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An Annotated List of Lizards (Sauria: Squamata) Recorded from the People's Republic of China

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Abstract

From the perspectives of biodiversity conservation and management, there is an urgent need to have at hand current synopses of classification and distributions of species. In this paper, we review and summarize the classifica tions, Chinese and English names, type specimens, type localities and distributions of China's lizard fauna to promote scientific exchange and species conservation among relevant people in China and internationally. As of December 31, 2020, a total of 230 species of lizard, belonging to 44 genera and 12 families, have been recorded from China, including 4 invasive species: 2 in the family Gekkonidae, 1 in Iguanidae and one in Dactyloidae. There are 115 endemic species, accounting for 50% of this group. The proportion of endemic species to China was the highest in the family Eublepharidae (84.62%), and the number of endemic species to China was the highest in the family Agamidae (42 species). The species distributions and classification in the "Fauna Sinica (Reptilia 2): Squamata (Lacertilia)" were updated. Among the provincial administrative units, there is a larger number of species in the southern provinces, such
Asian Herpetological Research 2022, 13(1): 64–74
DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.210020
Review
An Annotated List of Lizards (Sauria: Squamata) Recorded from the People’s
Republic of China
Bo CAI1,2,3, Xiang JI4, Yingyong WANG5, Dingqi RAO6, Song HUANG7, Yuezhao WANG1, Zhaobin SONG2, Xia nguang
GUO1* and Jia nping JIANG1*
Keywords
classification, type specimen, type locality, distribution,
endem ic species, inv asive species
1 Chengdu I nstitute of Biolog y, Chinese Academ y of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China
2 Ke y Laborator y o f Bio-resources and Eco-environment o f Ministr y of Education, College o f Li f e Sciences , Sichuan Universit y, Chengdu
61006 5, Sichuan, China
3
University o f Chinese Academ y o f Sciences, Beijin g 100049 , China
4 Jiang su Ke y Laborator y f or Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Li f e Sciences, Nanjing Normal Universit y, Nanjing 210046 , Jiangsu,
China
5 State Ke y Laborator y o f Biocontrol/The Museum of Biolog y, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen Universit y, Guangzhou 51027 5,
Guangdong, China
6 Kunming Institute o f Zoolo gy, Chinese Academ y o f Sciences, Kunmin g 650 223, Yunnan , China
7 College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal Universit y, Wuhu 241002 , Anhui, China
*Corresponding authors: Dr. Xianguang GUO, from Chengdu Institute of
Biology (CIB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chengdu, China, with his
research focusing on taxonomy, phylogeny a nd biogeography of reptiles; Prof.
Jianping JIANG, from CIB, CAS, Chengdu, China, with his research focusing
on diversity a nd protection of amphi bians a nd reptiles.
E-mail: guoxg@cib.ac.cn (Xianguang GUO); jia ng jp@cib.ac.cn ( Jia npin g JIANG)
Received: 17 March 2021 Accepted: 28 June 2021
Abstract From the perspectives of biodiversity
conservation and management, there is an urgent need
to have at hand current synopses of classification and
distributions of species. In this paper, we review and
summarize the classifications, Chinese and English
names, type specimens, type localities and distributions of
China’s lizard fauna to promote scientific exchange and
species conservation among relevant people in China and
internationally. As of December 31, 2020, a total of 230
species of liza rd, belonging to 44 genera and 12 families,
have been recorded from China, including 4 invasive
species: 2 in the family Gekkonidae, 1 in Iguanidae and one
in Dactyloidae. There are 115 endemic species, accounting
for 50% of this group. The proportion of endemic species
to China was the highest in the family Eublepharidae
(84.62%), and the number of endemic species to China
was the highest in the family Agamidae (42 species). The
species distributions and classification in the “Fauna
Sinica (Reptilia 2): Squamata (Lacertilia)” were updated.
Among the provincial administrative units, there is a
larger number of species in the southern provinces, such
1. The brief history of lizard bioinventory in China
People’s Republic of China is one of the la rgest countries in
the world (land a rea about 9.6 million km2), and straddlestwo
zoogeographical realms, the Palaearctic and the Oriental
(Zhang, 2011). China has a relatively independent geological
history and great geological complexity (Hsü and Chen, 1999;
Wan, 2003). For instance, the phased uplift of the Tibetan
Plateau caused significant changes in climate, topography and
faunal composition beginning in the late Eocene (ca. 38 Ma ;
Favre et al., 2015; Renner, 2016). The complex topography in
China is generally assigned to four different terraces (Zha ng,
2011). e terrain is generally high in the west and lower to the
east, including the Third Pole, deserts, grassland, mountains,
hills, basins, plains, oceans, etc. Tremendous differences in
latitude (a span of more than 50° latitude), longitude (a span
as Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Taiwan. Sichuan,
Yunnan, and Taiwan harbour relatively more endemic
species tha n others. A total of 154 species of liza rds were first
discovered in China, a nd the type localities of these species
are concentrated in Yunnan, Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang, and
Sichuan.
Bo CAI et al.
Updated List of Lizards
in China
No. 1 65
of more than 60° longitude), and altitude (a span of more than
89 km) create conditions for extremely diverse climates and
rema rkably heterogeneous la ndscapes. Thus, a high degree
of species richness and endemism in China might have been
expected in terms of reptile diversity.
China’s reptiles were recorded sporadically in ancient
books. For example, five groups of lizards were recorded in
the “Compendium of Materia Medica”, which was completed in
1578 by Shizhen LI (Zhang et al., 1998). These so-called groups
are analogous to “fa milies” in the modern classification system.
Modern reports on animal surveys in China started as early as
the 18th centur y (Zha ng et al., 1998). Prior to 1950, the taxonomic
status of orders and suborders was esta blished, and most of
the families, genera a nd species were discovered by overseas
scholars (Pope, 1935; Zhao and Adler, 1993; Zhao et al., 1999).
After 1960, Chinese specialists began to discover new species
and establish new higher taxa. With the development of the
economy, the increment of government support for field
surveys and convenient tra nsportation, the number of new
species to science has increased annually, particularly in the
1980s and 2010s (Fig ure 1).
The earliest comprehensive summary of China’s reptile
taxonomy is “Retrieval of Chinese Reptile Taxonomy”, which
included 117 species, 34 genera and 8 families of lizards and
their distributions without English names, type specimen and
type locality (Herpetological Department, 1977). Since then, in
1999, “Fauna Sinica (Reptilia 2): Squamata (Lacertilia)” (Zhao et al.,
1999) was published and included 156 species, 39 genera and
9 families of lizards and their distributions without English
names and type specimens; this was the most systematic and
comprehensive work on China’s lizards to date. In this book,
Zhao et al. (1999) added Eublepharidae and relocated the species
of Xenosauridae in China to Shinisauridae.
With the development and progress of molecular
systematics, the international classifica tion system of reptiles
has also undergone substantial changes, and new taxa have
been continuing to be reported. To update recent classification
achievements, Cai et al. (2015) catalogued the reptiles in
China by reappraising the taxonomic progress made with
morphological and molecular data and published "A revised
taxonom y for Chinese reptiles", with the addition of the family
Sphaerodactylidae. More recently, on the basis of Cai et al.
(2015), Wa n g et al. (2020) summarized amphibians and reptiles
(including lizards) in China. These catalogues simply list
classification informa tion (Ta ble 1).
Recently, owing to classification changes, cryptic species,
and increasing data, the distributions of reptiles in China have
changed substantially. Uncertainties in the type specimens
and type localities of many species have led to controversies in
many classifications. Misidentification also leads to inaccuracies
in the distribution data. In the context of increasingly frequent
international academic exchanges, the ongoing Na tional
Biodiversity Survey and the adjusted List of National Key
Protected Wild Animals, the existing literature is scattered and
no longer provides the informa tion needed for law enforcement
related to species or biodiversity protection to ecological,
agricultural, forestry, or other related departments; scientific
researchers; or the public. Therefore, from taxonomic and/
or resource protection perspectives, there is an urgent need to
revise the historical data and compile the classifications and
distributions of species.
In this study, the classifica tion, Chinese and English na mes,
type specimen(s), type locality a nd distribution of China’s
lizards were comprehensively summarized for the first time.
e distributions in Zhao et al. (1999) were thoroughly updated,
and the changes caused by alterations in species classification
were revised. In the end, we completed the la test compilation of
information related to 230 known species in China, including
Year Liza rds (native and invasive)
(families, genera, species) Information References
1977 8, 34, 117 Herpetological
Department (1977)
1986 8, 35, 123 Tian a nd Jiang (1986)
1993 8, 37, 151+1 Zhao and Adler (1993)
1999 9, 39, 155+1 Zhao et al. (1999)
2000 9, 37, 161+1 Zhao et al. (2000)
2015 10, 41, 188+1 Cai et al. (2015)
2020 10, 43, 210+1 Wang et al. (2020)
2021 10+2, 42+2, 226+4 □● is study
Table 1 Comprehensive summary of China’s liza rd bioinventory.
Note: , Chinese names; , En glish names; , ty pe specimen; , type locality;
and , distribution.
Figure 1 e trend of new spec ies of lizards disco vered by Chinese scientists.
