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Customer Relationship Management

  • University of Applied Sciences in Ferizaj

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this paper is to understand more clearly how the management of customer relationship is carried out. Considering that the markets are changing dynamically and products are easily copied by competitors, companies are increasingly focusing on customer. Today, globally, all businesses, of all industries and sizes, from large multinational companies to small and private companies, are striving to establish good relationships with their customers, as well as create loyal customers. Customer-oriented management philosophy is increasingly being used by companies. The impact of customer relationship management on company performance is an issue that has received attention recently. Although the international literature on customer relationship management and relevant strategies is rich, the Albanian literature is very limited. It is particularly limited in terms of using customer relationship management as a tool to improve company performance. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of internal environmental factors on the management of customer relations and more specifically in maintaining company - customer relationship. Keywords: customer relationship management; marketing performance; financial performance
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1. Introduction
The majority of businesses operate in difficult and highly
competitive environment where consumer demand is constantly
changing, so the manager’s attention is increasingly focused on
attracting and retaining customers. It is precisely this situation
that converges with the marketing concept defined by Kotler as:
meeting consumer needs and desires with higher efficiency than
any other competitor. Marketing represents exactly the tools that
make it possible to meet customer satisfaction and has ex-
perienced the highest growth in recent decades. While the
market is fragmented into more heterogeneous segments, more
precise marketing techniques are required. These techniques
establish a dialogue with smaller groups of consumers, and
address nearly all individual needs. This situation, combined by
demo-graphic and lifestyle changes which increased the cost of
data processing and the cost of sale forces, has contributed in
the increase of direct marketing, and the use of Customer
Relationship Management (CRM). Inflation, technology, de-
velopment of financial markets and many new and tumultuous
events set aside the old rules of Marketing. The market itself felt
the instinctive need to adapt to the economic environment and
did so without waiting for prior legal adjustments. Indeed, the
main reason that explains and forces all these changes is simply
competition. But, not all businesses feel the same way about
competition. That momentum comes when the process is fueled
by several other factors: economic development, market
position, population welfare level, and especially management
foresight. Today, banks and other financial institutions face se-
veral challenges including global competition for deposits, loans,
and signature fees; increasing consumer demand; narrowing
profit margins; and the need to be in constant contact with the
novelties in Technology (Gade, 2005).
The focus on CRM increases the skills to more clearly
understand the current needs of customers and also understand
the behaviors of these customers. Such a practice has further
helped companies to design strategies based on each
customer’s preferences in order to meet their requirements
(Xu, 2002). Information about customers is important for banks,
and intelligent use of such information will establish long-term
bilateral relationship with customers (Crosby, 2002).
2. Literature review
2.1. Customer Relationship Management
The well-known concept "Customer Relationship Manage-
ment or CRM”, refers to a business strategy with the focus on
customer, a broad process that integrates sales, marketing and
customer services, which creates and adds value for both
business and customer (Gordon, 1988).
Speaking about CRM, and before formulating some
definitions given in the literature reviewed, it is helpful initially to
determine what it is not. It’s not just software or a program that
a company installs to improve its sales. The CRM requires a
change of philosophy within the company and the satisfaction of
customer needs, as the cornerstone of its existence. If a
company wants to be competitive it has to shift its marketing
strategy from the focus to product to customer profitability
management. Products are already easily copied by competitors
and therefore what is needed is focusing on customer
relationship (Gade, 2005).
CRM is a strategy that is based on developing customer
relationship. In recent years, CRM has flourished and now it can
be considered essential for any company that wants to succeed.
The CRM is focused on retaining costumers by collecting data
through phone, e-mail and the Internet. The company can use
this information for specific purposes such as marketing, sales
and after-sales services. The basic philosophy is that everyone
in the company should focus on client. CRM is a comprehensive
approach in the service of customer to identify, access and
create loyal customers over time, through interpersonal
Access to Success
Vol. 22, No. 183/ August 2021
Customer Relationship Management
Arbresha MEHA
Prof. Ass. Dr., Management and Tourism, University of Applied Sciences in Ferizaj, Kosovo
The purpose of this paper is to understand more clearly how the management of customer relationship is carried out.
Considering that the markets are changing dynamically and products are easily copied by competitors, companies
are increasingly focusing on customer. Today, globally, all businesses, of all industries and sizes, from large
multinational companies to small and private companies, are striving to establish good relationships with their
customers, as well as create loyal customers. Customer-oriented management philosophy is increasingly being used
by companies. The impact of customer relationship management on company performance is an issue that has
received attention recently. Although the international literature on customer relationship management and relevant
strategies is rich, the Albanian literature is very limited. It is particularly limited in terms of using customer relationship
management as a tool to improve company performance. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of internal
environmental factors on the management of customer relations and more specifically in maintaining company-
customer relationship.
