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Discrepancy between language learners and teachers concerns about emergency remote teaching

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Abstract

Emergency remote teaching refers to the unanticipated, involuntary shift to a virtual learning environment due to, for example, a natural disaster or political instability. The sudden nature of this transition creates additional challenges to effective learning. In this article, we investigate one such challenge, namely the potential for teacher–student miscommunication. We report on a study involving 674 language learners and 61 language teachers. The participants were asked to rate a number of education‐related ١problems that could potentially arise in the context of emergency remote teaching. Learners rated these concerns in terms of the extent to which they had actually experienced them, while teachers were asked to rate the extent to which they perceived these to be concerns for their students. The results showed that teachers believed that students required additional training on using learning management systems, that students did not take online teaching seriously, and that emergency remote teaching would encourage students to cheat. Students disagreed with these statements (ds = 0.53–0.65). We discuss the implications of these teacher–learner discrepancies in light of the need for explicit guidelines and clearer expectations of students during online learning and assessment.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
DOI: 10.1111/jcal.12543
S P E CI A L I SS U E A R T I C L E
Discrepancy between language learners and teachers
concerns about emergency remote teaching
Ahmed Al Shlowiy1 | Ali H. Al-Hoorie1 | Mohammed Alharbi2
1
Jubail English Language and Preparatory Year
Institute, Royal Commission for Jubail and
Yanbu, Jubail, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of English, College of Education,
Majmaah University, Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence
Ali H. Al-Hoorie, Jubail English Language and
Preparatory Year Institute, Royal Comm ission
for Jubail and Yanbu, Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Email: hoorie_a@jic.edu.sa
Funding information
Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah
University, Grant/Award Number: R-2021-45
1
|
INTR O D UCTI O N
Emergency remote teaching (ERT; Hodges et al., 2020) is a recently-
coined term describing the sudden shift to online teaching, as in the
global response to the COVID-19 pandemic by academic institutions.
In order to prevent the spread of the virus, educational institutions
worldwide decided to suspend face-to-face teaching, thus minimizing
social interaction and physical contact to protect students, faculty, and
staff. At the same time, these institutions had to continue teach- ing
during the crisis even though their infrastructure may not be at an
optimal level. Faculty and students were caught off guard by this sud-
den transition during the middle of the semester, causing additional
complications and challenges to effective language learning. Some
educational administrations, recognizing the lack of adequate training
in their faculty and students, started bombarding them with emails of
hurriedly compiled tutorials about learning management systems,
video communication technologies, and other resourcesperhaps
adding to the existing confusion. Teachers, in turn, were left to fig ure
out ways from home, independently for all practical purposes, to con -
tinue their classes online and to prepare students for exams and for
more advanced courses. Lack of face-to-face interaction with stu-
dents, complicated by the additional technology learning curve, could
potentially lead to teacherstudent miscommunication in that
teachers underestimate (or overestimate) the effort students need
to exert, the difficulties they experience, and the pressure they have
to cope with in their learning. In this article, we focus on the extent to
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Abstract
Emergency remote teaching refers to the unanticipated, involuntary shift to a vir-
tual learning environment due to, for example, a natural disaster or political insta-
bility. The sudden nature of this transition creates additional challenges to
effective learning. In this article, we investigate one such challenge, namely the
potential for teacherstudent miscommunication. We report on a study involving
674 language learners and 61 language teachers. The participants were asked to
rate a number of education-related problems that could potentially arise in the
context of emergency remote teaching. Learners rated these concerns in terms of
the extent to which they had actually experienced them, while teachers were
asked to rate the extent to which they perceived these to be concerns for their
students. The results showed that teachers believed that students required addi-
tional training on using learning management systems, that students did not take
online teaching seriously, and that emergency remote teaching would encourage
students
t
o
c
heat.
S
tudents
d
isagreed
with
these
s
tatements
(
d
s
=
0.
53
0.65
).
We
discuss the implications of these teacherlearner discrepancies in light of the need
for explicit guidelines and clearer expectations of students during online learning
and assessment.
KE YW OR DS
COVID-19, emergency remote teaching, miscommunication, second language learning, teacher
student relationship, technology acceptance model
2
AL SHLOWIY
ET AL
.
which lack of face-to-face communication has led to a situation where
teachers misperceive and misappreciate the challenges and concerns
students have during ERT.
2
|
TECHNOLO G Y ACCEP T A N C E MODE L
One framework to situate ERT is the Technology Acceptance Model
(Davis, 1989; Lee et al., 2003). Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action
(Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010), Technology Acceptance Model proposes that
technology acceptance is determined by two primary factors:
perceived
usefulness
and
perceived ease of use
. In ERT, technology becomes the
backbone of the learning process, without which formal teaching may
effectively cease to exist. Due to the sudden, unplanned nature of ERT,
institutions may not have all the resources necessary to provide fully
online education, and students and faculty may not have adequate
training to use the resources available. This situation is further exasper-
ated by the uncertain nature of ERT, since it is usually unclear how long
distance learning will continue before regular face-to-face teaching
resumes. The combination of these factors may diminish perceived use-
fulness of technology and its perceived ease of use, possibly ending in
student demotivation and disengagement from learning.
Technology Acceptance Model has been widely used to under-
s
t
a
n
d
a
n
d
a
dd
r
e
ss
s
tu
de
nt
di
s
e
ng
ag
e
m
e
n
t
fr
o
m
t
ec
hn
ol
ogy
(
G
ra
n
i
´
c
&
Ma
ra
ngun
i
´
c,
2019
).