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4 invasive species belonging to Gekkonidae, Igua nidae and
Dactyloidae. e genus-level a nd species-level informa tion were
upda ted with discoveries of species, cha nges in taxonomic status
and data from detailed investigations (Ta ble 1 and Section 2).
2. Taxonomic Changes
2.1. Principles The classification system, Chinese common
name, a nd English common name in the list are based on
(Reptilia 2): Squamata (Lacertilia)” (Zhao et al., 1999) a nd “ A revised
taxonomy for Chinese reptiles” (Ca i et al., 2015), with reference
to the online checklist of the Reptile Database (www.reptile-
database.org) and newly published authorita tive data as of
December 2020. Taken together, a preliminary distributional
list of China’s exta nt Lacertilia reptiles is presented.
In the process of taxonomic reappraisal of published
materials, we adhere to the following principles: i) the rules
of the International Code on Zoological Nomenclature (“The
Code”: ICZN, 1999) are correctly applied; ii) monophyly is best,
paraphyly is accepta ble, and polyphyly is unacceptable; iii)
consistency between molecular systematics and morphological
classification is ideal; iv) taxa with taxonomic disputes are
treated somewha t conservatively to avoid further confusion;
and v) taxa should be officially recognized by the scientific
community.
The principles of adopting new species and new national
records a re i) the correct application of “The Code”, ii) the
possession of diagnostic characters, iii) adequate documentation
of a uniquely designa ted type species or record of a new
specimen, iv) voucher specimens (type specimen or new record
specimen) deposited in a n internationally accessible biodiversity
repository or museum, iv) publication in peer-reviewed
scientific journals, v) official recognition by the scientific
community, and vi) fieldwork verification.
e principles of adopting Chinese common names are i) to
give priority to idiomatic a nd historical names; ii) consideration
of the na mes commonly used in taxonomy in the past ten years;
and iii) scientificity a nd applicability.
Under these principles, the distributional list was produced
by checking numerous historical documents; having many
discussions; repeatedly seeking the opinions of domestic and
foreign herpetological taxonomists; and removing synonymous,
hybrid and misidentified species as well as those not distributed
in China.
2.2. Genus With in the Gekkonidae, the Palaearctic naked-
toed geckos, ra nging from North Africa and Central Asia
to northern India and western China (Rösler, 2017), were
reassigned to diverse genera (Bauer et al., 2013), such as
Also ph ylax, C yrt odact ylus, Altiphylax, C yrto podion, Tenuidactylus,
and Mediod act ylus. For C yrtopodion a nd Altiphylax, according
toBayesian phylogeneticanalysis, Cyrtopodion medogense is
considered a member of Alti ph ylax (Che et al., 2020). However,
Alti ph ylax is not a monophyletic group, and theanalysis lacked
molecular data for Altiph ylax tokobajevi, which is the type
species of this genus (Che et al., 2020). us, in support of Zhao
et al. (1999) and Cai et al. (2015), we temporarily keep Cyrtopodion
sensu lato and retain C y. medogense in this genus to avoid
further confusion. In addition, C yrtodact ylus yarkandensis was
considered a synonymof G ymnodactylus stoliczkai (alternative
name combination: Altiph ylax stoliczkai) (Blanford, 1875; Das and
Dattagupta, 1997; Das, 2017) and included in Altiphylax (Ba uer
et al., 2013). However, the only record of Al. stoliczkai in China
is the type locality of C y. yarkandensis in Yarkand (= Yarkant
County, southern Xinjiang, western China) (Zhao and Alder,
1993; Zhao et al., 1999), which was given by Anderson (1872) and
thought to be erroneous (Blanford, 1875). e most likely type
locality was loca ted a t Ladakh (Bla nford, 1875; Smith, 1935; Zhao
and Adler, 1993; Das et al., 2017). This species is probably not
native to China; at least no specimens with bona fide collection
data have been secured at the western Chinese border. For
these reasons, Altiphylax is temporarily not included in our
list. Wood et al. (2020) confirmed the placement of Pt ychozoon
taxa within Gekko with strong support based on thousa nds
of ultraconserved elements. We adopt their new classification,
emphasizing the most inclusive, original generic name (Gekko)
for ~60 taxa, arranged into seven subgenera.
In the Scincidae, for As ymbl eph arus , molecular phylogenetics
revealed a polyphyletic rela tionship between Asymblepharus a nd
Ablepharus, suggesting that Asymblepharus was synonymized
with Able pharus (Pyron et al., 2013; Che et al., 2020). Considering
the lack of comprehensive studies of these two genera
involving molecular and morphological data, we currently
recognize Asymblepharus as a valid genus. The relationships
in Lygosoma sensu lato are more complex. Freitas et al. (2019)
revised the taxonomy by restricting L ygosoma to Southeast
Asia, resurrecting the genus Riopa for a clade of Indian a nd
Southeast Asian species, expanding the genus Mochlus to
include all Africa n species of Lepidoth yris and describing a
new genus, Subdoluseps, in Southeast Asia. Similar to traditional
morphological approaches, multiva riate approaches have la rgely
failed to differentia te clades in L ygosoma sensu lato (Freitas et al.,
2019). Hence, to avoid further confusion, we kept the original
generic name (Lygosoma) and temporarily downgraded these
four genera to four subgenera.
In the Lacertidae, for Eremias, several 20th century
herpetologists treated Lacerta velox P al la s, 1771 (= Eremias velox),
as the type species; this was also adopted by Szczerbak (1974).
Subsequently, ICZN used its plenary powers to designate
Lacerta velox Pallas, 1771, as the type species of Eremias (see
Melville, 1985).
Bo CAI et al.
Updated List of Lizards
in China
No. 1 67
In the Agamidae, for Laudakia, Paralaudakia was described
and separated from Laudakia by morphology-based taxonomic
revision (Baig et al., 2012) in consideration of mtDNA evidence
of a paraphyly of Laudakia sensu lato. However, owing to a lack
of nuclear DNA evidence, the division of Laudakia into three
genera remains somewhat controversial (e.g., Pyron et al., 2013),
and we temporarily downgraded these two genera to two
subgenera a nd mainta ined the original generic name (Laudakia).
For Calotes, Oriocalotes paulus is the type species of the genus
Oriocalotes Günther 1864, which was synonymized with Calotes
by Giri et al. (2019). On the basis of combined mtDNA and
nuclear loci analyses, Wang et al. (2019) revised the taxonomy
of Japalura and Diploderma and split Japalura sensu lato into
four genera, resurrecting Diploderma and placing it into clade O
(with its type species being Di. pol y gonatum Hallowell, 1861), and
defined Japalura sensu stricto according to clade C (distributed
along the southern foothills of the Himalayas). However, by
using the mitochondrial ND1-ND2 gene fragments to construct
a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, Che et al. (2020) did not find
evidence to support a monophyly of Japalura sensu stricto”.
Considering that the results of Che et al. (2020) lack nuclear
DNA evidence, we temporarily adopt the conclusion of Wang
et al. (2019). As suggested by Liu et al. (2020), the Chinese name
龙蜥
” refers to the name of the genus J apalura and the
Chinese name “ 攀蜥 ” for Diploderma, showing our respect to
Professor Chengchao LIU and Ermi ZHAO’s revision. Owing
to the morphological similarities, Mahony (2010) synonymized
Micto pholis to Pseudocalotes. However, the Mictopholis species
was also similar to members of the genus Japalura (Mahony,
2010; Wang et al., 2019c). According to phylogenetic studies
based on mitochondrial DNA data, Che et al. (2020) showed
that Micto pholis was more closely related to Japalura than to
Pseudocalotes. In support of this perspective, Gowande et al.
(2021), using mtDNA (16S rRNA, ND2 and ND4) and the
nuclea r RAG1 gene sequences, inferred that P . austeniana was
embedded within the genus Japalura Gray, 1853 sensu stricto.
For the gekkonid genus Hemid act ylus, the authorship is
sometimes attributed to G. Cuvier ("1817" 1816]), but he used the
form "H emidact yl es", which is a vernacular rather than a Latin
form a nd, thus, unavailable under "e Code". Oken (1817) was
the first to use a Latinized form, based on Cuvier's name, by
listing the a bbreviation "Hemidact." in a list of gecko genera
beginning with Thecadactylus ( f ide Zhao and Adler, 1993).
Other systems have credited Grey, 1825, without explanation
(GBIF Secreta riat, 2019). The (sub)genus M ediodact ylu s was
first described by Szczerbak and Golubev in 1977, not by
Steindachner in 1870.
2.3. Species In the Eublepharidae, for Goniurosaurus, Go.
lichtenf elderi was recognized as the only species of Goniurosaurus
in China (Zhao and Adler, 1993; Zhao et al., 1999). To date,
however, different populations in China have been recognized
as distinct species and Go. lichtenfelderi was found only in
Vietnam. Goniurosaurus kadoorieorum is considered a junior
synonym of G. luii, owing to the lack of diagnostic characters
separating from G. luii (Ngo et al., 2016) and a polyphyletic G. luii
with respect to G. kadoorieorum in both the ML and BI analyses
(G ri sm er , 2 021).
