsible business enables the sustainability of the company not only in the economic sense but sustainability as a benefit to society and in the ecological contribution to the environment. According to the same authors, CSR initiatives should also be implemented within the organization through communication and the development of employees' awareness of socially responsible business [18]. According to the opinion of Zonghu, Junyun, Yulang, Ming, and Xu [20], for the long-term sustainability of the organization, the need for profit should not be emphasized too much, but company management should focus more attention on Socially Responsible Business -SRB as an opportunity to reduce the unethical pro-organizational behavior of employees. ...
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The paper presents the role of organizational behavior, observing the field from the point of view of the initial factor for business improvement and the long-term survival of a business organization. The adoption of Quality Management System-QMS and the action of the business organization in Corporate Social Responsibility-CSR initiatives are indicators of quality and responsible business. The possibilities and benefits of implementing QMS and CSR and their impact on leadership, employees, work performance, and company performance were discussed. The implementation of international standards significantly contributes to organizational behavior through guidelines for recruitment and selection of personnel, as well as the necessary procedures for the implementation of social responsibility activities. Based on examples confirmed in business practice, recommendations and guidelines for business improvement are given.
... As a result, the literature has been providing cumulative evidence of a significant link between CSR and diverse job-related attitudes and behaviors, such as job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, or individual performance (Duarte et al. 2019;Freire et al. 2022;Onkila and Sarna 2022;Pérez et al. 2018;Santini et al. 2021;Scholten et al. 2022;Wisse et al. 2018). In addition, a link between employees' CSR perception and outcomes, such as work engagement and turnover intention, has been drawn (Albasu and Nyameh 2017; Ali et al. 2021;Chaudhary 2017;Glavas and Piderit 2009;Nejati et al. 2021;Virador and Chen 2022). Ideally, employee perception of meaningful CSR engagement births intrinsic reward on the employee, and that promotes work engagement and decreased turnover intention. ...
... These may include several organizational practices, such as the ones in the social responsibility domain (e.g., fostering work-family balance, offering training and development opportunities, and practicing fair wages). Accordingly, one of the ways to reinforce employee engagement is through CSR, as has been tested in a number of nations (Ali et al. 2021;Manimegalai and Baral 2018;Pisani et al. 2017;Gharleghi et al. 2018). The level at which an organization is committed to CSR can affect the way employees perceive management's sincerity of purpose not only externally but internally, as well as the support received from the company. ...
... The level at which an organization is committed to CSR can affect the way employees perceive management's sincerity of purpose not only externally but internally, as well as the support received from the company. Several authors reported a positive and statistically significant relationship between CSR and work engagement (Ali et al. 2021;Gao et al. 2018;Glavas 2016;Glavas and Piderit 2009;Gürlek and Tuna 2019;Manimegalai and Baral 2018). Rupp et al. (2018) found a positive relationship between the two constructs in a cross-cultural study. ...
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The subject of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has drawn the attention of many scholars and practitioners in the administrative sciences field. However, few studies have been carried out on Nigerian employees’ perspectives on CSR and on how CSR affects their attitudes and behaviors at work. The present study sought to contribute to narrowing this gap by examining how CSR perceptions, work engagement, and turnover intention are related in a sample of Nigerian workers. More specifically, this study had triple aims: first, describe employees’ perceptions of their employers’ involvement in different CSR domains; second, examine how CSR perceptions were related to employees’ levels of work engagement and turnover intention; third, analyze work engagement intervention as a mediator in the relationship between CSR perceptions and turnover intention. The sample included 118 employees from different organizations who voluntarily participated in an online survey. The findings revealed that respondents consider that their employer organizations have relatively high involvement in CSR activities, especially activities towards customers, employees, and stockholders. Findings also revealed that employees’ perceptions of CSR are related to diminishing levels of turnover intention, via increased work engagement. Therefore, organizations can invest in CSR activities to foster positive employee outcomes in Nigeria.