Keywords: customer relationship management; marketing performance; financial performance.
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relationship management system. CRM with its customer-
focused philosophy, focusing on the diverse needs of each
client, creates new structures and processes, by changing the
contemporary thinking of business and activities especially in
the service sector (Porter, 1998).
Prior to the arrival of the Internet, the CRM was a specialized
activity only for large enterprises, due to its cost and complexity.
Today, CRM opportunities are offered to all businesses and its
benefits are now affordable for any business operating online,
regardless of its size. The Internet has helped firms and their
clients to make the CRM a reality. There are numerous defini-
tions in the international literature to describe the CRM concept
(Gade, 2005).
In general, in relation to the definition of CRM, it would be
interesting to see how this term was conceived by various scho-
lars chronologically. One of the first references to CRM is that it
is about marketing approaches oriented toward individual cus-
tomers by creating strong stable relationships (Jackson, 1985).
(Gordon, 1988) has defined CRM as an ongoing process for
creating value for specific customers and taking advantage of
this ongoing and long-term process for parties, the company and
the customer. CRM involves understanding, focusing and
managing an ongoing collaboration between the company and
its special customers for creating mutual values.
Gordon (1988) also develops several dimensions of CRM,
which have significant effects on the businesses. Initially, it
refers creation of new value for customers and distribution of
this value to both parties involved. It then refers to recognizing
the critical role of particular customers.
The CRM enables companies that are customer-focused, to
plan and regulate business processes, communication, tech-
nology, and human resources, in order to provide value for
customer and create value through it. CRM is an effort of
continuous collaboration between the client and the company
which is transformed in real time.
In addition, Gordon acknowledges that creation of long-term
value for customers is more important than simple transactions,
and therefore strives to build a chain of relationship between
business and its customers, as well as between businesses and
their key partners. The most intense references for CRM began
in 1997, where it is emphasized that CRM is the link between
information technology and marketing strategies, aiming to built
long-term and profitable relationship between the company and
the customer (Gordon, 1988).
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Vol. 22, No. 183/ August 2021
Point of view Description Success requirements Concept
As a process
Improving the relationships between the
seller and the buyer; this relationships
must be strong and endurable.
The institution should have the ability
to discover the customer's desires and
to respond to them.
CRM is creating and enhancing the
engagement and relationships with the
external parties, specially the agents and
As a strategy
The value of the life period of the
customer with the institution determines
the amount and kind or resources that
the organization can invest in a
The institution should assess its
relationship with the customer
continuously. It should assign priorities
in dealing with him/her on basis of the
quantitative profitability during the life
period of the customer.
CRM is the investment of the companies
in the customers who are expected to be
valuable for the institution, and the
reduction of investment in the valueless
customers of the company.
As a philosophy
Customer retention can be better
achieved through focusing on
establishing relationships and
maintaining them.
The customer should be the focus of
the attention of the institution, which
should be oriented towards
understanding the changeable needs
of the customer.
CRM is not a temporary project, but a
work philosophy, which aims at putting
the customer in the focus of the attention
of the organization.
As an ability
Profitable and long-term relationships
only arise when the companies are able
to customize its behavior continuously
towards every customer.
The company should possess a group
of tangible and intangible resources,
which the company uses to flexibly
remodel its behavior towards the
customer continuously.
CRM means the desire and ability of the
institution to customers behavior towards
every customer, on the basis of the
information the customer tells and what
the institution knows about that customer.
As a technology
Knowledge management and reaction
represent the main resources that the
institution needs to establish profitable
and long-term relationships with the
The institution should be directed with
the functional method, and also the
user's acceptance of the technology
applied by the institution in order to
establish the customer's knowledge
and reaction management.
CRM is the technology used to integrate
sales systems, marketing systems and
information systems to establish
relationships with customers.
Table 1. The most important concepts of CRM
Source: Hisham, Sayed Soliman (2011). Customer Relationship Management and its Relationship to the Marketing Performance,
International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No.10, June, p.168.
2.2. Customer Relationship Management
From the definitions presented above it was clearly defined
what CRM means. Firstly, the relationship between CRM and
sales was revealed. The change in philosophy within any
company significantly affects the function of sales, as CRM is
about the company’s relationships with its important customers,
and sales in some way reflect the quality and importance of
those relationships. The definitions listed above contain some
common basic principles, such as customer relationship,
customer relationship management, customer retention, and
personalization according to each client's needs. Below are
briefly presented the main features of CRM through several
theoretical models of different authors (Porter, 1998).
Figure 1.
CRM implementation model
by Sin et al. 2003
Figure 2.
CRM implementation model
by Sin et al. 2003
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2.3. Customer knowledge management model
Many authors consider that CRM and knowledge mana-
gement are the approaches to which resources and efforts are
dedicated. So, the business based on these two elements will
provide a competitive advantage, and when they manage to
unite them at the procedural level, the benefit will be for both the
company and the client.