In the Gekkonidae, for H emip hyl lodact yl us, the Hunan
population of H. yunnanensis (Deng et al., 1998; Shen et al., 2014)
was considered a new species (H. dupanglingensis) (Zhang
et al., 2020). However, Hemiphyllodactylus dupanglingensis and H.
hongkongensis may be synonymous with H. dushanensis (Zhou
Figure 2 Lizard species diversity in China.
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and Liu, 1981) (Yingyong WANG and colleagues, unpublished
data). Pending results of analyses with morphological and
molecular data published in peer-reviewed scientific journals,
we temporarily keep the original distinctions. The Zayü
population of H. yunnanensis (Shi et al., 2011) was also treated as
a new species, H. zayuensis ( Jiang et al. in Che et al., 2020: 439).
For C yrtod act ylus, two subspecies of Cy. khasiensis were found in
China, i.e., C y. k. khasiensis and C y. k. ca yuen sis (Li et al., 2010). e
Zayü population was the only definite group of C y. k. ca yuensis
and was considered a valid species, Cy. cayuensis (Agarwal et
al., 2018). The other popula tions, Mêdog and Longchuan, are
known as Cy. k. khasiensis (Yang and Rao, 2008; Li et al., 2010),
which has not been explicitly negated, although Agarwal et
al. (2018) stated that “this species is known with certainty only
from the vicinity of Sohra, …, Northeast India”. erefore, we
keep C y. khasiensis in our list temporarily.
In the Scincidae, for Lygosoma sensu lato, only L y. bowringii (=
Eumeces bowringii Günther, 1864) was recorded in Hong Kong,
China. However, the only record in China was questioned: the
species has not been recorded subsequently in Hong Kong or
other places in China (Smith, 1935; Pope, 1935; Zhao and Adler,
1993; Zhao, 1997; Zhao et al., 1999). Considering tha t Hong Kong
is the type locality of L y. bowringii, some studies still included
this species (Zhao a nd Adler, 1993; Zhao, 1997; Zhao et al., 1999).
Until this location is shown to be an error, we keep this species
in this fa una of China.
In the Lacertidae, for Eremias, it is increasingly common to
accept Er. multiocellata in its entire range, representing a species
complex (Eremchenko et al., 1992; Eremchenko and Panfilov,
1999; Sindaco and Eremchenko, 2008; Orlova et al., 2017; also
fide Jinglong LIU’s PhD thesis, 2019, and Xianguang GUO, as
one of his supervisors). Pending the publication of this finding
in peer-reviewed scientific journals, we recognize this species
as Er. multiocellata temporarily. Eremias quadrifrons is one of
the most enigmatic Central Asian Eremias species, known only
from a single male specimen (holotype); despite numerous
attempts, other specimens of this species were not recorded
during subsequent surveys (Szczerbak, 1974). Szczerbak (1974)
suggested that there is a possibility tha t the description of
Er. quadrif rons was based on an a bnormal specimen of Er.
multiocellata, a thought that was adopted by Zhao (1995) and
Zhao et al. (1999). Xianguang GUO examined the type specimen
and considered its morphology normal a nd not irregular.
Further studies, including extensive surveys from the vicinity
of this species type locality, are required to clarify its taxonomic
status and its phylogenetic position. Eremias roborowskii was
recommended as Er. velox roborowskii by Zhao et al. (1999); recent
morphological, ecological and molecula r evidence congruently
support that it should be raised to the status of full species (Liu
et al., 2019; Chirikova et al., 2019). For Tak ydromus, molecular
data supported Ta. kuehnei carinatus Gressitt, 1938 as a full
species, despite the lack of a morphological comparison (fide
Yu’s doctoral thesis, 2014, and Xiang Ji as the supervisor).
Thus, pending the publica tion of the results of a nalyses with
morphological and molecular data in peer-reviewed scientific
journals, we recognize this taxon as a subspecies.
In the Varanidae, for Varanus, Va. vietnamensis Yang and
Liu, 1994, which is synonymous with Va. nebulosus (Grey, 1831)
(Böhme and Ziegler, 1997), was first described as a species
according to a specimen purchased in Hekou County (Rao and
Yang, 1996). Considering that the specimen was boughtfrom
markets, rather than wild-collected in China, this species is
not included in this list temporarily. The western Yunna n
population of Va. bengalensis was treated as a full species (V a.
irrawadicus) on the basis of morphological data (Yang a nd Li,
1987; Yang and Rao, 2008). Auffenberg (1994) considered that
the morphological characteristics were within the range of
those of Va. bengalensis bengalensis, in agreement with Zhao
et al. (1999). DeLisle (1996) and Böhme and Ziegler (1997)
considered this taxon a subspecies (Va. bengalensis irrawadicus).
Böhme (2003), Pianka a nd King (2004) and DeLisle (2009)
synonymized it with Va. bengalensis and did not recognize any
other subspecies. As such, a broad spectrum of studies is needed,
especially molecular and morphological studies of Va. bengalensis
from the type locality.
In the Agamidae, for Laudakia, La. stoliczkana altaica
(Munkhbayar and Shagdarsuren, 1970) can probably be treated
as a valid species ( f ide Lifa ng Peng doctoral thesis, 2019, and
Song Huang as the supervisor). Pending the publication of
this study in peer-reviewed scientific journals, we temporarily
recognize it as a subspecies. For Phr ynoce phalus, different
populations of Ph. guttatus in China have been recognized
as separate species. Studies of taxonomic status, ecological
features and behaviour of these populations by Dunayev (1989)
suggested that Ph. guttatus melanurus deserves the status of full
species, which is supported by molecular evidence (Melville et al.,
2009; Dunayev et al., 2020; Solovyeva et al. , 2 018). Phr ynocephalus
guttatus alpherakii was elevated to the status of full species
based on morphological and molecular studies (Ananjeva
et al., 2011; Solovyeva et al., 2011; Milto a nd Barabanov, 2012;
Solovyeva et al., 2018). Phr ynocephalus grumgrzimailoi was
considered invalid and synonymous with Ph. melanurus by
Barabanov and Ananjeva (2007) and Ananjeva et al. ( 2 0 11) ,
although no evidence was provided. Thus, P h. guttatus is
temporarily not included in this list. Phr ynocephalus axillaris
and Ph. nasatus are not similar enough to be synonymized,
because these two species a re clea rly distinguished from each
other by morphological traits (colouration and scalation) a nd
represent different phylogenetic lineages (Dunayev, 2020).
Phr ynocephalus alpherakii was first described in 1907 (Bedriaga,
Bo CAI et al.
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No. 1 69
190 7a ). Phr ynocephalus grumgrzimailoi and Ph. putjatai were first
described in 1909 (Bedriaga, 1909). In the viviparous group of
Phr ynoce phalus, i.e., the subgenus Oreosaura, Ph. erythrurus is
sister to Ph. vlangalii, not the synonym of Ph. theobaldi ( Jin and
Brown, 2013; Solovyeva et al., 2018). Bayesian species delimitation
analysis of mtDNA did not support the division of Ph. put jatai
and Ph. guinanensis into separate species ( Jin et al., 2014).
Genotyping by sequencing further suggested synonymising Ph.
guinanensis with P h. put jatia ( Jin and Brown, 2019). However,
according to Xiang Ji’s unpublished data, there were significant
differences in morphology, genetics of topotypes and life
history adaptation to the pure desert environment between Ph.
put jat ai and Ph. guinanensis, and it is believed that Ph. guinanensis
is in the process of ecological species formation. For Diploderma,
Ota (2000) synonymized Ja palura szechwanensis Hu and Djao,
1966 (= Diploderma szechwanensis), with J . f asciata Mertens,
1926 (= Diploderma fasciata). Nevertheless, Ota compa red one
type specimen of J. fasciata and three type specimens of J .
szechwanensis by using only colour patterns and nine common
quantita tive characters. This evidence is not adequa te to
synonymize the two species. In addition, the biogeographic
characteristics of western Sichuan (the type locality of J.
szechwanensis) and northern Indochina are quite different. us,
we temporarily recognize J. szechwanensis as a valid species. For
Pseudocalotes, Yang and Rao (2008) treated Japalura bapoensis
(= Ps. bapoensis) as a full species on the basis of morphological
data. Based on molecula r da ta, Wang et al. (2019) considered
it a member of Pseudocalotes and conservatively treated it as a
subspecies of Ps. kingdonwardi, without molecular data of P s.
kingdonwardi from the type locality. As such, we temporarily
keep P s. bapoensis as a full species. A broad spectrum of studies
is needed, especially molecula r and morphological studies of P s.
kingdonwardi from the type locality.
In terms of the a uthorship and date of species descriptions,
for Alsophylax, in accordance with Art. 23.9 of "The Code",
Al. przewalskii Strauch, 1887, was declared a nomen protetcum,
with priority over the nomen oblitum Gymnodactylus microtis
Bla nford , 1875. In Hemidactylus, He. plat yurus was first described
in 1792, not in a reprint in 1797 (Schneider, 1792, 1797). For
Sphenomorphus, the first paper with a description of Sp. inco gnitus
is Thompson’s, which was apparently published a month
earlier than van Denburgh’s (fide Zhao and Adler, 1993). For
Eremias, Eremias buechneri a nd Er. roborowskii were first printed
in 1907; this is similar to Teratoscincus roborowskii (Bedriaga,
190 7 b ) . For Zootoca, Lacerta vivipara (= Z. vivipara) was first used
as a “real” species name in Lichtenstein’s (1823) catalogue, but
Lacerta vivipara Jacquin, 1787” did not become a viable name
(Schmidtler and Böhme, 2011).