... CSR literature has progressed into understanding CSR antecedents and consequences (Mattingly, 2017). CSR outcomes in the context of human resources literature are also widely researched Ali et al., 2021;Islam et al., 2016, p. 219). Similarly, some expeditions on corporate social irresponsibility research have been undertaken, particularly on its direct or indirect outcomes related to different stakeholders, such as the job seeker's behaviour (Antonetti et al., 2020), consumer's punishing behaviour (Xie et al., 2019), investor's withdrawal behaviour (Wagner et al., 2020), revenge and boycotting behaviours (Krishna and Kim, 2020;Romani et al., 2015), corporate reputation (Nardella et al., 2019) and firm value and financial performance (Nirino et al., 2021;Sun and Ding, 2020). ...
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Purpose This study aims to examine the effects of external corporate social irresponsibility on organisational workplace deviant behaviours through the mediation of moral outrage (MO) among non-managerial employees. Design/methodology/approach The primary quantitative data was collected from a sample of 328 non-managerial employees working in banking, refinery, petroleum and power distribution companies in Pakistan. Partial least square-structural equation modelling was used to estimate the modelled relationships. Findings Results confirmed that external corporate social irresponsibility has a positive effect on organisational workplace deviant behaviours. MO mediated relationships between external corporate social irresponsibility and organisational workplace deviant behaviours positively. Research limitations/implications Theoretically, the findings indicate that moral values are also close to the hearts of non-managerial employees, as external corporate social irresponsibility has proved to be one of the significant predictors of organisational deviance. Practical implications This study provides a new, substantial pathway for the executive management of organisations and evidence that eliminating social irresponsibility is equally important as pursuing sustainability initiatives for addressing workplace deviant behaviour. Originality/value The originality of this study is twofold. Firstly, it has confirmed the impact of external corporate social irresponsibility on employees’ deviant behaviours targeted at the organisation. Secondly, it has extended the scope of expectancy violation theory into the field of human resource management.
... We have already noted that the nature of CSR can be substantive (Enderle & Tavis, 1998;Jones, 1996;Knautz, 1997;Kok et al., 2001;Mintzberg et al., 2002;Mulligan, 1986;Wood, 1991) or instrumental (Barry, 2002;Drucker, 1984;Friedman, 1962;Levitt, 1958;Marrewijk, 2003;McWilliams & Siegel, 2001;Stroup & Neubert, 1987;Swanson, 1995;Zwetsloot, 2003), that is, it may be based on ethical interests or may aim at achieving purely economic ends. According to several studies, we can state that the reasons that lead companies to engage in CSR practices are due to demands from interested parties, such as investors (Costello, 2021;Mackey et al., 2007), NGOs, and Government (Donaldson & Preston, 1995;Hoang et al., 2021;Hu et al., 2021;Wood, 1991), consumers (Costello, 2021;Kim & Ji, 2021;McWilliams & Siegel, 2001;Overton et al., 2021;Schuler & Cording, 2006;van Doorn et al., 2021;Vȃtȃmȃnescu et al., 2021), and workers, local community and wider community (Aguilera et al., 2006;Ali et al., 2021;Barnett, 2007;Baron, 2001;Chang, Hu, et al., 2021;Costello, 2021;Guo et al., 2021;Hassanie et al., 2021;Kang et al., 2021;Puchalska-Kamińska et al., 2021;Wood, 1991;Wu et al., 2021;Yin et al., 2021). ...
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Unit and item nonresponse are a source of great concern as they are capable of lowering the quality of survey data. Although the literature is unanimous in highlighting interviewers as important elements capable of influencing survey outcomes, there are still several inconsistencies regarding which interviewer characteristics might influence unit and item nonresponse, as well as few studies focusing on the role of intrapersonal skills. To understand if different interviewer characteristics are at work producing unit and item nonresponse rates and to identify those characteristics, this study uses data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), more precisely from the Interviewer Survey and the Wave 6 Questionnaire (Household Income module). More specifically, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between nonresponse survey outcomes with sociodemographic characteristics, experience and intrapersonal skills. Results show that better unit response rates are mostly associated with interviewers’ intrapersonal skills, such as persistency and resilience. Furthermore, better income response rates are associated with positive expectations and self-confidence. These findings have implications for recruitment, selection and training decisions.