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Vol. 22, No. 183/ August 2021
Figure 3. Customer Knowledge Management model by Gebert et al. (2003)
The figure above shows the basic elements included in this
theory. The basic features of the model are:
1) Emphasize the importance of marketing, sales and ser-
vice as primary business functions;
2) Campaign management is the basic marketing process
during which the relationship marketing ideas are
3) Management of "VIP" customer’s constitutes the foun-
dation, identification and prioritization of contacts with
potential customers;
4) Supply management is the main sales process. Its
purpose is to create sustainable and personalized offers
that will meet all requirements;
5) Contract management is the process of creating and
maintaining contracts for the provision of products or
6) Complaints management, and customer dissatisfaction
is considered, processed and transferred to business;
7) Service management is planning, implementation and
control of service delivery;
8) CRM requires activities for the design of interfaces with
customers, on the matters of interaction with them.
These activities are: interactive management, channel
management and opportunity management;
9) CRM and knowledge management have the potential for
significant collaboration and cooperation, as knowledge
management can act as a service feeder for CRM,
resulting in mutual benefit for both approaches.
2.4. A Framework for Customer Relationship
The main question arising from this model is what com-
panies need to know about their customers and how this
information can be used for the development of integrated CRM
activities. Given the above question, a model for CRM is
proposed which consists of seven key elements presented in the
following figure: Development of a database containing custo-
mer activities:
Database analysis;
Based on this analysis, decisions has to be made on the
customers selected;
Tools for target customers;
Ways to build customer relationship;
Terms of privacy;
Measures to assess the success of the CRM program.
2.5. Development Strategies
for Competitive Advantage
During development of many theoretical models (Gebert et
al. 2003), it is mentioned that companies began to pay more
attention to CRM when they realized that this organization
manner could give them the opportunity to create a competitive
advantage and positively affect their performance and profi-
tability. It would be of interest, to present strategies for creating
competitive advantage, and in particular the factors that refer to
the knowledge which constitutes the basic element of research
The concept of competitive advantage is one of the most
common in the business strategy literature and many re-
searchers got involved (Porter, 1998). Competitive advantage is
the result of strategies adopted by a company that aims to add
value to its customers. More specifically, a company has a
competitive advantage when the profit rate is higher than the
average percentage of businesses in the sector where the
Figure 4. Model proposed by Winer (2001)
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company operates, and has a constant competitive advantage
when manages to maintain this profit rate for a longer period
(Porter, 1998). When the customers value company products
and services, which exceeds their production cost, than the
company has fulfilled the basic conditions to secure a com-
petitive advantage over its competitors (Porter, 1998).
Today, in a competitive environment, businesses are facing
many challenges, characterized by constant changes in tech-
nology, market forces as well as globalization process. So, the
companies in order to be able to manage with the contemporary
environment and achieve a competitive advantage, has to
constantly redefine their products and services and reorganize
processes and strategies. The strategies through which they
can create competitive advantages are as follows:
a) Knowledge Management;
b) Organizational learning;
c) Performance measurement indicator systems;
d) E-business.
In this thesis, only the first elements that are more in line with
the concept of CRM will be analyzed, but also with the research
model in the following chapter.
2.6. Knowledge Management
Defining the concept of Knowledge Management is difficult
as different perspectives can bring different dimensions. The
term “Knowledge Management” seems to have originated in the
mid-1970s. Nicholas Henry (1974) uses ‘knowledge manage-
ment’ in a manner that resembles our current understanding of
the expression. More broadly defined “Knowledge management
is the process through which organizations extract value from
their intellectual assets”. Adopting this trust to the KN, another
more appropriate definition is given “Knowledge Management
refers to the critical issues such as organizational adaptation,
survival and competence in relation to increased environmental
change. Essentially, it embodies organizational processes that
seek synergic combination of data and information processing
capacity, information technologies, and the creative and
innovative capacity of human beings” (Meyer, 2005).
Initially, it would be good to define the concept of knowledge
management in relation with the business. It is the expertise,
experience, awareness, and skills that enable business exe-
cutives to more easily accomplish their tasks, make faster
decisions, and produce new skills (Gorelick et al., 2005).
KM is planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling people,
processes, and systems from one organization, to ensure that
its knowledge-related assets are effectively improved (King,
2012). KM requires a mix of business awareness, creative
attitudes and practices, systems, tools, policies, and procedures
(Lehaney, 2004).
In this regard, we can say that KN can effectively help an
organization to succeed in building better relationships with
customers, and have a positive impact on the performance of
the organization.