2.4. Type specimen and Type locality We added some
holotypes and field numbers for type specimens (Table 2). e
holotype of Gekko taibaiensis is IZS X 840108, n ot IZSX 84 0104
(Song, 1985). A neotype of Calotes versicolor (NCBS AT102)
was designated by Gowande et al. (2016) but the action was
invalidated by Chaitanya et al. (2017).
We summarized and clarified some type localities (Table
3). e type locality of Sc. przewalskii is Mt. Dschachar, on the
upper Chuanche (probably Bailong Jiang), Gansu Province,
China ( f ide Zhao and Adler, 1993). e Dschachar Mountains
probably refer to Die Mounta in ( 迭山 ), which are located on
the upper end of the Ba i-Long River ( 白龙江 ). “Dschachar”
Species Field number Holotype number
Cyrtodactylus zhaoermii X-08900 CIB 97979
Cyrtopodion medogense T8380188 CIB 000193
Tenuidactylus dadunensis XND06070 CIB 97954
Scincella tsinlingensis 627039 CIB 007223
Laudakia papenfussi 775001 CIB 002750
Laudakia wui 73I502 CIB 002757
Calotes medogensis 8370177 CIB 001477
Diploderma szechwanensis 613047 CIB 002620
Diploderma zhaoermii GZF0001 CIB 002690
Table 2 Some holotypes and field numbers were added.
Species Type locality Inaccurate type locality Reference(s)
Teratoscincus roborowskii Turpan Basin Oasis of Ssatschsheu. Macey et al., 1997
Gekko subpalmatus Chikiang (=Zhejia ng), China. Hong Kong. Rösler and Tiedema nn, 2007
Plestiodon capito North China. Côte orientale des Etats-Unis. Smith et al, 1975; Zhao and
Adler, 1993
Scincella schmidti Mt. Washan (Dawa Shan). Mt. Washan (Wawu Sha n). Wilson, 1913; is study
Eremias vermiculata Restricted to the area ‘around Ya rkand a nd Kash-
gar’.
Plains of “Eastern Turkesta n” (=
southern Xinjiang in China). Blanford, ‘1875’ 1876
Leiolepis reevesii Southern China. China. Boulenger, 1885; is study
Phrynocephalus erythrurus Most likely, a lake on the upper Keria river, south
side of Lushitage Mountain. Sagüs Kul, northwest Tibet. is study
Phrynocephalus przewalskii Eastern pa rt of Tengger Desert (west from 106° E). Deserto Alaschanico. Barabanov and Ananjeva,
2007
Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi Adung Valley, North Myanmar. Adung Valley, Tibet. is study
Table 3 Clarified type localities.
Vol. 1370
Asian
Herpetological
Research
and “Chuanche” may be pronounced in the Khams Tibetan
Zhouqu dialects.
The type locality of Sc. schmidti confused Dr. Ermi ZHAO,
who was “not sure if it referred to Dawa Shan (alternative
name: Wa Sha n) in Jinkouhe District or Wa Sha n (alternative
name: Wawu Shan) in Hongya County and Yingjing County”
(Zhao, 2003:117). In historical references, the loca tions and
landforms of Wawu Shan and Wa Shan were described in
detail by Ernest H. Wilson (1913), who is the director of the
expedition sent out by the Arnold Arboretum and the associate
of Walter R. Zappey, who collected the holotype of this species.
From Ernest H. Wilson’s book, we can verify that the type
locality of Sc. schmidti is “Dawa Shan (Wa Shan) Mountain” in
Jinkouhe District, not “Wawu Sha n (Wa-wu Sha n)”.
The type locality of Dr. maculatus is Pena ng, Malaysia
(restricted by Smith, 1935:138). is type locality may be an error,
because Smith (1935: 140) claimed that the species is not known
south of 8° north la titude (Zhao and Ad l er , 19 93 ).
3. Distributional list and its analysis
3.1. The distributional list of China’s lizards The
distributional data in Zhao et al. (1999) were thoroughly updated
in this paper, as new records were added and the changes
caused by the alteration of species classifica tion were corrected.
e detailed cha nges are listed in Appendix 1 (the distributional
list of na tive and extant lizards in China).
The distributions of invasivelizards are enumerated in
Appendix 2 (the distributional list of invasive liza rds in China).
3.2. Lizard species diversity As of December 31, 2020, 12
families, 44 genera a nd 230 species of liza rds (including invasive
species) have been found in China. There were 115 endemic
species, accounting for 50% of this group. The proportion of
endemic species was the highest in Eublepharidae (84.62%), and
the number of endemic species was the highest in Aga midae
(42 species). ere were 4 invasive species: 2 in Gekkonidae, 1 in
Igua nidae and 1 in Dact yloidae.
3.3. Distribution pat tern From the tropics to the poles, as
the latitude increases, the species diversity decreases with the
increasing latitude, the most typical latitude gradient pattern
in the distribution pattern of species diversity (Kimmins,
1987; Rosenzweig, 1995). This pa ttern embodies in terrestrial
plants, vertebra tes, invertebrates, ma rine life and even ancient
crea tures (Hawkins et al., 2003; Cox et al., 2019), also in lizards in
China (Huang et al. , 2 011 ).
In terms of species richness, the Nanling Mountains and
tropical rainforests in South China harbour the la rgest number
of species, followed by the Wuyi Mountains in East China and
the Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains and Wushan
Mountains in Southwest China. The number of species is the
lowest in Northeast and North China. Among the provincial
administrative units, the number of species in the southern
provinces, such as Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Taiwan,
is larger (Figure 3). These provinces are in the tropical and
subtropical zones, have more complex terrain, a nd can support
more species. In the Tibetan Plateau and northern or small
provincial administrative units, the number of species is smaller.
e environment in these provinces cannot support the survival
of a la rge number of species.
The provinces with more complex terrain, which contain
many mid-elevation mountains and low-elevation hills, such
as Sichuan, Yunnan, a nd Taiwan, especially in the broader
Hengduan Mountains region, harbour more endemic species
(Figure 4).
A total of 154 species of lizards were first discovered in
China, and the type localities of these species are concentra ted
in Yunnan, Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang, and Sichuan (Figure 4).
e type localities of 7 species are too wide to mark to the map.
And 7–10 type localities need further restriction.
Acknowlegements We thank Natalia B. Ananjeva and
Herbert Rösler for providing literatures, and Pipeng LI, Wenge
ZHAO and Dajie GONG for confirming species distribution
information. We also thank Xuemei DU for help in the
production of Figure 4. This research was supported by the
Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy
Figure 3 The proportion of nonendemic native, endemic and inva-
sive lizard species on an administrative division map of China. Map
appro val num ber: GS(2020)3888
Bo CAI et al.
Updated List of Lizards
in China
No. 1 71
of Sciences, Grant No. XDA19050201, the National Natural
Science Foundation of China (32070433), the Special Fund
for Youth Scholars on Taxonomy, the Chinese Academy of
Sciences (ZSBR-014)
China Biodiversity Observation Networks
(Sino BON – Amphibian & Reptile).
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Handling Editor: Chen YANG
Appendix 1
The distributional list of native and extant lizards in
China
Or de r S qu am a ta Op pe l, 1811
Chinese name: 有 鳞目
Suborder Lacertilia Batasch, 1788
Chinese name: 蜥 蜴 亚目
1 Family Dibamidae Boulenger, 1884
Chinese name: 双足蜥科
Type Genus: Dibamus Duméril and Bibron, 1839
1.1 Gen us Dibamus Duméril and Bibron, 1839
Chinese name: 双足蜥属
Type species: Dibamus novaeguineae Duméril and Bibron,
1839
Dibamus bourreti An ge l, 193 5
Chinese name:
白尾双足蜥
English name: Bourret’s Blind Skink
Type and type locality: Holotype is MNHN-RA
1935.0417from Tam Dao, Vinh Yen Province, Vietna m.
Distribution: China (Yizhang County and Jiangyong
County of Hunan, Jinxiu County and Longsheng County of
Guangxi [Zhao et al., 1999], Renhua County of Guangdong
[Yang et al. , 2 011 ])
Dibamus bogadeki Da re v sk y, 199 2
Chinese name: 香港双足蜥
English name: Bogadek’s Blind Skink
Type and type locality: Holotype is MCZ R-172041from
Hei Ling Chau, Hong Kong, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Hong Kong [Zhao et
al., 1999])
2 Family Eublepharidae Boulenger, 1883
Chinese name: 睑虎科
Type genus: Eublepharis G ra y , 182 7
2.1 Genus Goniurosaurus Ba r bo ur , 190 8
Chinese name: 睑虎属
Type species: Goniurosaurus hainanensis Ba rbou r, 1908
Note: Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi was recognized as the only
species of Goniurosaurus in China (Zhao and Adler, 1993; Zhao et
al., 1999). To date, however, different popula tions in China have
been recognized as distinct species and the true Go. lichtenf elderi
was found only in Vietnam. Goniurosaurus kadoorieorum is
considered a junior synonym of G. luii, owing to the lack of
diagnostic characters separating from G. luii (Ngo et al., 2016 ) ,
and a polyphyletic G. luii with respect to G. kadoorieorum in both
the ML and BI analyses (Grismer , 2021).