The following study's purpose is to examine at how corporate social responsibility CSR affects employees' employee satisfaction, which is assessed by a positive attitude toward their work, in companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. CSR has three aspects: environmental, community service, and human resources. A questionnaire was created and distributed via Google Forms to 84 Romanian businesses in order to collect data. To investigate the link between the dependent and independent variables, research questions and hypotheses were developed. The data collected using the SPSS system was then analyzed. Employees in higher managerial positions at the chosen firms were included in the respondents. There were 589 surveys collected that could be analyzed. The results of the study showed that corporate social responsibility has a favorable effect on employee satisfaction in Romania through its chosen aspects, which in turn helps increase employees' performance at work.KeywordsCorporate social responsibilityEnvironmentEmployee satisfactionHuman resourceCommunity service
Purpose Adapting a positive business ethics framework, the purpose of this paper is to offer a new perspective to manage bullying at work. Specifically, this paper reports an empirical study which examines how the good work of servant leadership may lower employees’ exposure to workplace bullying, with compassion as a mediator and social cynicism beliefs (SCBs) as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach Survey data were gathered from 337 essential health professionals working in various public and private health-care organisations in Pakistan. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research model. Findings This study found that perceived servant leadership helps in lessening employee exposure to workplace bullying by strengthening their compassion. However, SCBs moderate the mediating role of compassion in employees’ perceptions of the servant leadership–bullying relationship. Research limitations/implications This study has implications in developing models of leadership to build employees’ empathetic resources to combat workplace bullying. The authors found that servant leadership and workplace compassion, embodying positive, ethical and sustainable attributes, play a crucial role in managing bullying at work by promoting relational dignity. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines the relationships between employee perceptions of servant leadership, workplace bullying and employee compassion while considering SCBs as a boundary condition.
Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept that dates to the first half of the twentieth century, although only in the twenty-first century it has become a paradigm for most companies. The concept itself is imbued with a certain versatility, as there are countless authors who theorize about it, as well as several theories that attest to its nature, with the work of Garriga and Melé (J Bus Ethics 53:51–71, 2004) being one of the most expressive in that sense. However, to understand the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility and why the concept has been disseminated throughout history, it is pertinent to refer to the advantages that it brings when implemented by organizations, that is, it is pertinent to know the motivations that lead companies to invest in Corporate Social Responsibility. This issue becomes even more relevant in a scenario of crisis, such as the one triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Given this, it is urgent to ask: how are companies assuming their social responsibilities in this pandemic scenario? What guidelines are they following? Are companies aligned with the current needs of their stakeholders?
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This study investigates how perceived corporate social responsibility directly influence the job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior of employees, and indirectly influence through the mediating effect work engagement. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 327 students of MBA executive employed in different organizations of Lahore, Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypothesized conceptual model. Results reveal that corporate social responsibility activities of the organizations increase job satisfaction and discretionary behaviors or organizational citizenship behavior among employees. CSR also increases work engagement, which, in turn, increases job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior as well. This study has shown that concerns toward CSR have increased in the business organization operating in developing countries, and employees working in those organizations are reciprocating to CSR through positive outcomes in the workplace. The employees, as internal stakeholders are responding favorably to the CSR. As per the best of researchers' knowledge, the study firstly tests the mediating role of work engagement in the linkage of CSR with job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed. Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, Job satisfaction, Organizational citizenship behavior, Work engagement JEL Classifications: M14, J24, J28 DOI:
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend the scant literature on the effect of abusive supervision on knowledge sharing by examining the roles of Islamic work ethic and learning goal orientation in moderating the effect. Design/methodology/approach This paper utilizes a cross-lagged survey research design to collect data from 735 employees working in the services and manufacturing sectors of Pakistan. Findings The data analysis revealed that abusive supervision has a damaging effect on knowledge sharing in the workplace. However, employee learning goal orientation and the Islamic work ethic help in mitigating this detrimental effect. Research limitations/implications The main theoretical implication is to advance knowledge on the boundary conditions that help in mitigating the undesirable effect of abusive supervision on sharing of knowledge in organizational settings. Practical implications This paper provides practical insights into mitigating the damaging effects of abusive supervision, a prevalent issue in Asian societies, through the lenses of Islamic business ethics and learning goal orientation. Originality/value This is the first study that examines the boundary conditions placed by the Islamic work ethic and learning goal orientation around the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge sharing in the context of Pakistan.