Al
th
ough
the
m
od
el
ha
s
b
ee
n
e
xt
ended
s
i
n
ce
it
w
a
s
first proposed, its two factors (perceived usefulness and perceived ease
of use) are considered the major influences of intention to use technol-
ogy, which in turn leads to actual use or lack thereof. A meta-analysis
by Abdullah and Ward (2016) showed that both perceived usefulness
and perceived ease of use can be predicted by previous experience with
technology, enjoyment, self-efficacy, computer anxiety, and social norm
(i.e., pressure from others). Based on these findings, Abdullah and
Ward (2016) proposed an extended version of Technology Acceptance
Model, which they called the General Extended Technology Acceptance
Model for E-Learning (or GETAMEL). The extended version involves
these additional factors, described as
external
, that have an effect on
perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (see Venkatesh, 2015,
for related models and extensions).
Technology Acceptance Model has been criticized on various gro-
unds (Lim, 2018; Venkatesh, 2015; Venkatesh et al., 2012). As
Bagozzi (2007) argues, the model overlooks the role of group, social,
and cultural dimensions in the decision-making process. These factors,
at best, are treated as external factors that exert their impact only
through perceived usefulness and ease of use. It is unreasonable to
expect that one model, and one so simple, would explain decisions and
behavior fully across a wide range of technologies, adoption situations,
and differences in decision making and decision makers
(Bagozzi,
2007, p. 244). Furthermore, the role of emotions and affect is
naïve and
over-simplified
(Bagozzi, 2007, p. 245) in that emotions are
treated
in a rather ad hoc way in extensions
of the model (p. 248).
Thus, the standard approach to understanding technology accep-
tance has been to incorporate additional measures as predictors of
intention or its antecedentsmostly from a learner's perspective.
However, especially in an ERT situation, teaching and learning is
dynamic, constantly changing, and unpredictable (see Al-Hoorie
et al., 2021; Hiver & Al-Hoorie, 2016, 2020). Psychologically, such an
abrupt change of learning environment could have a negative impact on
both
students' and teachers' attitudes, self-confidence, anxiety, and
enthusiasm among other affective factors (see Dewaele et al., 2019).
The picture will be incomplete without recognizing technology accep-
tance by both students and teachers, as well as the relationship
between students' and teachers' perceptions.
3
|
TEACHER ST U D E N T R E LA T I O N SHIP
From a Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017) perspective,
perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have been described
as extrinsic motivations since both are external to the task itself (see
Leong et al., 2018). On the other hand, engaging with technologies
because of enjoyment (see Dewaele et al., 2018) or a sense of efficacy
(see Bandura, 1997) are intrinsic to the activity, and therefore they
may encourage more sustained engagement, persistence, resilience,
and hardiness (Dewaele et al., 2019). An important factor bolstering
intrinsic motivation and sustained engagement with learning is a posi-
tive teacherstudent relationship. Positive and supportive teacher
student relationship has been shown to foster student engagement,
classroom participation, and success in language learning (see Hiver
et al., 2021; Joe et al., 2017; Yun et al., 2018).
Research into classroom climate has highlighted the role of three
related types of teacher support: teacher academic support, teacher
emotional support, and classroom mutual respect (Patrick et al., 2007;
Patrick & Ryan, 2005). Teacher academic support refers to the student's
perception that the teacher is interested in helping them master the
material rather than in promoting competitiveness among students.
Teacher emotional support refers to the student's perception that the
teacher cares for them as a person and is interested in fostering their
well-being. Classroom mutual respect refers to the student's perception
that the teacher encourages mutual respect and collaboration during
the learning process. Research has shown that a positive classroom
social climate involving these three types of support is associated with
satisfaction of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness,
and competence), which in turn directly and indirectly predict willing-
ness to communicate in the language class and language learning
achievement (Dewaele et al., 2019; Joe et al., 2017).
These findings suggest that student beliefs, perceptions, and expec-
tations are not mere naïve misunderstandings of what the teacher is
rightly doing and that they play a central role in effective language
learning (Brown, 2009). Despite this, relatively little research has been
conducted on teacherstudent attitude (mis)match compared to
research on either teachers' or students' attitudes separately
(Beaudrie, 2015; Dare et al., 2017; Roothooft & Breeze, 2016; Sz
o
}
c
s
,
2017
).
I
n
t
h
e
c
on
te
x
t
o
f
a
n
E
R
T
,
m
i
s
c
om
m
u
nic
a
ti
o
n
be
c
o
m
e
s
a
serious
concern because teachers and students can no longer meet
face-to-
face and discuss problems as usual. For example, teachers may
not
effectively address students' actual concerns about the learning
3
process, and may instead spend valuable time trying to address non-
existent problems. Students may then become disillusioned, leading to
tension, frustration, demotivation, and eventual discontinuation of study
(P
l
o
ns
k
y &
M
il
l
s
,
200
6)
.
Th
e
n
t
e
a
c
h
e
r
s
,
no
t
r
ec
o
g
niz
i
ng
the
r
e
a
so
n
behind the resulting suboptimal student engagement, may be tempted
to simply blame it on students' lack of motivation or seriousness, and
consequently teachers themselves lose enthusiasm. Raising mutual
awareness may break this vicious circle. Just as Schulz (1996) put it,
perceptions do influence reality. Indeed, some would
argue that perception is reality for the individual
learner. Students whose instructional expectations are
not met may consciously or subconsciously question
the credibility of the teacher and/or the instructional
approach…. Such lack of face validity could affect
learners' motivation, which in turn affects the amount
of time and effort they are willing to invest in the
learning process and the types of activities they are
willing to engage in to gain mastery. (Schulz, 1996,
p. 349, original emphasis)
4
|
CHALLENGE S IN O N L I NE L E A R NING
In order to provide an environment more conducive to effective remote
learning, it is essential to identify the challenges that students and
teachers face in this context (Kebritchi et al., 2017). In terms of learner-
related challenges, one important challenge has to do with student
expectations, with some students expecting instant feedback on their
work, higher grades than the work submitted may deserve, and passing
online courses even without taking them seriously (Li & Irby, 2008;
Lyons, 2004). A second challenge is related to learners' readiness for
online learning, including technical skills, learning preferences, and cul-
tural differences (Hung et al., 2010; Luyt, 2013). A third challenge is
concerned with learner identity, in that the isolation online learning cre-
ates makes it increasingly difficult to develop a sense of identity and a
shared sense of belonging, and to feel as a valued member of an educa-
tional community (McInnerney & Roberts, 2004). This may in turn influ-
ence motivation, persistence, and intention to continue studying.