Yim et al., (2005) thinks that we should take into conside-
ration that the success of relationship management is heavily
dependent on collecting and analyzing customer’s information,
as such information is used to develop highly personalized
offerings (Sigala, 2005). KM is a process that helps organi-
zations to identify, select, organize, disseminate, and transfer
important information and expertise, as part of the organiza-
tional memory, usually found in an unstructured way.
This knowledge structure enables effective and efficient
problem solving, dynamic, strategic learning, planning, and
decision making. Knowledge management initiatives focus on
identifying knowledge, dispersing them formally, and increasing
their value by reusing.
Through an organizational support climate and modern in-
formation technology, an organization can bring all its
organizational memory and knowledge to touch upon problems
at anytime and anywhere. For an organizational success, know-
ledge, as a form of capital, must be interchangeable between
persons and increase continuously. Knowledge of how problems
are solved can be grasped, so knowledge management can
foster organizational learning, leading to creation of further
knowledge (Lehaney, 2004).
With regard to the KM term, it is used to describe the
administrative practices related to creation, edition and disse-
mination of knowledge and expertise. A short and concise term
definition represents ‘any process or practice of creating,
acquiring, capturing, hiring and utilizing knowledge, in order to
enhance learning and performance in the organization.
Furthermore, knowledge management can be defined as the
management of organization information resources, and
providing this knowledge to as many employees as possible, in
order to encourage better and more sustainable decision (Probst
et al., 2000).
The term knowledge cannot exist without information and
experience. With the right information, executives can engage in
delicate actions and support business processes and admi-
nistrative decisions, and thus attract profitable customers.
Below are listed four main types of knowledge management
procedures, which show that knowledge management consti-
tutes a complex process:
a) Procedures followed by the company aiming to create,
acquire and use important competitive knowledge to
ensure the leading position in the market;
b) Daily knowledge management processes, in order for the
business to function faster and more efficiently, ie to
produce and distribute quality products and services for
customer higher satisfaction with fewer efforts (Lehaney,
c) Processes for creation of knowledge in order to enable
the company to use innovation and experiences and
seek new opportunities;
d) Procedures that provide a clear picture of the knowledge
priorities for the business (Winer, 2001).
In conclusion, knowledge management is a business pro-
cess that can determine important knowledge and create a
system for collecting and managing best practices and the right
information, by enabling managers to share their operational
experiences and create new knowledge.
2.7. Organizational learning
Businesses often, through reorganization of strategy and
offering of new opportunities, manage to reinforce their per-
formance and develop further (Guth and Ginsberg, 1990).
Organizational learning can increase a company’s ability to
identify opportunities and use them to effectively pursue into
new business activities (Davis and Botkin, 1994). Organizational
learning as a factor for achieving competitive advantages is
emphasized as a source for creation of knowledge and learning,
as a unique, inimitable and endless resource-based theory.
Organizational learning is seen as a key factor in gaining
competitive stable advantage and good performance (Martinez
Costa and Jimenez-Jimenez, 2009).
Organizations that embrace strategies consistent with
learning organization have the opportunity to achieve higher
performance (Ellinger et al., 2002; Calantone et al., 2002). The
figure 5 shows Huber's organizational learning model (1991).
Organizational learning is defined as the process where
organization’s members actively use data to guide behavior in a
way to promote the ongoing adapting organization process
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Vol. 22, No. 183/ August 2021
Figure 5. Organizational Learning Stages, Huber 1991
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(Edmondson and Moingeon, 1998). It is a process that requires
individual knowledge, and supports the suitability of the
company, as a key feature in applying CRM philosophy.
Furthermore, organizational learning is known as a critical
component for development and innovation of new products and
services, and it is recommended that before the company
manages to improve innovative behavior and relationship with
the customers, it should analyze its current organizational
learning (Saban et al., 2000). Organizational learning is asso-
ciated with an interesting concept that is related to the idea
of strategy, since the process of creation of knowledge can
produce unique organizational skills, but also potential sources
of competitive advantage and retaining important customers. All
these are presented in another equivalent theoretical model
through which it is clearly reflected the central role of knowledge
dissemination concept in the organizational learning. The pur-
pose of knowledge management is to accurately and promptly
take decisions, as a very important element in customer
relationship management. Below are briefly presented the four
knowledge stages in order to function efficiently during the CRM
a) Identification and development of knowledge:
At this stage the client and his importance are identified
as well as the knowledge needed to have a successful
completion of CRM functions. Knowledge development is
the result of observing important customer patterns and
the actions of competitors;
b) Codification and knowledge retention:
At this stage the knowledge developed in the first step
are transformed into a format that can be read, stored
and incorporated into technology;
c) Knowledge dissemination phase:
This step consists of dissemination of knowledge through-
out the company and using them in cases where a
hypothetical scenario appears with specific requirements
in terms of knowledge elements;
d) Knowledge use and feedback process:
During this phase, knowledge is identified and used, nee-
ded to solve a real problem. Using this knowledge in
solving problems can generate additional knowledge,
which can be stored and used in the future. The company
can provide feedback on the quality of stored knowledge,
and note the degree of difficulty for recovering this know-
ledge’s. At the same time it can present new types of
knowledge required, depending on the needs of the
company (Bose and Sugumaran, 2003).