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Purpose This study investigates the mechanism between work-family conflict (WFC) and job dissatisfaction by considering threat to family role as a mediator and role segment enhancement as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected from 245 male and 245 female police officers using a questionnaire-based survey method through convenience sampling. Findings Results revealed that threat to family role partially mediates the association between WFC and job dissatisfaction. Role segment enhancement was also noted to weaken the association between WFC and job dissatisfaction. Moreover, the study revealed that male employees are more likely to draw a boundary between their work and family domain, which was not found in their female counterparts. Research limitations/implications The survey for this study was conducted in a male-dominant developing country, so results may be different in developed countries. The study has theoretical and managerial implications. Originality/value This study adds value to the existing literature on work-family conflicts in the perspective of source attribution and boundary management. Further, to the best of researchers' knowledge, none of the previous studies have examined role segment enhancement and threat to family role among the police workforce.
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a prominent subject due to its major implication for the practitioners in the corporate arena. Based on the theory of engage- ment, theory of social exchange, and theory of social identity, a conceptual framework was established in this study to evaluate the employee engagement (EE), and organiza- tional commitment (OC) as a resultant of CSR initiatives. The study further examined the impact of distributive justice (DJ), procedural justice (PJ), and job satisfaction (JS) as mediating variables, and the influence of collectivism (COL) as a moderating var- iable between CSR initiatives and OC and EE. Data from 989 employees of the Pakistani pharmaceutical industry was collected and analyzed using the structural equation modeling and exploratory and confirmatory inferential models. Results dem- onstrate that CSR initiatives have a significant positive impact on OC and EE. Similarly, the mediation of JS, PJ, and DJ was established between the exogenous and the endogenous variables. Finally, the COL has a significant impact as a moderating vari- able between CSR initiatives, and OC and EE. The conclusions obtained in this study provide significantly practical and theoretical implications for managers of involved firms to improve employee behavior, mold employee attitude, and enhance organiza- tional performance via CSR strategy, especially for firms located in countries along the route of belt and road initiative.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge on the implications of perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) on employee levels of commitment and citizenship behaviour (OCB) by investigating a trust-based mediational process in the context of academia. Design/methodology/approach The research data are collected from a sample of 736 academics through a questionnaire based survey administered in different Pakistani universities. The nature of trust-based mechanism underlying the relationships between CSR, affective commitment and OCB is determined through structural equation modelling of the research data. Findings The findings suggest that the perceived CSR is an important predictor of academics’ attitudes and behaviour in universities. Whilst the findings implicate the mediating role of trust in the process by which perceived CSR influences academics’ commitment, trust does not appear to mediate the perceived CSR’s relationship with OCB. Research limitations/implications This study utilises single-sourced and cross-sectional data, which may have resulted in common method bias. Practical implications By furnishing evidence of the beneficial effects of perceived CSR on academics’ levels of trust, commitment and citizenship behaviour, this study provides a business case for universities’ involvement in CSR. The findings are particularly useful to academic administrators and managers who are interested in nurturing positive attitudes and behaviours amongst academic staff. Originality/value There is a paucity of research on CSR in the academic work settings of developing countries. This is the first study to examine the trust-based microfoundation of CSR in the context of academia in Pakistan.