Teachers also experience a number of challenges during online
teaching (Kebritchi et al., 2017). One such challenge is the multiple
roles teachers have to assume, including not only pedagogical respon-
sibilities, but also social, administrative, and technical ones
(Berge, 1998; Tucker & Neely, 2010). Especially in ERT,
Faculty might
feel like instructional MacGyvers, having to improvise quick solutions
in less-than-ideal circumstances
(Hodges et al., 2020). Teachers have
to juggle these responsibilities during design of lessons, delivery, and
follow-up of instruction (Fein & Logan, 2003), which can make online
lesson preparation a rather time-consuming processrequiring twice
as much time as preparing for face-to-face lessons even for small
online classes (Cavanaugh, 2005). In addition to this, the emotional
environment can be impoverished (Coppola et al., 2002, p. 178)
since teachers no longer have easy access to verbal and nonverbal
cuessuch as facial expressions and body languageto recognize stu-
dents' emotions and to adjust lessons accordingly. Finally, especially in
ERT, institutional guidelines and quality expectations may be unclear,
incomplete, and constantly evolving (see Anderson et al., 2011), fur-
ther making the working environment unstable.
Another major consideration in online teaching is ensuring aca-
demic integrity (see McCabe et al., 2001). During regular face-to-face
learning, cheating sometimes occurs at alarming rates (Anderman &
W
o
n
,
2019
,
p
.
1
)
.
Ef
fec
t
i
v
el
y
c
on
tr
ol
li
ng
ch
e
a
t
i
ng
a
n
d
p
l
a
g
i
ar
i
s
m
becomes even more serious of a challenge in a virtual environment,
where students submit coursework supposed to be their own and com -
plete exams without direct invigilation. The situation is further con-
founded by findings that students may not recognize certain academic
misconduct as such (Owunwanne et al., 2010) and that this recognition
can vary cross-culturally (Chudzicka-Czupa
ł
a et al., 2016). To make mat-
ters worse, students who engage in academic dishonesty may not feel
guilty about it through reducing the resulting cognitive dissonance
(Stephens, 2017). That is, engagement in dishonest behaviours leads to
psychological discomfort, which can be lowered by
changing cognitions
in order to believe that cheating is not so bad after all (i.e., I cheat, but I
am a good person; therefore, cheating is not that terrible). Technologi-
cal advances have provided some security features to educational
administrators (e.g., student authentication and authorship checking) to
minimize the risk of cheating, though there is still scepticism about the
effectiveness of technology in addressing the possibility of accessing
information from other people, from written documents, and from
internet sources during assessments (Mellar et al., 2018).
5
|
TH E PR E S E N T STUDY
The present study was conducted in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19
pandemic. Following recommendations by the World Health Organiza-
tion, the Saudi Ministry of Education suspended all face-to-face teach-
ing on the 9th of March 2020 after 11 cases of COVID-19 were
confirmed. That day coincided with midterm examinations at many
institutions, and so these institutions had to urgently look for alterna-
tives to resume uncompleted midterms and to conduct online classes
during the second half of the semester. Virtual classes were therefore
held, typically using Blackboard as the learning management system, to
ensure that the educational process continued as effectively as feasible.
As expected, a lot of confusion happened during this sudden transi-
tion. Faculty and students were wondering about various issues related
to the day-to-day educational process, such as assessment procedures,
availability of necessary hardware and software for students and
teachers, and whether daily attendance would be required as is the case
during regular semesters. Because education is centralized in Saudi Ara-
bia, all institutions had to wait for instructions from the Ministry of Edu-
cation. Around a month later, the Ministry announced a set of
instructions, including assigning 80% to coursework and only 20% to
final exams in all higher education courses in the country.
As explained above, the hurried and unanticipated switch to a
fully online environment was bound to disrupt educational quality.
4
AL SHLOWIY
ET AL
.
Both teachers and students had to start familiarizing themselves with
digital tools, a potentially frustrating experience. Teachers may not
have been as responsive to each individual student's needs and inqui-
ries, especially in large classes. As a result, teachers may have not
formed a clear picture of the difficulties students face during ERT. The
primary purpose of this study, therefore, was not to simply list the dif -
ficulties students experience in ERT, but to also find out the extent to
which teachers were able to recognize and appreciate these difficul-
ties. Without recognizing these difficulties, teachers may not be able
to address them effectively.
In order to investigate the correspondence between views held
by teachers and by students, we employed an instrument developed
by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998). Dörnyei and Csizér were interested in
investigating teacher motivational strategies. The researchers asked
to a group of teachers of English as a foreign language to rate the
importance of a set of motivational strategies. The researchers then
asked a second group of English language teachers to rate how fre-
quently they actually used each of these motivational strategies. This
approach allowed Dörnyei and Csizér to, first, determine what they
called the
10 commandments
for motivating language learners based
on importance rating and, second, to identify the underutilized ones
based on frequency rating.