The current application of CRM philosophy is possible only
through the use of knowledge management processes, which
are based on processes that focus on the client, and enables
businesses to improve their performance on key issues such as
customer satisfaction, loyalty and their profitability (Winer,
2001). These procedures will enable companies to meet the
needs of the target customers, based on the knowledge
collected, and not on collective conclusions about the customer
majority characteristics
3. Methodology
The methodology of this paper also relies on direct market
research, in addition to the theoretical approach based on the
study of literature, scientific papers and other relevant sources.
Efforts have been made to reach a representative sample of the
target population by contacting individuals and respondents
(Bryman 2004), which may be a “primary data collection
method, based on communication, with representative sample
of individuals” (Zikmund 1997 p. 202). The sample was selected
within the service sector (banking sector and specifically in the
bank branches selected in Prishtina). Selection of this industry
is due to the role, importance and weight it has in the service
sector and in the national market. In this research study, the
main sample framework consists of a total of 27 bank branches
operating in the city of Prishtina, whose names were taken from
the Bank of Kosovo.
4. Results
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the factors that can
affect to maintain relationship
between the company and client and the impact of the latter
on the performance of bank. In order to achieve this goal, the
connection between environmental factors, maintaining company-
customer relations and bank performance were tested.
The focus of the information collected with the surveyed
individuals was on the number of employees working in the bank
branches selected for the study, employees working years, and
operations of these bank branches since their establishment.
The processed results showed that: 2.04% of bank branches
selected have up to 5 employees, 30.6% of them have 5-9
employees, 42.8% between 10- 20 employees and 24.5% have
more than 20 employees. With regard to the employees working
years, the results showed that 30.6% of them have less than 5
years of work in these banks, 57.14% between 5-10 years,
8.16% between 11-15 years, and 4.08% of them have more than
15 years. Referring to the operation of these bank branches
since their establishment, 32.65% were established between the
years 1990-2000, and 67.35% of them were established after
the year 2000.
Based on the research results, it would be appropriate to
conduct a further analysis of the general remarks and comments
regarding the progress of this research. Initially, it would be
reasonable to emphasize once again the main purpose of this
thesis. The reason for the development of the relevant model
was to illustrate and prove whether and to what extent some
internal environment factors of the company can affect the CRM
processes, respectively in maintaining the company-customer
relationship, and how CRM affects the company's performance
on both blocs’ economy and marketing. At the same time are
presented the basic elements of CRM practices and the intensity
they are used from the bank branches included in the study. In
the context of the internal environment, there are four research
hypotheses that need to be examined to identify the important
factors that influence the preservation of company-customer
relations in the bank branches included in the study.
The research findings showed that banks included in the
survey apply at a satisfactory level strategic methods related to
CRM, ranking their customers at the center of their business
processes. The findings also showed that companies make
huge investments in relation to their customer by creating long-
term relationship, and at the same time integrating the client-
centric approach into the culture and structure of the company.
In the majority of the banks surveyed, there was a great
interest from managers for creative application of customer-
oriented activities, a fact that was evidenced, through the
investment made to promote innovations in CRM and to
systematically organize the process of organizational learning in
terms of market data and developments.
On the other hand, in some cases, incomplete CRM
processes were observed in several phases, respectively in
relation to the organization and integration of CRM within
business operations.
The banks surveyed were still at an early stage in terms of
CRM and the success in this direction, so as a result, increase
of investment for a significant growth should be projected.
5. Conclusions
In order for a company to achieve the desired results in
relation to CRM, organizational and economical environment
factors must be strengthened. For this reason, the company
should seek to create an organizational culture and structure,
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Vol. 22, No. 183/ August 2021
4 7
which places the customer at the center of business processes,
and consider the value of customers and their satisfaction at the
top of their activities, and not just use individual tactics in relation
to customer.
Therefore, it is very important for managers to emphasize
the various CRM processes and activities in banks. The bank
managers needs to understand who are the potential valuable
customers, what kind of services and products they need, why
the customer is connected with competitors, how they can keep
customers, and how they can attract valuable customers to
increase their performance. They should also seek to build a
long-term relationship with their current customers, convince
them to use banking services, take customer complaints and
solve their problems as soon as possible, and make customers
think constantly about products or services they offer.
Through improvement of these systems, the relationship
between the CRM and performance can be improved as well.
Without understanding this, it is difficult for a bank to determine
its specific activities around CRM, which can likely lead to a
different broader measured performances.