Despite growing recognition of CSR’s importance in hospitality industry, empirically-derived insight into its drivers, dynamics, and outcomes remains limited, as investigated in this study. Built on the sense-making theoretical perspective to explore the effect of CSR activities on employee engagement while examining the mediating role of meaningfulness and compassion on the relationship between CSR and employee engagement. To investigate our hypotheses, we conducted a questionnaire survey among 350 employees of selected luxury hotels in New Delhi, India. The results reveal CSR’s positive effect on employee engagement. In addition, meaningfulness and compassion partially mediate the association of CSR with employee engagement. This study identifies how CSR activities bring out a helping behavior in the form of compassionate acts, and offer meaning to employees in the hospitality context that is, otherwise, paralyzed by work-life imbalances and employee cynicism.
Despite the clear importance of perceived corporate social responsibility for employee's innovative work behavior, how and when perceived corporate social responsibility fosters said behavior is not very well understood. Research at the individual level of corporate social responsibility has been growing rapidly. This study proposes that perceived corporate social responsibility has a substantial influence on employee's innovative work behavior and this relationship is mediated by authenticity and volunteerism. A questionnaire survey consisting of 317 valid responses from employees and 175 valid responses from their respective supervisors in the hotel industry in Pakistan validated the proposed model. The current study found that perceived corporate social responsibility is positively related with an employee's innovative work behavior. Moreover, authenticity and employee volunteerism mediated the link between perceived corporate social responsibility and innovative work behavior. The practical implications to enhance individual innovative work behavior are discussed.
This study investigated the mediating role of work meaningfulness on the relationship between employees' perception about organization's corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and their engagement. Moreover, the joint moderating effects of incremental moral belief and moral identity centrality were also tested. Utilizing survey‐based data, this study analyzed the responses of 622 employees working in various industries. Results showed that incremental morality beliefs strengthened the effect of CSR perceptions on work meaningfulness, especially when moral identity centrality was weaker. Specifically, CSR perceptions had the strongest positive effect on work meaningfulness among employees with stronger incremental morality beliefs and weaker moral identity centrality. Another interesting finding of this study was that incremental morality beliefs strengthened the effect of CSR perception on employee engagement via work meaningfulness, especially when moral identity centrality was lower. This study found that CSR perceptions had the strongest positive effect on employee engagement via work meaningfulness among employees with stronger incremental morality beliefs and weaker moral identity centrality. The findings confirmed that incremental morality beliefs and moral identity centrality jointly moderated these relationships.
We explored the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee creativity (EC), and investigated how employees' perceptions of CSR and EC interact with perceived organizational support. Data from 278 bank employees in Malawi were analyzed using partial least squares regression. We found that employees' perceptions of CSR were positively related to EC, and that this relationship was mediated by employee engagement. In addition, the moderating effect results showed that when perceived organizational support was high, employees' perceptions of CSR strengthened their work engagement, which then improved EC. These findings indicate that CSR is an important strategic tool in shaping EC. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Despite the claims that corporate social responsibility (CSR) plays a vital role in employee behavior, the empirical support of these claims is limited especially in the Pakistani context. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by investigating the relationship between employees' perception of CSR and employee engagement (EE) in Pakistan. In addition, the present research also looks at the role of gender differences in terms of CSR perception and EE. The data were collected from employees working in different industries of Pakistan, such as manufacturing, banking, electronics, and oil and gas. Structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypothesized relationships. The results revealed a significant positive impact of CSR perception on EE. Furthermore, the moderation effect of gender on the CSR‐EE relationship was investigated. The empirical evidence showed a stronger relationship between CSR and women than men. The current study attests the importance of CSR in nurturing employees' positive work behavior. This research suggests the incorporation of CSR in a business to the maximum possible capacity.