In our case, we gave our instrument to both students and their
teachers. Students rated the severity of each ERT-related concern,
while their teachers rated how severe they perceived each concern to
be for their students. This design allowed us to examine and pinpoint
teacherstudent perception mismatch during ERT. More specifically,
we asked the following research questions:
RQ1. What are the top 10 concerns students have about ERT?
RQ2. How do teachers rate the top 10 concerns about ERT?
For these two research questions, we listed the 10 concerns rated
the highest by students, and then compared students' and teachers'
ratings of them. However, teachers might perceive additional con-
cerns that do not appear in this top 10 list. These concerns represent
teacher-perceived (potentially misperceived) concerns that students
may or may not actually have. In order to examine whether students
agreed that these were indeed concerns for them, we asked our third
research question:
RQ3. How do students rate the top teacher-perceived concerns
about ERT?
6
|
METHOD
6.1
|
Participants
A total of 735 participants took part in this study. Of these, 674 were
learners of English as a foreign language and 61 were teachers of
English. The learners (Mage = 22.9, SD = 3.69) were undergraduates
taking English courses at various Saudi universities and had to suddenly
shift to online learning during the middle of the semester. The teachers
(
M
age
= 42.8,
SD
= 8.45) were faculty members at these universities. As
is characteristic of English departments in Saudi Arabia, almost 80% of
the respondents were foreign nationals (11.3% instructors, 49.1% lec-
tu
re
rs
,
35
.
8
%
as
si
s
t
a
n
t
p
r
o
f
e
sso
r
s
,
3.
8%
a
sso
c
i
a
t
e
p
r
o
fe
sso
r
s
)
.
6.2
|
Instrument
For the purpose of this study, we developed an instrument rep-
resenting major potential problems students might experience during
ERT based on the instrument used by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998). As
an additional measure to ensure that these problems reflected the
experiences of Saudi students (our target population), we compiled
around 3000 public domain tweets from students, parents, and
teachers during this period. Twitter is a popular social media platform
in Saudi Arabia where students routinely voice their opinions, ques-
tions, and complaints anonymously in fear of retribution from their
institutions. Some tweets we collected were posted in response to
tweets by the Ministry of Education or by its Minister, while others
were found in relevant Twitter hashtags. We subjected these tweets
to a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) and extracted the main
themes emerging from the data. In total, we ended up with nine
themes reflecting challenges students faced. These themes were
related Internet connection, hardware, learning platform, lessons,
learners themselves, their teachers, institutional policies, learning out-
comes, and missing friends and face-to-face teaching (see Appendix).
We used these themes to create questionnaire items following
Dörnyei and Csizér's (1998) approach. Using a Likert-type response
scale, students participating in the present study were asked to rate
the extent to which each was a concern to them personally, while
their teachers were asked to rate the extent to which they perceived
each to be a concern for their students. More concretely, the first
question asked the respondent whether they were a student or a
teacher. Using skip logic, the respondent was then transferred to the
relevant survey. Thus, students for example responded to the item
Online learning is boring while teachers responded to Students
think that online learning is boring(see Appendix for the full
questionnaire).
6.3
|
Procedure
An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to the participants
through email and WhatsApp groups. Since WhatsApp is a popular
smartphone application in Saudi Arabia, most classes in higher educa-
tion created WhatsApp groups to facilitate communication among
students and with their teachers. Data collection took place during
the first 2 weeks of the final semester of the academic year 2019
2020, which was the time when face-to-face teaching was suspended
in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. IRB approval was obtained
from Majmaah University before data collection commenced.
5
TA BL E 1
Top 10 concerns according to students and according to teachers
Students'
concerns
Teachers' perception of Students' concerns
Concern
M
SD
Concern
M
SD
1.
Missing face-to-face teaching
3.61
1.12
1. Missing other students
3.75
1.01
2.
Afraid of losing marks
3.57
1.16
2.
Missing face-to-face teaching
3.72
0.95
3. Missing other students
3.50
1.21
3.
Face-to-face may be more effective
3.70
1.04
4. Afraid of getting a low GPA
3.47
1.22
4.
Cheating in exams
3.64
1.10
5.
Face-to-face may be more effective
3.38
1.28
5. Afraid of getting a low GPA
3.62
1.08
6.
Afraid of failure
3.36
1.09
6.
Afraid of losing marks
3.61
1.08
7.
Afraid of online assessments
3.28
1.22
7.
Afraid of failure
3.59
0.99
8.
Afraid of passing without prerequisite knowledge
3.27
1.26
8.
Not enough training on using the online platform
3.49
0.99
9.
Afraid of not understanding lessons
3.26
1.20
9.
Afraid of online assessments
3.44
0.99
10.
Online learning is boring
3.21
1.21
10.
Do not take online learning seriously
3.43
1.04
TA BL E 2
How students' concerns were rated by teachers
Concern
Group
M
SD
t
(
df
)
p
d
1.
Missing face-to-face teaching
Students
3.61
1.12
0.75(597)
0.447
0.11
Teachers
3.72
0.95
2.
Afraid of losing marks
Students
3.57
1.16
0.23(597)
0.818
0.04
Teachers
3.61
1.08
3.
Missing other students
Students
3.50
1.21
1.85(81)
0.068
0.22
Teachers
3.75
1.01
4.
Afraid of getting a low GPA
Students
3.47
1.22
1.02(79)
0.312
0.13
Teachers
3.62
1.08
5.
Face-to-face may be more effective
Students
3.38
1.28
2.24(83)
0.028
0.27
Teachers
3.70
1.04
6.
Afraid of failure
Students
3.36
1.09
1.58(597)
0.115
0.22
Teachers
3.59
0.99
7.
Afraid of online assessments
Students
3.28
1.22
1.21(83)
0.232
0.14
Teachers
3.44
0.99
8.