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Vol. 22, No. 183/ August 2021
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... Excellent customer service and experience is integral part of CRM. Successful implementation of CRM is possible by delivering excellent cus-tomer service and experience (Brink & Berndt, 2008). Outstanding customer service and experience can be achieved through training employees and supporting the employees with technologies and processes that make them more effective during the service delivery. ...
... Therefore, during the service encounter, employees have to be supported by CRM technologies. Through CRM technologies employees can access the relevant customer information and based on the customer information they may be able to identify prospects, give customized offers and services, deepen customer loyalty, reactivate customer purchases, avoid customer mistakes, and deliver satisfying responses and solutions (Brink & Berndt, 2008). Since CRM systems enable employees to access single customer view across channels; employees can serve customers better and deliver superior customer experience. ...
... A CRM technology solution requires to support all customer interaction channels and easily connect with the front and back office enterprise applications and the applications of company's suppliers and partners. CRM systems integrate the customer information and business intelligence across all customer interaction channels and business functions (Brink & Berndt, 2008). Architecture of CRM involves processes and systems (Geib, Reichold, Kolbe, & Brenner, 2005). ...
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This chapter aims to develop a framework for CRM in order to understand CRM concepts and ecosystem better. To achieve this aim, this chapter starts with giving definitions of CRM from different perspectives. Reviewing the definitions of CRM reveals the essential pillars of CRM implementation. A well-developed CRM implementation framework can help companies see the big picture and develop successful CRM implementations. This chapter explains the vision and strategy; customer value proposition and customer experience; organizational culture and customer centric processes; and enabling technologies and information management as the fundamental components of a successful CRM initiative. After mentioning the benefits of CRM implementations, this chapter continues with analysing the architecture of the CRM ecosystem. Key functionalities and the role of analytical, operational, and collaborative CRM in managing relationships are also clarified. This chapter ends up with discussing the functionalities of CRM technologies in understanding customers, customer targeting, customer acquisition and retention, and customer service and support.
... It is interesting to note however that trust was not found to significantly affect distributors' intention to continue. This result is inconsistent with several research findings such as Narteh (2013), Roberts-Lombard (2011), andSauers (2008). Meanwhile, in the descriptive statistics, trust was the construct with the highest mean value of 4.108, portraying ahigh level of trust by distributors for GGCL. ...
... Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made in this study. The most unexpected result realized in this study is that trust did not significantly affect intention to continue arelationship, which is inconsistent with several research findings such as Narteh (2013), Ndubisi and Wah (2015), Roberts-Lombard (2011), andSauers (2008). We recommend further studies. ...
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Relationship marketing serves the purpose of building a long-term relationship with business partners in order to minimize switching behavior and increase intention to continue business. This study assessed the relationships between relationship marketing practices of trust, commitment, relative dependence, customer satisfaction and perceived value as drivers to intention to continue business relationships under a B2B setting of GGCL. Hypotheses based on the literature were formulated. The study was a descriptive survey, and using convenience sampling techniques, data was collected from 248 businesses who were distributors of GGCL using questionnaire. The study findings demonstrated that a positive and significant relationship exists between commitment and intention to continue business, relative dependence and intention to continue business, customer satisfaction and intention to continue business, and distributor perceived value and intention to continue business. However, trust was found not to be significantly related intention to continue business uniquely, unless it was joined to other variables. Based on the findings, relative dependence was identified as an important antecedent of intention to continue business. Key relationship marketing strategies used by GGCL were identified to include customer engagement, interactivity, online trust, customer loyalty, advocacy, affective commitment and personalization. Customer engagement was the most agreed strategy according to the respondents, which makes it possible for the company to provide helpful information on Guinness’s social media link. The study recommends that GGCL should seek to increase distributors’ dependence by improving communications and making some relationship-specific investments.
... Empirical validation of the impact, benefits and performance of CRM includes work by Ching (2004), Jayachandran, Sharma, Kaufman andRaman (2005), Mithas et al., 2005;Reinartz, Krafft and Hoyer (2004), and Verhoef (2003). There has been little, if any, empirical academic research into CRM in South Africa: work related to the area includes Abratt and Russell (1999), Brink andBerndt (2004), andVan Zyl (2005). This literature review will focus on aspects of CRM relevant to the study described in this paper. ...
... Empirical validation of the impact, benefits and performance of CRM includes work by Ching (2004), Jayachandran, Sharma, Kaufman andRaman (2005), Mithas et al., 2005;Reinartz, Krafft and Hoyer (2004), and Verhoef (2003). There has been little, if any, empirical academic research into CRM in South Africa: work related to the area includes Abratt and Russell (1999), Brink andBerndt (2004), andVan Zyl (2005). This literature review will focus on aspects of CRM relevant to the study described in this paper. ...