Goniurosaurus araneus Grismer, V iets and Boyle, 1999
Chinese name: 越南睑虎
English name: Vietnamese Cave Gecko, Vietnamese
Leopard Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is HLMD 2572 from 40
km SE of Cao Bang, Cao Bang Province, Vietnam
Distribution: China (Ningming County of Guangxi [Chen
et al. , 2014])
Goniurosaurus bawanglin gensis Grismer, Shi, Orlov and
Ananjeva, 2002
Chinese name: 霸王岭睑虎
English name: Bawangling Cave Gecko, Bawangling
Leopard Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype MVZ 230973 from 5.6
km northeast of the town of Bawangling, within the Hainan
Bawangling Na tional Nature Reserve, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Yinggeling Mountain
Range and Bawangling Mountain Range of Hainan [Shi et al.,
2 011 a ] )
Goniurosaurus gezhi Zhu, He and Li, 2020
Chinese name: 格致睑虎
English name: Gezhi Cave Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is ECNU-V0038, from
southwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China,
100–200 m eleva tion.
Distribution: Only found in China (southwestern Guangxi
[Zhu et al., 2020])
Goniurosaurus gollum Qi, Wang, Grismer, Lyu & Wang,
2020
Chinese name: 广东睑虎
English name: Gollum Leopard Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYS r002420 from
Huaiji County, Zhaoqing City, Guangdong Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Huaiji County of
Guangdong [Qi et al., 2020b])
Goniurosaurus hainanensis Ba rbou r, 1908
Chinese name: 海南睑虎
English name: Haina n Cave Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is MCZ7104 from Mt.
Wuchi (= W uzhi), Central Hainan, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (southeastern Hainan at
altitude 81–2765 m [Blair, et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2019 ])
Goniurosaurus kwangsiensis Yang and Chan, 2015
Chinese name: 广西睑虎
English name: Guangxi Cave Gecko
Type and type locality: KFBG 14052, adult male, from
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (exact locality
withheld; available to qualified researchers upon request [Yang
and Cha n, 2015]).
Distribution: Only found in China (Guangxi [Yang and
Cha n , 2 015] )
Goniurosaurus liboensis Wang, Yang and Grismer, 2013
Chinese name: 荔波睑虎
English name: Libo Cave Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYSr000218 from the
Maolan National Nature Reserve (25°15′37.73″ N, 108°5′45.74″ E),
Libo County, Guizhou Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Libo County of
Guizhou [Wang et al., 2013a], Tiane County and Huangjiang
County of Gua ngxi [Zhou et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2013a]).
Goniurosaurus luii Grismer, Viets and Boyle, 1999
Chinese name: 凭祥睑虎
English name: Chinese Cave Gecko, Chinese Leopa rd
Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is UMMZ222683 from
Pingxiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Distribution: China (Guang xi [Grismer et al., 1999])
Note: The record of Haina n (Grismer et al., 2002) was an
error, a nd this specimen was from Guangxi (Grismer personal
communication, via Yingyong WANG).
Goniurosaurus sinensis Zhou, Peng, Hou, Yuan, 2019
Chinese name: 中华睑虎 ; Chinese alias: 光华睑虎
English name: Kwa ngh ua Ca ve Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BL-RBZ-102 from the
mountainous area of central and western Hainan Province,
China.
Distribution: Only found in China (midwestern mounta ins
of Hainan Island [Zhou et al., 2019 ])
Note: Goniurosaurus kwan ghua Zhu & He, 2020 is
synonymous withGo. Sinensis.
Goniurosaurus varius Qi, Grismer, Lyu, Zhang, Li and
Wang,2020
Chinese name: 南岭睑虎
English name: Nanling Leopard Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYS r002333 from
Nanling National Nature Reserve (560m elevation), Chengjia
Yao Ethnic Township, Yangshan County, Guangdong
Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Nanling National
Nature Reserve in northern Guangdong Province [Qi et al.,
2020a]).
Goniurosaurus yingdeensis Wang, Yang and Cui, 2010
Chinese name: 英德睑虎
English name: Yingde Cave Gecko, Yingde Leopa rd Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYSr000504 in
a v a l l e y with a st r ea m (113°18′ 21.22″ E, 2 2420 .5″ N ; 137 m
elevation) a t a dista nce of 200 m from Guoshanyao Village,
Yingde, Guangdong Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Guangdong [Wa ng et
al., 2 010])
Goniurosaurus zhelongi Wang, Jin, Li and Grismer, 2014
Chinese name: 蒲氏睑; Chinese alias: 蛰龙睑虎
English name: Zhe-long’s Cave Gecko, Zhe-long’s Lepoard
Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYS r000770 from the
Shimentai Na ture Reserve (24°24′45.8″N, 113°0619.94″E), Yingde
County, Guangdong Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Guangdong [Wa ng et
al., 2 014])
Goniurosaurus zhoui Zhou, Wang, Chen and Liang, 2018
Chinese name: 周氏睑 虎
English name: Zhou’s Cave Gecko, Zhou’s Leopard Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BL-RBZ-002 from a
typical karst area (at an altitude of 220–300 m elevation) in the
central area of Hainan Island, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Hainan [Zhou et al.,
2018])
3 F amily Sphaer odacty lidae Underw ood, 1954
Chinese name: 球趾虎科
Type genus: Sphae rodact ylus W a g l e r , 183 0
3.1 G en us T eratoscincus Stra uch, 1863
Chinese name: 沙虎属
Type species: Teratoscincus keyserlingii Str a uc h, 1863
Teratoscincus przewalskii Strauch, 1887
Chinese name: 西域沙虎 ; Chinese alias: 新疆沙虎
English name: Przewalski’s Wonder Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype: ZISP (ZIL) 6564 ( fide
Szczerbak and Golubev, 1996) from Chami (= Hami), Xinjiang
Uygur, Autonomous Region, China (restricted by Pope, 1935)
Distribution: China (Xinjiang, Gansu, Inner Mongolia
[Zhao et al., 1999])
Teratoscincus roborowskii Bedriaga, 1907
Chinese name: 吐鲁番沙虎
English name: Turpan Wonder Gecko, Roborowski’s
Wonder Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is ZISP 9155 from
the Turpan Depression, Turpan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous R egion (corrected by Macey et al. , 199 7 )
Distribution: Only found in China (Turpan Depression of
Xin jiang [Macey et al., 1997]).
Note: ZISP 9155 was collected from Oasis of Ssatschsheu
(= Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China) was an error. It
was corrected to the Turpan Depression, Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous Region (Macey et al., 1997). This species was first
p ri n t e d i n 19 07 ( Be d r ia g a , 190 7 : 15 9 ).
Teratoscincus scincus (Sch legel , 1858)
Chinese name: 伊犁沙虎
English name: Common Wonder Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is RMNH, possibly
ZMA.RENA 15845 from the Ili River Valley, Xinjiang, China (=
Ili River Valley of Xinjia ng Uygur Autonomous Region, China
[fide Zh ao a nd Ad ler , 1993:186])
Distribution: China (Ili River Valley in Xinjiang [Macey et
al. , 19 9 7] )
4 Family Gekkonidae Gray, 1825
Chinese name: 壁虎科
Ty pe genus: Gekko L a u r en t i , 1768
Note: Palearctic naked-toed geckos, ra nging from North
Africa and Central Asia to northern India a nd western China
(Rösler, 2017), were reassigned to diverse genera (Bauer et al.,
2013), such as Also ph ylax, C yrt odact ylus, Altiphylax, C yrto podion,
Tenuidactylus, and M ediodact ylu s. Accoding to Bayesian
phylogeneticanalysis, C yrtopodion medogense is considered a
member of Altiph ylax (Che et al., 2020). However, Altiph ylax is
not a monophyletic group, and theanalysis lacked molecular
data for Altiph ylax tokobajevi, which is the type species of this
genus (Che et al., 2020). us, in support of Zhao et al. (1999) and
Cai et al. (2015), we temporarily keep C yrtopodion sensu lato to
avoid further confusion. In addition, C yrtodact ylus yarkandensis
was considered a synonym of Gymnodact ylus stoliczkai
(=Alti ph ylax stoliczkai) (Blanford, 1875; Das, 2017) and included
in Altiphylax (Ba uer et al., 2013). However, the only record of
Al. stoliczkai in China is the type locality of Cy. Y arkandensis
in Yarkand (= Yarkant County or Shache County, southern
Xinjiang, western China) (Zhao a nd Alder, 1993; Zhao et al.,
1999), which was given by Anderson (1872) and thought to be
erroneous (Blanford, 1875). The most likely type locality was
loca ted a t Ladak (Bla nford, 1875; Smith, 1935; Zhao and Adler,
1993; Das et al., 2017). This species is probably not native to
China; a t least no specimens with bona f ide collection data have
been secured a t the western Chinese border. For these reasons,
Alti ph ylax is temporarily not included in our list.