Afraid of passing without prerequisite knowledge
Students
3.27
1.26
2.20(93)
0.030
0.25
Teachers
3.00
0.86
9.
Afraid of not understanding lessons
Students
3.26
1.20
0.13(597)
0.899
0.02
Teachers
3.28
1.03
10.
Online learning is boring
Students
3.21
1.21
2.27(82)
0.026
0.28
Teachers
2.90
0.98
Note: Bonferroni-corrected significance level = 0.005.
7
|
RESU L T S
7.1
|
RQ1. Top 10 concerns
Table 1 presents the 10 concerns rated most highly by students. The
students indicated that they missed face-to-face teaching and other
students. They were also concerned that online teaching might not be
as effective as face-to-face teaching. They also expressed fears about
the negative consequences of the sudden shift to online teaching.
More specifically, they were worried that they may not understand
the lessons fully, lose marks, fail, and eventually get a low GPA. They
were additionally concerned that, even if they passed, they might not
be well-prepared for more advanced courses.
The teachers recognized most of these concerns. As Table 1
shows, although there was a substantial overlap between the two sets
of concerns, there were also some interesting discrepancies. The
teachers did not seem as concerned as students were about how bor-
ing online lessons can be. The teachers were additionally concerned
6
AL SHLOWIY
ET AL
.
TA BL E 3
How teachers' perceived concerns were rated by students
Concern
Group
M
SD
t
(
df
)
p
d
1. Cheating
Students
2.84
1.24
4.79(597)
<0.001
0.68
Teachers
3.64
1.10
2.
Not enough training on using the online platform
Students
2.83
1.15
4.91(78)
<0.001
0.62
Teachers
3.49
0.99
3.
Do not take online learning seriously
Students
2.84
1.20
4.08(80)
<0.001
0.53
Teachers
3.43
1.04
Note: Bonferroni-corrected significance level = 0.017.
about students not having enough technical knowledge, cheating in
online exams, and not taking online teaching seriously.
7.2
|
RQ2. Teachers' ratings of students' concerns
For this research question, we conducted
t
-tests
1
to examine whether
teachers were able to recognize the top 10 concerns by students. As
Table 2 shows, teachers were indeed able to recognize students' con-
cerns. The only significant differences were related to the effective-
ness of face-to-face teaching, passing without prerequisite
knowledge, and boredom. However, none of these three differences
reached the Bonferroni-corrected significance level, and their effect
sizes were relatively small (ds = 0.250.28). Thus, these results sug-
gest that, overall, teachers had little trouble appreciating their stu-
dents' concerns about ERT.
7.3
|
RQ3. Students' ratings of teacher-perceived
concerns
Three concerns that teachers expressed did not appear in the top
10 concerns expressed by students. This research question investi-
gated whether students agreed that these teacher-perceived concerns
were concerns they indeed had. The results presented in Table 3
show that three concerns were highly significant and exceeded the
Bonferroni-corrected level. Teachers thought that ERT would give
students the opportunity to cheat, that students would not take
online teaching seriously, and that students would require training on
using online platforms. Students disagreed with these statements. The
effect sizes were relatively sizable (
d
s = 0.530.65).
8
|
DIS C USS I ON
The purpose of this study was to investigate teacherstudent percep-
tion mismatch during ERT. Considering that teachers and students can
no longer meet and communicate face-to-face, the risk of misunder-
standing and miscommunication increases. When this happens,
teachers may not recognize their students' difficulties in order to
address them, and may instead waste time on issues students do not
consider as major or urgent. This situation can demotivate students and
lower their acceptance of technology. The likelihood of this situation
increases considering that teachers are suddenly expected to design
full-length courses online, in many cases practically alone from home,
within a short period of time, and in a constantly evolving environment.
As reviewed above, Technology Acceptance Model and its exten-
sions have been criticized on a number of grounds (Bagozzi, 2007;
Lim, 2018; Venkatesh, 2015; Venkatesh et al., 2012). In our study, we
argued that an important dimension that any model of technology
acceptance needs to take into account is teachers' (and not only stu-
dents') perceptions and extent of their acceptance of technology, as
well as possible teacherstudent acceptance mismatch. Teachers rep-
resent a major player in the learning arena, and therefore their own
perceptions of the usefulness of technology and its ease of use matter
and colour their students' perceptions. If teachers do not have ade-
quate training or trust in the effectiveness of technology in their par-
ticular contexts, this attitude may be reflected on their students.
Within the context of ERT, teachers' mistrust of the effectiveness of
technology may increase as this period may be considered as a pass-
ing, makeshift phase before
normal
teaching resumes.
Our results showed that there are both matches and mismatches
in teachers' and students' perceptions. Starting with matters that
teachers did recognize, it was interesting that the top two concerns
were related to emotions (missing other students; missing face-to-
face teaching). The fact that both students and their teachers agreed
that a major consequence of suspending face-to-face teaching was
that students would miss their friends and regular teaching under-
scores the emotional dimension of language learning (Al-Hoorie, 2017;
Dewaele et al., 2019). This also points to the role of creating, cultivat -
ing, and sustaining a sense of identity and belonging to an online com-
munity and a sense of group solidarity to promote active and
meaningful learning (Dewaele et al., 2018; Kebritchi et al., 2017;
McInnerney & Roberts, 2004). The teachers also recognized the nega-
tive impact the new situation could have on students' language
achievement, including not understanding lessons and consequently
losing marks, failing and getting lower GPAs. All this suggests that the
language teachers were able to appreciate their students' concerns.
In terms of discrepancies, the results showed that teachers
expressed additional concerns that were not perceived as such by the
students themselves. From students' perspective, in other words,
teachers appeared too concerned. One such overconcern is that
7
students need more training to use learning management systems.