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Customer relationship management (CRM) can be thought of as IT-enabled relationship marketing. It has numerous definitions and perspectives, and success of implementation has been limited to date. This paper examines recent literature on the subject, drawing attention to the importance of a balance between strategy formulation, IT and organisational alignment when adopting and implementing CRM. It then discusses results of an exploratory study carried out amongst 34 South African organisations on their business objectives for CRM, the CRM applications that they have invested in or are considering, and the extent of integration of their customer data. The most important objectives and most widely used CRM applications are determined, and associations between applications and objectives are analysed. It is not apparent that CRM applications are selected in line with business objectives, and expected associations with objectives often do not exist for the objectives rated most important. Only certain aspects of customer data integration are significantly linked to objectives or CRM applications. The study suggests the need for fuller determination of strategy and objectives when involved with CRM investigation and adoption, and co-ordination at all levels of implementation between Marketing and IT.
... Quality is viewed as the degree to which the service, the process and the service organisation can satisfy the customer's expectations (Brink and Berndt, 2007). Lovelock and Wirtz (2007) define quality as the extent to which a service satisfies a customer's needs, wants and expectations. ...
... It also means the organisation keeps its promises within the specific time frame set out. If delivery is done in a proper way, it will enhance the perceived quality as viewed by the customer (Brink and Berndt, 2007). Lovelock and Wirtz (2007) believe that reliability is the most important factor in customers' judgement of service quality. ...
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The paper aims at examining whether the return-future earnings relationship vary with corporate financial leverage, ownership structure and proprietary costs for a sample of 240 firms in the context of Middle Eastern and North African emerging markets. Our results emphasized first a negative association between share price anticipation of future earnings and financial leverage level. We showed also that the return-future earnings relationship is positively related to the level of institutional ownership. Findings revealed in addition and inconsistent with our assumption that insider ownership influences positively the ability of stock return to predict future earnings. Finally, proprietary costs didn’t seem to impact the return future earnings relationship in that only a positive effect on current earnings informativeness was observed.
... This result is quite like that in the SERVQUAL model, which shows that most customers are satisfied with the quality of service at Banks, especially with the dimension of service quality. Even though consumers value the quality of services, whereas emotional factors can affect the way they perceive the real services that is provided [38] and according to some other research studies [45,46] in the field of customers feeling. The survey results confirmed that most consumers are satisfied with the services provided in clustered banks and understanding of banking products and staff selling skills are satisfactory. ...
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This study skims the much debatable issue of customer satisfaction (quality matching expectations) in the banking system, as for banks are the main actors of the Albanian financial system. In fact, the customer satisfaction in the banking sector is an important criterion for customer to differentiate and build their loyalty toward the bank, consequently increasing the odds for loyal customers towards more than a service of the bank. Previous studies and research suggest that consumer perceptions and their expectations are likely to differ as per their customer satisfaction. This particular study examines implications related to bank's customers satisfaction for Albanian banks which for study purpose are grouped in two different clusters based on the origin of shareholder's capital. Satisfied customers are an important advantage for any business likewise banks. The difference is made by customer satisfaction and loyalty created through some components on the behavior of bankers serving to their customers. The SERVQUAL model that is the pillar of this article methodology, whereas structured and semi structured questionnaire is the instrument for performing the survey. A sample of 246 respondents which are banks customers from cluster 1 (local capital origin) is used for the qualitative research. The results of this study help bankers in order to maintain their business indicators in a highly competitive market and other stakeholders for identifying the implications faced in the banking industry in Albania. To achieve this, the Bank must conduct frequent research regarding customer expectations and respond to customer complaints with precise corrective actions.
... In order to develop customer loyalty organizations should encourage their satisfaction because it is satisfaction (Fornell, 1992, Diller, 2000, Hill & Alexander, 2003, providing higher value (Reichheld, 2001) which encourages the feeling of satisfaction, as well as developing and intensifying the connections with customers' (Fornell, 1992, Meyer & Blümelhuber, 2000 acts like encouragement for developing their loyalty. The organization should focus on keeping loyal customers (Brink, 2004) and introduce the system for managing them. ...
... Better customer experiences are crucial for the future growth and success of the organization. According to Brink and Berndt (2004) customer satisfaction is the degree to which a business's product or service performance is as per the customer's expectations. According to Bellou (2007) customer has the power to decide which organization will survive and which will perish. ...
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Globalization has led the tourism industry to undergo radical changes, with an ideological shift toward embracing the customer-centric approach and discarding the traditional focus on profits. Tourism organizations need to fulfill the demands and expectations of customers by training staff to maintain service excellence. A strategic approach must ensure employees are engaged, recognized, innovative, trustworthy, and loyal, exhibiting innovation and enhanced performance. This conceptual study explores the paradigm shifts in tourism human-resource management, and highlights a strategic approach of integrating operational and cultural elements for achieving service excellence. The proposed Operational Integration and Cultural Integration (OICI) elucidates effective management of human resources to achieve service excellence. It highlights that the customers’ power to choose has increased, as the quality of the overall experience is wholly based on perception and acts as a main differentiator in the competitive world. Hence there is a need for constantly innovative ways to enhance services’ effectiveness through efficient utilization of human resources (employees). To achieve high performance and service excellence, organizations must constantly encourage and inspire their employees, and acknowledge their contribution. The OICI model’s implementation can achieve organizational goals and lead to satisfied, delighted, and loyal customers.