4.1 Genus Lepidodactylus Fitzinger, 1843
Chinese name: 鳞趾虎属
Type species: Platydactylus Lugubris Duméril and Bibron,
1836 (= Lepidodactylus lugubris)
Lepidodact ylus lugubris (Duméril and Bibron, 1836)
Chinese name: 哀鳞趾虎
English name: Mourning Gecko, Common Smooth-Scaled
Gecko
Type and type locality: the lectoty pe is MNHN 5323
(designated by Wells and Wellington, 1985), and the type locality
is L’île d’Otaiti (= Tahiti, Polynesia).
Distribution: China (Low altitude of Southeastern Ta iwan
[Hsia ng et al., 2009])
Lepidodactylus yami Ota , 19 87
Chinese name: 雅美鳞趾虎
English name: Lanyu Scal y-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is OMNH (Osaka) R2291
form 1 km north of Imoru, La nyu Isla nd, Ta iwa n, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Orchid islands of
Taiwan [Hsiang et al, 2009])
4.2 Gen us Gekko L au re nt i, 1768
Chinese name: 壁虎属
Type species: Gekko verticillatus Laurenti, 1768 (= Gekko
gecko)
Note: Wood et al. (2020) confirmed the placement of
Pt ychozoon taxa within Gekko with strong support based on
thousands of ultra-conserved elements. We adopt their new
classification, emphasizing the most inclusive, original generic
name (Gekko) for ~60 taxa, arranged into seven subgenera, such
as Archipela gekko, Gekko Japonigekko Pt ycho zoon and so on.
Gekko (Archi pelagekko) kikuchii (Os hi ma , 1912 )
Chinese name: 兰屿壁虎 ; Chinese alias: 池氏壁虎
English name: Botel Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is catalogue No. 1(=
NTU1)from Lanyu Island, Taiwan, China.
Distribution: China (Orchid Island of Taiwan [Hsiang et
al., 2009])
Gekko (Gekko) gecko (Linnaeus, 1758)
Chinese name: 大壁虎 ; Chinese alias: 红蛤蚧
English name: Toka y Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is unknown ( fide
Nguyen et al., 2009), and the type locality is “ Java” (designated
by Merten s, 1955).
Distribution: China (Yunna n [Zhao et al., 1999; Zha n g et al.,
2014], and introduced to Taiwan [Lee et al., 2019] and Guangxi
[Yong Huang, personal communication])
Gekko (Gekko) reevesii (G ra y , 1831 )
Chinese name: 黑疣大壁虎 ; Chinese alias: 黑蛤蚧
English name: Reeves’ Tokay Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH 1946.8.25.98
from China.
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan [Zhao
et al., 1999], Hong Kong [Liu, 2000], Fujian [Chen et al., 2004],
Hainan [Shi et al. , 2 011a ] )
Gekko (Japoni gekko) adleri Nguyen, Wang, Yang, Lehmann,
Le, Ziegler and Bonkowski, 2013
Chinese name: 鹰氏壁
English name: Adler’s Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is IEBR A.2012.24 from
ka rst f orest nea r Ba n Coong Village (22°43.666’N, 106°39.054’E),
in Duc Qua ng Commune, Ha La ng District, Cao Bang Province,
northern Vietnam.
Distribution: China ( Jingxi County of Guangxi [Nguyen
et al. , 2013] )
Gekko (Ja ponigekko) auriverrucosus Zhou and Liu, 1982
Chinese name: 耳疣壁虎
English name: Shanxi Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is NNC80275 from
Hejin County, Shanxi Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Southwestern Shanxi,
Yulin of Shaanxi [Zhao et al., 1999])
Gekko (Ja ponigekko) chinensis (Gra y, 1842)
Chinese name: 中国壁 虎
English name: Gray’s Chinese Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH 1946.8.30.49,
and the type locality is China (probably Hong Kong Island fide
S mi t h , 193 5)
Distribution: Only found in China (Fujian, Guangdong,
Guangxi [Zhao et al. , 1999], Maca o [G e et al., 2018], Y unnan [Ya ng
and Rao, 2008], Sichuan [Zhao, 2003] and Hong Kong [Liu,
2000])
Gekko (Ja ponigekko) guishanicus Li n a nd Yao, 2 016
Chinese name: 龟山壁虎
English name: Guishan Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is TMRL 0461 from
Guishan Isle, Toucheng Township, Yilan County, northeast
Taiwan, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Guisha n Isle, Taiwan
[Lin a nd Yao, 2016])
Gekko (Ja ponigekko) hokouensis Po pe , 192 8
Chinese name: 铅山壁虎
English name: Hokou Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is AMNH 35090 from
Hok’ou (=Hekou Town of Yanshan County), Eastern China.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang,
Taiwan, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan [Zhao et al., 1999], Lianping
County of Guangdong [Yingyong WANG’s unpublished da ta])
Gekko (Ja ponigekko) japonicus (Sc hl eg el , 183 6)
Chinese name: 多疣壁虎
English name: Schlegel’s Japa nese Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype isBMNH 1946.8.26.9-10,
and the type locality is Japan.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang,
Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou,
Shaan xi, Sichuan, Chongqing [Zhao et al., 1999], Guangdong [Liu
et al., 2007], Shanxi [Fan et al., 1997], Yunnan [Yang and Rao,
2008])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) kwangsiensis Yang, 2015
Chinese name: 广西壁虎
English name: Kwa ngsi Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is KFBG 14076 from
Wuming County, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous
Region, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Wuming County of
Guangxi [ Yang, 2015])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) liboensis Zhou, Liu and Li, 1982
Chinese name: 荔波壁虎
English name: Libo Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is TMC (ZMC) 791669
from Chenggua n, Libo, Guizhou Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Libo County and
Chishui County of Guizhou [Zhao et al., 1999; Xv et al., 2007],
Dongla n County of Guangxi [ Jono et al., 2015])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) melli ( V og t, 192 2)
Chinese name: 梅氏壁
English name: Mell’s Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype is ZMB 27659a from
northeastern Kuangtung (= Guangdong), China (designated by
Ba uer an d G ünther , 1991).
Distribution: Only found in China ( Jiangxi, Guangdong
[Yang et al., 2012], Wuyi Mountains in Fujian [Yingyong
WANG’s unpublished da ta])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) scabridus Liu and Zhou, 1982
Chinese name: 粗疣壁虎
English name: Yunna n Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is NNC 80122 from
Yongren, Yunnan Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Sichuan, Yunnan,
Guizhou [Zhao et al., 1999])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) simili gnum Smit h, 1923
Chinese name: 海南壁虎
English name: Hainan Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH 1946.8.25.96
(fide Uetz et al., 2020), a nd the type is Smith’s number 7035,
collected at Ang-mao in Five Finger Mountain area, Hainan,
C h in a (S m i t h , 192 3: 195- 212 )
Distribution: Only found in China (Hainan [Ota et al.,
1995])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) subpalmatus (Gün ther, 1864)
Chinese name: 蹼趾壁虎
English name: Webbed-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH 1946.8.25.92
(fide Uetz et al., 2020), and the type locality is Chikiang (=
Zhejiang), China (reported by Rösler and Tiedemann, 2007).
Distribution: Only found in China (Sichuan, Chongqing,
Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou [Zhao
et al., 1999], Y unnan [Ya ng a nd R ao, 2008])
Note: is species was observed from a single specimen and
the type locality is in China (Günther, 1864: 104), and “probably
Hong Kong” (Uetz et al., 2020) wa s a n error (see Smit h, 1935: 114).
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) swinhonis (Günt her, 1864)
Chinese name: 无蹼壁虎
English name: Peking Gecko
Type and type locality: Holoty pe is BMNH 1946.8.30.50
(and possibly additional specimens) (Uetz et al., 2020). is species
was observed from a single specimen obtained from Northern
China (Günther, 1864).
Distribution: Only found in China (Liaoning, Hebei,
Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui,
Zhejiang [Zhao et al., 1999], Beijing [Hao and Cao, 1982], Tianjin
[Li et al., 1986])
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) taibaiensis Song, 1985
Chinese name: 太白壁 虎
English name: Mingtao’s Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is IZSX 840108 (also as
SIZ) from Erlangba, Ta ibai County, Shaa nxi Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Taibai County of
Shaan xi Province [Zhao, 1999])
Note:  e h olot ype is IZSX 840108, no t IZS X 840104 (Son g,
1985) .