Indeed, it would make sense to expect this generation of students to be
tech-savvy, perhaps even more so than their teachers (Al Shlowiy &
Lidawan, 2019; Al-Hoorie, 2019). One possible explanation for
teachers' low expectations of students is that, when some students
approach their teachers for help with technical problems, teachers tend
to overgeneralize technological deficiency to all students, as teachers
have no direct interaction with them. In some cases, students may only
need assistance in a relation to a specific task (e.g., submitting an
assignment). Furthermore, even if it turns out students do indeed need
additional technical training, what matters in the end is
perceived
ease
of use, not actual ease of use. Students who are confident in their tech-
nical ability but then experience some difficulties are likely to consider
these difficulties transient and surmountable and consequently persist
(Yun et al., 2018) and seek assistance (Bandura, 1997).
The second discrepancy is found in relation to the possibility of
cheating in online assessments. Teachers believed that students were
likely to take the shift to online assessment as an opportunity to cheat,
while students denied that. The most straightforward explanation that
some might have for this discrepancy is that students were simply lying.
However, this explanation assumes that close to 700 students at differ-
ent institutions replying to an anonymous research survey conspired
to conceal their dishonesty. To be sure, this is not an unlikely scenario
considering the confusion and anxiety the sudden shift to ERT had cau-
sed, and considering that students might be concerned that the results
of this very research might indirectly backfire on them when institutions
start adopting stricter anti-cheating policies and procedures. This situa-
tion could cause cognitive dissonance (see Stephens, 2017) and moral
disengagement (Bandura, 2016) where students believe that some
forms of cheating is not that unethical after all. In addition, part of this
discrepancy might be attributed to teachers and students having differ-
ent conceptualizations of cheating. Although students generally recog-
nize cheating as unethical and as against institutional policies (McCabe
et al., 2001), teachers might have a more fine-tuned conception of
cheating. Certain forms of subtle cheating, for example, might not be
recognized as such by some students.
Therefore, it is essential for institutions to take serious measures
to address cheating and other forms of academic dishonesty. Aca-
demic honesty is a harbinger of things to come, a reflection of the
general mores that society is passing on to the next generation
(McCabe et al., 2012, p. 3). One strategy that has not been effectively
integrated in the Saudi educational system is developing honour
codes and a culture of academic integrity. As reviewed by McCabe
et al. (2001), evidence suggests that instituting honour codes can
serve as a deterrent against engaging in dishonest behaviours. Ideally,
this honour code should be accompanied by a program involving ori-
entation sessions and initiation ceremonies to help instill a stronger
culture of academic integrity within the institution. Otherwise, institu-
tions risk having cheating behaviour normalized by students through
peer pressure, which may be the most significant factor damaging aca-
demic integrity (see McCabe et al., 2001).
The final discrepancy our results revealed was whether students
take online learning seriously. Teachers reported that students did not
take ERT seriously whereas students disputed that. Again, instead of
taking the shortcut of accusing students of misrepresenting reality, it
is possible that there is a mismatch of ideals. Teachers might have
higher expectations of what a serious student should do. On the other
hand, the typical student has to juggle multiple courses at the same
time, each with its requirements. Faculty members, especially in
higher education, do not usually coordinate with each other the timing
and difficulty level of their tasks and assignments throughout the
semesterexcept perhaps the timing of official institution-wide exams
like midterms and finals. In addition to mismatch in the definition of
the serious student, in order to objectively evaluate seriousness,
teachers should have detailed, step-by-step online tasks that students
have to progress through throughout the semester (Anderson et
al., 2011; Kebritchi et al., 2017). Due to the unexpected nature of ERT
during COVID-19 pandemic, most institutions had to struggle to
cover
the basics of the required learning material, let alone prepare a
more
comprehensive program on a task-by-task basis. This detailed
program would additionally have to be motivating to allow optimal
engagement (Alharbi & Al-Hoorie, 2020; Ibrahim & Al-Hoorie, 2019)
while students are studying from home, where there may be more dis-
tractors than in college dorms. Without a program with these charac-
teristics, it would not be straightforward to give an objective verdict
about how serious students are.
Going back to the Technology Acceptance Model, our results sug-
gest that resistance to technology in the present context seems to
stem more from teachers than from students. This supports our earlier
argument that a better understanding of technology acceptance
should account for both students' and teachers' perceptions. There-
fore, an important task for future technology acceptance research is
to also uncover teachers' perceived usefulness and perceived ease of
use in relation to themselves and to their students; the amount of mis-
match between teachers' and students' perceptions, its causes, and its
impact; and what interventions are effective in what contexts and for
what types of mismatch.
9
|
CONCLUSIO N
In this study, our goal was to pinpoint the areas of mismatch between
students and teachers during ERT. Our results suggest that a large
proportion of this mismatch can be resolved by providing clear
instructions and guidelines of what students should and should not do
and how during online learning. For example, students should be
informed about technical skills they need and how to develop them,
what constitutes academic dishonesty and how to avoid it, and what
tasks students need to perform to learn the material throughout the
semester. Without a high level of clarity, the risk of miscommunica-
tion increases. Teachers may, for instance, conflate some students'
puzzlement about what to do in the course or their genuine need for
additional support with mere lack of seriousness.
We agree with Hodges et al. (2020) that the creation of online con-
tent should be seen only as a small part of the overall picture. Students
need a lot more support and resources to succeed in their education,
8
AL SHLOWIY
ET AL
.
and teachers and administrators need to have an accurate understand-
ing of these evolving needs. In Hodges et al.'s (2020) words,
Consider how much infrastructure exists around face-
to-face education that supports student success:
library resources, housing, career services, health ser-
vices, and so on. Face-to-face education is not success-
ful because lecturing is good. Lectures are one
instructional aspect of an overall ecosystem specifically
designed to support learners with formal, informal, and
social resources. Ultimately, effective online education
requires an investment in an ecosystem of learner sup-
ports, which take time to identify and build. Relative to
other options, simple online content delivery can be
quick and inexpensive, but confusing that with robust
online education is akin to confusing lectures with the
totality of residential education.