The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework to identify the impact of marketing ethics on customer loyalty by reviewing the most relevant previous literature on this topic. Moreover, focus on the reality of marketing ethics in the two mobile phone companies operating in Palestine, namely Jawwal and Ooredoo Palestine, by focusing on the Palestinian environment, which is characterized by political and economic instability, due to the Israeli occupation of Palestine since 1948 as well as the Palestinian apart between the two parts of the homeland (the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) and the Israeli siege on the Gaza Strip. Hence, it is expected that this study will constitute a valuable reference for these two companies to develop their marketing and ethical behaviors. Accordingly, the impact of customer satisfaction on the marketing and ethical performance of these two companies and the services provided by them is investigated for the sake of developing their marketing plans and developing ethical standards compatible with the Palestinian society, and then increasing the company's profits that can be achieved through customer satisfaction with their services and gaining their loyalty.
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In the midst of fierce competition and increased number of retail outlets providing a variety of products, customers have become accustomed to patronizing multiple outlets and keeping customers satisfied has never been more important than currently. Retailers have recognized this trend and are of the view that customer satisfaction plays a role in the success of business strategies. Retailers need to understand how to satisfy their customers in order to enhance their appeal and increase consumer loyalty. The aim of this study was to evaluate customer satisfaction within the fast moving consumer goods industry at Pick n Pay Woodmead in Gauteng Province in the Republic of South Africa.
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"Performance Through Learning: Knowledge Management in Practice" is a practical guide to the key issues surrounding knowledge management from a human resource perspective and provides incisive insights into developing a strategy linked to organisational learning. The international author team presents a framework and model that practitioners within organizations can adapt to increase performance through learning using knowledge management tools. This book is divided into two parts and includes: - An overview of theory - Case studies and practitioner stories from a range of KM initiatives - Tools and techniques for implementing an effective KM strategy By drawing on real-life examples across a variety of organizational settings, from large global financial and professional service firms to small charities in the voluntary sector, "Performance Through Learning" provides a complete understanding of the theory that supports knowledge management in the current business environment.
A new theory of competition is evolving in the strategy literature. The authors explicate the foundations of this new theory, the ''comparative advantage theory of competition,'' and contrast them with the neoclassical theory of perfect competition. They argue that the new theory of competition explains key macro and micro phenomena better than neoclassical perfect competition theory. Finally, they further explicate the theory of comparative advantage by evaluating a market orientation as a potential resource for comparative advantage.
The essence of the information technology revolution and, in particular, the World Wide Web is the opportunity afforded companies to choose how they interact with their customers. The Web allows companies to build better relationships with customers than has been previously possible in the offline world. This revolution in customer relationship management (CRM) has been referred to as the new "mantra" of marketing. However, a problem is that CRM means different things to different people. This article develops a comprehensive CRM model incorporating seven phases: database creation, analysis of the database, customer selection, customer targeting, relationship marketing, privacy issues, and new metrics necessary for evaluating the CRM effort. The article also discusses the implications of CRM for future marketing organizations.
How can popular misconceptions about the nature of customer relationship marketing/management limit the effectiveness of this approach? How are companies misled by an over-reliance on technology, lack of strategic perspective, use of faulty metrics, inadequate segmentation, neglect of brand considerations, blind faith in data, and confusion regarding leadership roles? This article challenges the misconceptions and provides guidance on how to successfully execute a customer relationship strategy.
Given the important role being played by knowledge management (KM) systems in the current customer-centric business environment, there is a lack of a simple and overall framework to integrate the traditional customer relationship management (CRM) functionalities with the management and application of the customer-related knowledge, particularly in the context of marketing decisions. While KM systems manage an organization's knowledge through the process of creating, structuring, disseminating and applying knowledge to enhance organizational performance and create value, traditional CRM have focused on the transactional exchanges to manage customer interactions. True CRM is possible only by integrating them with KM systems to create knowledge-enabled CRM processes that allow companies to evaluate key business measures such as customer satisfaction, customer profitability, or customer loyalty to support their business decisions. Such systems will help marketers address customer needs based on what the marketers know about their customers, rather than on a mass generalization of the characteristics of customers. We address this issue in this paper by proposing an integrated framework for CRM through the application of knowledge management technology. The framework can be the basis for enhancing CRM development. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.