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First record of the feather-legged fly Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius, 1781) (Diptera Tachinidae) a parasitoid of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera Pentatomidae) in Algeria

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Abstract Specimens of the feather-legged fly, Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tachinidae), which parasitize adults of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), have been detected in Giza, Egypt. This is the first record of this Nearctic species with its genus (Trichopoda) and its tribe (Gymnosomatini) in Egypt. T. pennipes is known as an endoparasitoid of many true bug hosts, the pests of various crops, and it could have a potentiality to control these pests in addition to N. viridula, which is known to be its principal host. Taxonomy and diagnosis of the detected parasitoid species in addition to a checklist of the subfamily Phasiinae in Egypt are provided. Colored photographs of the parasitoid larval and adult stages and parasitized host are provided as well.
Article
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Trichopoda pennipes (F.) is a parasitoid species introduced in various countries as a biological control agent against the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.). Several studies were performed to investigate the interactions between this parasitoid and the host, but they were focused above all on the adults. Our research was focused on the effects of exposure and parasitization by T. pennipes on the five-instar nymphs of N. viridula. We observed that the exposure to the parasitoid had effects on the development time of the five-instar nymphs and on the lifespan of the nymphs and the adults that emerged from them.
Article
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Specimens of the feather-legged fly, Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius, 1781), were detected in Gy, Perly and Monniaz (canton of Geneva, Switzerland), parasitizing adults of Nezara viridula (L.). this is the first record of this nearctic species in Switzerland north of the Alps, and one of the first records in temperate Europe. T. pennipes could have a potential to control the population of N. viridula, a pest that causes increasing damages in various crops and is known to be the principal host of this tachinid fly.
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The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is an important pest of squash and pumpkin plants in California. Its pest status is partially due to a lack of specific nymphal or adult natural enemies in California. A nymphal-adult parasitic fly, Trichopoda pennipes Fabr. (Diptera: Tachnidae), commonly associated with squash bugs in eastern United States, was imported and released beginning in 1992 at several locations in Yolo, Solano, and Sacramento counties in northern California. This fly has successfully overwintered at four locations and has been recovered at two locations three years after initial releases.
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Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) (Diptera, Tachinidae), di origine neartica, è un parassitoide di ninfe e adulti di diverse specie di eterotteri. Fra questi ultimi attacca il Pentatomide Nezara viridula (L.), un importante fitofago cosmopolita, che arreca danni alle colture agrarie anche in Italia. I primi esemplari di T. pennipes, introdotti accidentalmente in Italia, sono stati rinvenuti nei pressi dell’aeroporto internazionale di Roma nel 1988. Ad oggi, la specie risulta presente, oltre che in Italia (Liguria, Lombardia, Lazio, Umbria e Sicilia) anche in altri Paesi europei e in Israele. Nella presente nota sono riportati i primi casi di rinvenimento di T. pennipes in Veneto e in Friuli Venezia Giulia e vengono anche documentati, per l’area studiata, i primi casi di parassitizzazione di esemplari di N. viridula da parte di questa specie di Tachinide. T. pennipes risulta distribuito in ambienti naturali e agrari di pianura dell’Italia nord-orientale.
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The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.
Article
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A survey of published and unpublished information was used to compile a list of insect parasitoids recorded emerging from Nezara viridula (L.) in the field worldwide. Fifty-seven species among two families of Diptera and five families of Hymenoptera are recorded; 41 are egg parasitoids. No hyperparasitoids are known. Most species are not closely associated with N. viridula, although some are well adapted and the status of others is unclear. Six species of Nearctic and Neotropical Tachinidae are well adapted to adult N. viridula and could become established in new areas; they also attack large nymphs. There are no effective parasitoids specific to nymphs. The scelionid Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), probably of Old World origin, is the most widespread egg parasitoid and now occurs with N. viridula in the New World, coastal Africa, southern Europe, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, and some Pacific islands. Unique complexes of egg parasitoids occur in parts of Africa and eastern Asia. Based on the distribution of the genus Nezara and its species' color polymorphs and egg parasitoid complexes, N. viridula is considered to be of Ethiopian origin. African and Asian egg parasitoids in the genera Trissolcus, Telenomus, and Gryon, plus six New World Tachinidae, should be considered for establishment against N. viridula elsewhere.
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Percent parasitism of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) by Trichopoda pennipes F.(Diptera: Tachinidae) ten years after itsfortuitous introduction was evaluated in someareas of Italy. The parasitoid is acclimatisedin central Italy with a parasitism in 1998 of21.3% in the west coast area (Lazio) and of24.8% in the inland area (Umbria). Host adultsof both sexes were attacked with the same ratein 1998, whereas this was higher in males thanfemales in 1991 and 1992. Parasitism of nymphswas lower in all three years. In 1998parasitized bugs showed 1 (54.1%) to a maximumof 15 (0.4%) macrotype eggs per individual,distributed preferentially on the thorax ascompared with other body parts. None of theother pentatomid species collected in the sameareas were parasitized by T. pennipes,indicating that there have not been indirecteffects of this fortuitous introduction tillnow.
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The first records of Peleteria iavana (= varia preocc.) for Belgium (2017) and the Netherlands (2018) are described. The species has spread very rapidly over the western half of Belgium (fig. ) and is expected to do so in the Netherlands as well. Cylindromyia bicolor and Brullaea ocypteroidea have further established populations in the Netherlands and Brullaea is recorded for the first time from Belgium. Clairvillia biguttata is recorded for the first time from the Netherlands, based on one male from Maastricht in 2019. We also describe the 2019-influx of Cylindromyia brassicaria in both the Netherlands and Belgium. Finally, we provide practical keys for the Central European species of the genera Peleteria, Brullaea and Clairvillia, which enables the reader to make identifications from photograph
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While the accidental introduction of insect pests is becoming increasingly common due to intense and rapid commercial exchanges, the incidence of accidental introduction of their parasitoids seems to be much less frequent or is overlooked. The case reported here, for a tachinid Phasiinae, is both fortuitous and fortunate since the parasitoid has been carried from the New World by a pest that is already present in the new country, Italy, where there are virtually no competitors. Establishment and specificity of the parasitoid was confirmed by the first follow-up studies immediately after its discovery.
The introduction, propagation, liberation and establishment of parasites to control Nezara viridula variety smaragdina (Fabricius) in Hawaii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
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A parasitic Trichopoda fly killing southern green stink bugs arrives in Hungary
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