We also argued that part of technology acceptance is teachers'
acceptance and trust in technology. Teachers' endorsement and enthu-
siasm about technology and its role in the education process will likely
play a key role in how this technology is perceived by their students.
Looking only at students' acceptance may give an incomplete picture.
CO N F LICT OF I N T E RES T
No conflict of interest has been declared by the authors.
DA T A A V AIL A B ILIT Y STAT E M ENT
The data that support the findings of this study are openly available at
www.osf.io/4f6b9.
OR CID
Ahmed
Al
Shlowiy
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8441-1987
Ali H. Al-Hoorie
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3810-5978
Mohammed
Alharbi
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5548-2340
EN DNO TE
1 Because our items are ordinal (five-point Likerts), the standard proce-
dure is to use nonparametric tests. However, simulation research by de
Winter and Dodou (2010) has shown that the two procedures have simi-
lar power and lead to similar conclusions most of the time. Also, the
results of parametric and nonparametric tests were comparable for our
data. We therefore report the results of t-tests.
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How to cite this article: Al Shlowiy A, Al-Hoorie AH,
Alharbi M. Discrepancy between language learners and
teachers concerns about emergency remote teaching.
J Comput Assist Learn
. 2021;111. https://doi.org/10.1111/
jcal.12543
10
AL SHLOWIY
ET AL
.
AP P ENDIX : QUE S T I ONNA I R E IT EMS
Internet issues
I have no internet Students have no internet
My internet is slow
Students' internet is slow
My internet disconnects
Students' internet disconnects
Hardware issues
I do not have a computer or smartphone Some students do not have a computer or smartphone
Online learning costs too much money (devices and internet) Online learning costs too much money for students (devices and internet)
Learner issues
I have problems with my daily routine (e.g., bedtime and
studying)
Students have problems with their daily routine (e.g., bedtime and studying)
Online learning is boring Students think that online learning is boring
I feel tired of online learning Students feel tired because of online learning
I am not serious about online learning Students are not serious about online learning
Teacher issues
Teachers do not follow the course description Students think that teachers do not follow the course description
I cannot find contact information of teachers Students cannot find the contact information of teachers
Teachers are not available to help me Students think that teachers are not available to help them
Exam system is not clear Students think that exam system is not clear
Course goals are not clear Students think that course goals are not clear
I am forced to self-study Students think that they are forced to self-study
Teachers are not well-trained for online teaching Students think that teachers are not well-trained for online teaching
Institution issues
I am confused because my teachers use different teaching
methods
I am confused because of rumours about what will happen
with online learning
Teachers are not clear in their procedures (some are too strict;
some are not)
Students are confused because their teachers use different teaching methods
Students are confused because there are many rumours about what will happen
with online learning
Students think that teachers are not clear in their procedures (some are too
strict; some are not)
My university is not ready for online teaching Students think that the university is not ready for online teaching
There is not enough technical support
I do not have enough training on how to use Blackboard
It is not clear to students how to log in
Students do not have enough training on how to use Blackboard
Student version Teacher version
Teacher's accent is not clear
The number of lessons is not enough
courses
Live lessons are too long or too short
11
Learning outcomes issues
I am afraid of failure Students are afraid of failure
I am afraid of losing marks Students are afraid of losing marks
I am afraid of getting a low GPA
Students are afraid of getting a low GPA
I am afraid of moving to the next course without enough
knowledge
Students are afraid of moving to the next course without enough knowledge
I am afraid of online exams and assignments Students are afraid of exams and assignments
I am afraid of not understanding online lessons Students are afraid of not understanding online lessons
I learn better from face-to-face teaching than online teaching Students think that they learn better from face-to-face teaching than online
teaching
I can copy exam answers from online sources Students can copy exam answers from online sources
Student version Teacher version
Nostalgia
... This situation naturally brought many problems such as the lack of infrastructure for online education in a lot of countries, unequal access to technological tools by students, inexperienced staff, and so on. In addition, how long online education was going to last was unknown to everyone (Al Shlowiy et al., 2021). Psychological problems, emotional burdens, and increasing stress and anxiety were serious issues for students and teachers, and they were "as contagious as the Coronavirus" (Bozkurt et al., 2020, p. 11). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This explanatory sequential mixed methods study investigated beginning and experienced English language instructors’ emotions that they demonstrated, emotional labor strategies they used during interaction with their students, and the effects of years of experience on them during the COVID-19 pandemic were investigated. The setting for the study was English language preparatory schools of state and foundation universities located in Ankara, Turkey. One hundred fifty-six participants took part in the quantitative study and responded to an online questionnaire that addressed instructors’ positive and negative emotions and emotional labor strategies. Follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants. Quantitative findings were given priority in this study. Quantitative data analysis, which included descriptive statistics, paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test, and MANOVA, was performed via IBM SPSS (28) while the qualitative data analysis was conducted manually according to the thematic analysis approach. Findings revealed that the participants demonstrated significantly more frequent positive emotions than negative ones. They also used expressing genuine emotions emotional labor strategy more than surface acting and deep acting. Years of experience had a significant effect on the experience of negative emotions. It also influenced the use of expressing genuine emotions and surface acting strategies. The answers to the research questions were elaborated on via the qualitative findings by extracting eight themes after the verbatim transcriptions of the interviews and the coding processes.