Gekko ( Ja ponigekko) wenxianensis Zhou and Wang, 2008
Chinese name: 文县壁虎
English name: Wenxia n Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is NNU Z2006.013
from Danbao Village on the south slope of the west Qinling
Mountains (32°51′N; 104°46′E), Wenxia n County, Gansu
Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (south slope of the west
Qinling Mountains, Ga nsu Province [Zhou a nd Wang , 2008])
Gekko (Pt ychozoon) bannaense (Wang, Wang and Liu, 2016)
Chinese name: 版纳壁虎 ; Chinese alias: 版纳伞虎
English name: Banna Parachute Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYSr001242 from
Manheke Village (22°7′37.46″ N, 100°54′5.71E), Mengyang
Town, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan
Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Mengya ng Town,
Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province
[Wang et al. , 2 016b ])
4.3 Genus Hemiph yllodact ylus Bleeker, 1860
Chinese name: 半叶趾虎属
Type species: Hemiphyllodactylus typus B l e ek e r , 186 0
Hemiph yllodactylus changningensis Guo, Zhou, Yan and Li,
2015
Chinese name: 昌宁 叶趾
English name: Changning Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is N JNUH (Nanjing
Normal University herpetology) 00315 from the vicinity of
Changning County (24°4913.44″N, 99°36′31.83″ E)., Yunnan
Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Changning County
and Longyang District of Baoshan, Yunnan Province [Guo et al.,
2015])
Hemiphyllodact ylus dupanglingensis Zhang, Qian, Jiang,
Cai, Deng and Yang, 2020
Chinese name: 都庞岭半叶趾虎
English name: Dupangling Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is N JNU 78999 from
Dupa ngling Na tional Nature Reserv e (25°34′23.23″ N, 111°23′21″ E;
437 m elevation) Huna n Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Dupangling National
Nature Reserve of Huna n [Zhang et al., 2020])
Hemiph yllodactylus dushanensis (Zhou and Liu, 1981)
Chinese name: 独山半叶趾
English name: Dushan Slender Gecko, Dushan Gypsy
Gecko, Dusha n Dwa rf Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is N JNU 78999 from
the vicinity of Dushan Junior High School in Dushan County,
Guizhou Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Dushan County of
Guizhou [Zhao et al., 1999], Xinyi County and Xinkai County of
Guangdong [Li et al. , 2 011 ])
Hemiphyllodact ylus hon gkongensis Sung, Lee, Ng, Zhang and
Yang, 2018
Chinese name: 香港半叶趾虎
English name: Hong Kong Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYSr001735 from
Aberdeen Country Park, Hong Kong (22°15′30.6″ N, 114°9′41.4″ E),
China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Hong Kong [Sung et al.,
2018])
Hemiph yllodactylus huishuiensis Yan, Lin, Guo, Li and Zhou,
2016
Chinese name: 惠水半叶趾虎
English name: Huishui Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is NJNUh00851 from
the vicinity of Huishui County (26°08′21.6″ N, 106°39′43.2″ E),
Guizhou Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Huishui County and
Guiya ng City of Guizhou [Ya n et al. , 2 016] )
Hemiphyllodact ylus jinpingensis (Zhou and Liu, 1981)
Chinese name: 金平半叶趾虎
English name: Jinping Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is N JNU78849 from
vicinity of No.1 High School in Jinping County, Yunnan
Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Yunnan, Guizhou,
Guangxi [Zhao et al., 1999])
Hemiphyllodact ylus longlingensis (Zhou and Liu, 1981)
Chinese name: 龙陵半叶趾
English name: Longling Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is N JNU79003 from the
vicinity of Longling High School in Longling County, Yunnan
Province, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (west part of Yunnan
[Zhao et al., 1999])
Hemiph yllodactylus typus Bleeker, 1860
Chinese name: 半叶趾虎
English name: Indopacific Slender Gecko, (Indopacific)
Tree Gecko, Common Dwa rf Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH1946.8.30.83,
and the type locality is “Goenong Pa rong ( Java)” (=Gunung
Para ng, West-Java) (Wermuth, 1965).
Distribution: China (low altitude area of southern and
eastern Taiwan [Hsiang et al., 2009])
Hemiphyllodactylus yunnanensis (Boulenger , 1903)
Chinese name: 云南半叶趾
English name: Yunnan Slender Gecko, Asia n Slender
Gecko, Yunna n Dwarf Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH 1904.1.26.1, and
the type locality is Yunnan Fu (= Kunming), Yunnan Province,
China.
Distribution: China (Central and northern Yunnan [Shi et
al. , 2011 b ])
Note: The Hunan population of H. yunnanensis (Deng
et al., 1998; Shen et al., 2014) was considered a new species (H.
dupanglingensis) (Zhang et al., 2020). e Zayü population (Shi et
al., 2011b) was treated as a new species, H . zayuensis ( Jiang et al.
in Che et al., 2020: 439)
Hemiphyllodact ylus za yuensis Jiang, Wang and Che, 2020
Chinese name: 察隅半叶趾虎
English name: Zayü Slender Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype KIZ014060 from Lower
Zayü Town, Zayü County, Tibet, 235′24.1″ N, 97˚0′57.24″ E, 1518
m).
Distribution: Only found in China (Zayü County of Tibet
[Che et al., 2020])
4.4 Genus Gehyra G ra y, 1834
Chinese name: 截趾虎属
Type species: Gehyra Pacifica G r a y , 183 4 ( = Geh yra oceanica)
Gehyra mutilata ( Wiegmann, 1834)
Chinese name: 截趾虎
English name: Stump-toed Gecko, Common Four-clawed
Gecko, Stump-tailed Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype is ZMB 370A
(designated by Bauer and Günther 1991), and the type locality is
Manila (Philippines).
Distribution: China (Taiwan, Yunnan, Hainan [Zhao et al.,
1999], Hong Kong [Liu, 2000], Guangdong [Li et al. , 2 011 ])
4.5 Genus Alsophylax Fitzinger, 1843
Chinese name: 漠虎属
Type species: Lacerta pipiens Pallas, 1827 (= Also ph ylax
pipiens)
Alsophylax pipiens ( Pa ll as , 182 7)
Chinese name: 隐耳漠虎
English name: Caspian Even-fingered Gecko, Squeaky
Pygmy Gecko
Type and type locality: Syntype is MCZ R-7128, and the
type locality is Mt. Bol’shoi Bogdo, Caspian Desert, north of
Astrakhan, Russia (fide Ananjeva et al., 2006).
Distribution: China (Gansu, Xinjiang, Ningxia, Inner
Mongolia [Zhao et al., 1999])
Alsophylax przewalskii Strauch, 1887
Chinese name: 新疆漠虎
English name: Przewalski’s Pygmy Gecko, Xinjiang Even-
fin gered Gecko, Xinjiang Pygmy Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype is ZISP (also as ZIL)
5144 ( fide Szczerbak and Golubev, 1996), and the type locality
was restricted to the lower Tarim River (Unterer Tarim-Fluss),
Xinjiang, China (f ide Wermuth, 1965: 6).
Distribution: Only found in China (southern Xinjiang
[Zhao et al., 1999], Ga ns u [ Li n et al. , 2010] )
Note: In terms of the authorship and date of species
descriptions, for Also ph ylaz, in accordance with Art. 23.9
of the ‘Code(ICZN, 1999), Al. przewalskii Strauch, 1887, was
decla red a nomen protetcum, with priority over the nomen blatum
Gymnodact ylus microtis Bl a n f o r d , 187 5.
4.6 Genus Cyrtodact ylus Gr ay , 18 27
Chinese name: 裸趾虎属
Type species: C yrtodact ylus battalensis K h a n , 199 3
Cyrtodactylus cayuensis (Li, 2007)
Chinese name: 隅裸趾虎
English name: Zayü (Cayu) Bent-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is SYNU046 0286
form Xiacayu town (28°30′N, 97°01′E), Zayü County of Xizang
(= Tibet), China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Zayü County of Tibet
[Li, 2007; Li et al. , 2010] )
Note: C yrtodact ylu khasiensis cayuensis was recommended as
a valid species based on geography and morphology (Agarwal et
al., 2018).
Cyrtodact ylus khasiensis ( Jerdon, 1870)
Chinese name: 西裸趾虎
English name: Khasi Hills Bent-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype is BMNH 1906.8.10.4
from the type locality “Khasi Hills”, Meghalaya state, India
(designated by Agarwal et al., 2018).
Distribution: China (Mêdog County of Tibet [Zhao et al.,
1999], Longchuan County of Yunnan [Yang and Rao, 2008])
Note: Two subspecies of Cy. Khasiensis were found in China,
i.e., C y. K. khasiensis and C y. K. ca yuensis (Li et al., 2010). T h e
Zayü population was the only definite group of C y. K. ca yuensis
and was considered a valid species, Cy. Ca yuensis (Agarwal et
al., 2018). The other populations, Mêdog and Longchuan, are
known as Cy. K . khasiensis (Yang and Rao, 2008; Li et al., 2010),
which has not been explicitly negated, although Aga rwal et
al. (2018) stated that “this species is known with certainty only
from the vicinity of Sohra, …, Northeast India”. erefore, we
keep Cy. Khasiensis in our list temporarily.
Cyrtodactylus tibetanus (Bouleng er, 1905)
Chinese name: 西藏裸趾虎
English name: Tibetan in-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is BMNH 1905.2.8.5 RR
(and possibly additional specimens) (via Uetz et al., 2020), and the
type locality is Chaksam Ferry (now near Daga Townships),
xü (= Qushui County), Tibet, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Lhasa and Nyingchi
of Tibet [Li et al., 2010])
Cyrtodactylus wayakonei Nguyen, Kingsada, Rösler, Auer
an d Zi egler , 2010
Chinese name: 氏裸趾虎
English name: Wayakone’s Bent-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is IEBR A.2010.01 from
Kao Rao Cave (20°43.516′N, 101°09.239′E), near Ban Na m Eng,
Vieng Phoukha District, Luang Na m Tha Province, northern
Laos.
Distribution: China (Mengla County of Yunna n [Yuan
a n d R a o , 20 11] )
Cyrtodactylus zhaoermii Shi and Zhao, 2010
Chinese name: 氏裸趾虎
English name: Zhaoermi’s Bent-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is CIB 97979 (previously
X-08900) from Nyemo County (29°21′ N, 90º10′ E), Xizang
(=Tibet) A utonomous R egion, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Nyemo County of
Tibet [Shi and Zhao, 2010])
4.7 Gen us Hemidactylus Ok en , 1817
Chinese name: 蜥虎属
Type species: Gecko tuberculosus Dauding, 1802 (=
Hemidact ylus mabouia)
Note: Authorship of this genus is sometimes attributed to
G. Cuvier (“1817” [1816]), but he used the form “Hem idact yle s”,
which is a vernacular rather than a Latin form a nd, thus,
unava ila ble under the “Code”. Oken (1817) was the first to
use a Latinized form, based on Cuvier’s name, by listing the
abbreviation “Hemidact.” In a list of gecko genera beginning
with Thecadactylus (fide Zhao and Adler, 1993). Other systems
have credited Grey, 1825, w ithout expla nat ion (GBIF Secreta riat,
2019).
Hemidactylus aquilonius Mcmahan and Zug, 2007
Chinese name: 缅北蜥虎
English name: Northern Myanma r House Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is CAS 233019from He
Pu village (25°6′14″ N, 96°21′55″ E, Mohnyin township) Kachin
state, Myanmar.
Distribution: China (Zhenkang County of Yunnan
[McMahan and Zug, 2007])
Hemidact ylus bowringii (G ra y , 184 5)
Chinese name: 原尾蜥虎 ; Chinese alias: 无疣蝎虎
English name: Sikkimese Da rk-Spotted Gecko, Bowring’s
or Asian Smooth Gecko, Orien tal Lea f-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype is BMNH 2007.1
(designated by McMahan and Zug, 2007), and the type locality
was restricted to Hong Kong or vicinity by Smith (1935).
Distribution: China (Sichuan, Taiwan, Fujian, Guangdong,
Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan [Zhao et al., 1999], Hong Kong [Liu,
2000], Macao [Ge et al., 2018])
Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril and Bibron, 1836
Chinese name: 疣尾蜥虎 ; Chinese alias: 疣尾蝎虎
English name: Common House Gecko, South Asian House
Gecko, Tubercled-ta il House Gecko
Type and type locality: Le c t ot y p e i s MN H N-R A 5135A
(1344) (designated by Wells and Wellington, 1985), and the type
locality is Java (designated by Loveridge, 1947).
Distribution: China (Taiwan, Guangdong, Hainan,
Yunna n [Zhao et al. , 1999], G ua n gxi [ Zho u et al., 2003])
Hemidactylus garnotii Duméril and Bibron, 1836
Chinese name: 锯尾蜥虎
English name: Indo-Pacif ic Gecko, Garnot’s House Gecko
Type and type locality: Sy ntypes a r e M NHN 2318 , 2318A,
and the type locality is “l’Ile de Taiti” (= Tahiti, French Polynesia)
(fide Uetz et al., 2020).
Distribution: China (Macao [Ge et al., 2018], Guangdong
[Yang et al., 2011], Guangxi [ Jia ng et al., 2006], Hainan [Shi et al.,
2011a], Hong Kong [Liu, 2000], Yunna n [Ya ng a nd Rao, 2008])
Hemidactylus platyurus (Schneider, 1792)
Chinese name: 宽尾蜥虎 ; Chinese aliases: 蝎虎 , 蝎尾
English name: Flat-tailed House Gecko, Frilled House
Gecko, Asian House Gecko
Type and type locality: Type lost (Amarasinghe et al., 2009);
no type-locality given (f ide Stejneger, 1907)
Distribution: China (southern Tibet, southern Guangdong
[Zhao et al., 1999])
Note: This species was first described in 1792, not in a
reprint in 1797 (Schneider, 1792, 1797). e distribution record in
Taiwan was an error (Hsiang et al., 2009).
Hemidactylus stejnegeri Ota and Hik ida, 1989
Chinese name: 史氏蜥 ; Chinese aliases: 史 丹吉氏 蝎 虎 ,
台湾蜥虎
English name: Stejneger’s House Gecko, Stejneger’s
Lea ftoed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is OMNH R2351 from
Hongye, Hualien, Ta iwan, China.
Distribution: China (Ta iwan [Zhao et al., 1999])
4.9 Genus Cyrtopodion Fitzinger, 1843
Chinese name: 弯脚虎属
Type species: Stenodact ylus scaber Heyden, 1827 (=
C yrto podion scabrum)
Note: Accoding to Bayesian phylogeneticanalysis,
C yrto podion medogense is considered a member of Altiph ylax (Che
et al., 2020). However, Alti ph ylax is not a monophyletic group,
and theanalysis lacked molecular data for Altiph ylax tokobajevi,
which is the type species of this genus (Che et al., 2020). us, in
support of Zhao et al. (1999) and Cai et al. (2015), we temporarily
keep this genus as Cyrto podion sensu lato and keep Cy. Medogense
in this genus to avoid further confusion.
Cyrtopodion medogense (Z ha o an d Li , 198 7)
Chinese name: 墨脱弯脚虎
English name: Mêdog in-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is CIB 000193
(previouslyT8380188) from Kabu, Mêdog County, Xizang (=
Tibet ) Autonomous Region, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Nyingchi of Tibet [Li
et al. , 2 010; C he et al., 2020])
4.8 Genus Tenuidactylus Szczerbak and Golubev,1984
Chinese name: 细趾虎属
Type species: C ymnodact ylus caspius Eichwald, 1831(=
Tenuidactylus caspius)
Note: Szczerbak sometimes was spelled as Shcherbak.
Tenuidactylus dadunensis (Shi and Zhao, 2011)
Chinese name: 大敦细趾虎 ; Chinese alias: 大敦弯脚虎
English name: Dadun in-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Holotype is CIB 97954 (previously
XND06070) from Dadun (42°52′56.71″ N, 88°55′44.47″ E), a town
between Toksun County and Turpan City, Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous R egion, China.
Distribution: Only found in China (Turpan Depression in
Xinjia ng [(Shi a nd Zhao, 2011)])
Tenuidactylus elongatus (Blan ford, 1875)
Chinese name: 长细趾虎 ; Chinese alias: 长弯脚虎
English name: Kashgha r in-toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Syntypes are ZSI 4208, ZSI 5848–
49, 585, and the type locality is Yengisa r County (= Ya ngihissar),
Xin jia ng Uygur Autonomous Region, China.
Distribution: China (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Xinjiang
[Zhao et al., 1999])
4.10 Genus Mediodactylus Szc zerbak and Gol ubev, 1977
Chinese name: 中趾虎属
Type species: Gymnodact ylus kotsch yi Steindachner, 1870 (=
Mediodactylus kotschyi)
Note: e (sub)genus Mediodactylus was first described by
Szczerbak and Golubev in 1977, not by Steindachner in 1870.
Steindachner (1870: 329) described Gy. Kotsch yi for the first time.
Mediodactylus russowii (Strauch, 1887)
Chinese name: 灰中趾虎 ; Chinese alias: 灰弯脚虎
English name: Grey in-toed Gecko, Russow’s Bent-toed
Gecko, Tra nscaspia n Bent-Toed Gecko
Type and type locality: Lectotype is ZIL 3658 (designated
by Szczerbak and Golubev 1986: 167), and the type locality is
restricted to Novo-Alexandrovskoye by Mertens and Wermuth
(1960: 78), the ruins of the old fortress of Novo-Alexandrovskoye,
situated 30 km to the east (Szczerbak and Golubev, 1996).
Distribution: China (Xin jiang [Zhao et al., 1999])
5 Family Scincidae Oppel, 1811
Chinese name: 石龙子科
Type genus: Scincus La u r en t i , 17 68
5.1 G en us Plestiodon Duméril and Bibron, 1839
Chinese name: 齿石龙子属 ; Chinese aliases: 蓝尾石龙
子属 , 石龙子属
Type species: Plestiodon quinquelineatum Duméril and Bibron,
1839 (= Plestiodon l ynxe [Wiegmann, 1834])
Plestiodon capito ( Bo cou r t, 1879 )
Chinese name: 黄纹石龙子
English name: Gail’s Eyelid Skink, Yellow striped skink
Type and type locality: Holotype is MNHN-RA 5531, and
the type locality was restricted in North China (Smith et al., 1975)
Distribution: Only found in China (Beijing, Hebei,
Liaoning, Hubei, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia [Zhao et
al., 1999], Guizhou [Gong et al., 2012], Henan [Zhang et al., 2012],
Inner Mongolia [Guo, 2002], Tian jin [Li et al., 1986])
Note: Bocourt’s t ype of this species proba bly have origina ted
in North China not “Côte orientale des Etats-Unis” (Smith et al,
1975; Z hao a nd Ad ler , 1993)
Plestiodon chinensis (Gra y, 1838)
Chinese name: 中国石 龙 子
English name: Chinese Blue-tailed Skink, Chinese Skink
Type and type loc