... Presentations can also help to create a sense of community, which is even more important during remote delivery. Regarding tests and academic integrity, Al Shlowiy et al. (2021) found a disconnect between students and faculty on whether online assessments elevated opportunities for academic misconduct, with the latter group expressing significantly more concern. Dendir and Maxwell (2020) explored the prevalence of cheating without online proctoring software and found that without monitored proctoring students' exams were higher by a full letter grade. ...
Article
The world-wide pivot to remote learning due to the exogenous shocks of COVID-19 across educational institutions has presented unique challenges and opportunities. This study documents the lived experiences of instructors and students and recommends emerging pathways for teaching and learning strategies post-pandemic. Seventy-one instructors and 122 students completed online surveys containing closed and open-ended questions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted, including frequencies, chi-square tests, Welch Two-Samples t-tests, and thematic analyses. The results demonstrated that with effective online tools, remote learning could replicate key components of content delivery, activities, assessments, and virtual proctored exams. However, instructors and students did not want in-person learning to disappear and recommended flexibility by combining learning opportunities in in-person, online, and asynchronous course deliveries according to personal preferences. The paper concludes with future directions and how the findings influenced our planning for Fall 2021 delivery. The video abstract for this article is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F48KBg_d8AE.
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The spread of Covid-19 in Indonesia has an impact on the country's educational system. Face-to-face instruction is being replaced by full-fledged online learning from the comfort of one's own home. This study was conducted to determine the challenges of online learning on EFL students. A qualitative method was applied in this study. The data for this study was gathered through interviews and documentation. EFL students from the English education department at Universitas San Pedro in the first semester were the focus of this study. The findings of this study revealed that students faced a variety of challenges while learning online, including internet data, internet connection, difficulty completing assignments, intrusion, a lack of prior experience with technology, comprehension of EFL lessons, and interaction between students and lecturers. On the other hand, students have reported feelings of dissatisfaction and unhappiness as a result of their online learning.
Article
Purpose: This study seeks to identify the EFL students’ satisfaction with the online courses they took within the scope of hybrid education in the post-pandemic period and their attitudes towards e-learning, and to determine whether there is a relationship between these two variables. Design/Methodology/Approach: Students studying in Iğdır University English Language and Literature Undergraduate Program in the spring semester of the 2021-2022 academic year constitute the population of this research. Since there are online courses at all levels, including the preparatory program in the department, all of the department students were included in the research and in order to collect the research data, the Online Course Satisfaction Scale and the Attitudes towards E-learning Scale were administered at four levels (Preparation, 1st, 2nd, and 3. Grades) of the program. The data obtained were transferred to the SPSS program and descriptive and inferential analyzes were carried out. Findings: The research findings indicated that the students were moderately satisfied with their experiences in online courses and they had mildly positive attitudes towards e-learning. The students’ satisfaction was not affected by their gender, nor their perceived L2 proficiency, but by the year of study, juniors and preparatory year students having the highest satisfaction means. As regards the learner attitudes, male students had significantly more positive attitudes towards e-learning than females and the sophomores and juniors reported more positive attitudes than students at other levels. A statistically significant relationship between online course satisfaction and attitudes towards e-learning was identified as a result of the analyses. Highlights: The moderate satisfaction and attitude levels found as a result of the study suggest that the challenges the students encountered during the emergency remote teaching might be continuing in hybrid education practices. The implementation of more solid, realistic and systematic program evaluation is suggested in order to mitigate the factors adversely affecting EFL students’ satisfaction and attitudes towards e-learning.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted English language teaching (ELT) in many ways, and it has pushed language educators to the limit. Due to the shift to virtual education, the non-mediated in-person support that many instructors used to acknowledge their students’ needs, is no longer available. A question of significant relevance to this ongoing emergency shift is: How do English language instructors differentiate remote instruction? Differentiated Remote Instruction (DRI) is the pedagogical approach that is needed for successful e-learning and remote teaching. Guided by three main research questions, this study examines the adoption and challenges of differentiated remote instruction (DRI) in online classrooms by English language college instructors during COVID-19 in the Saudi context. The study adopted a mixed-methods approach, and the examination is based on online surveys filled out by 172 English language instructors and a thematic analysis of six semi-structured interviews. Analysis has yielded interesting findings on the differentiation practices and challenges among virtual language instructors. Findings show that there are some factors related to 1) students; 2) instructors; and 3) technological issues that affect and challenge the implementation of DRI in EFL virtual classrooms. Moreover, despite the DRI challenges faced by the EFL instructors, they did attempt to find methods to deal with them. These methods were related to effective teaching through online platforms (LMS), early diagnosis and interventions for problem and weak learners, specific tailoring of lessons and activities, and dedicating one-on-one online sessions for students in need.
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The learning process during Covid-19 pandemic has witnessed significant changes in the modes of instruction, with E-learning emerging as an absolute path in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learning. The current study seeks to investigate the perspectives of Saudi EFL students with regard to e-learning during the pandemic and the challenges encountered. The significance of this study stems from the importance of integrating e-learning into language learning in a methodological way with the proper planning of activities, technologies, and tutors and students’ skills. The participants of this study consisted of Saudi EFL learners in two Saudi universities, namely King Saud University and King Khalid University, who study in the department of English language. The sample consisted of (53) students who study in their fourth year and who were selected randomly from the department of English language. The research results demonstrated that the perceptions of the students of e-learning during the Covid-19 pandemic were positive because they see that e-learning makes learning easier, especially in the student-instructor interaction, as well as using various teaching styles and assessment methods and they participated in making the students prefer e-learning in their future education. However, the students reported that they do not have all the technical skills needed for e-learning and that they face technical problems and a lack of social relations during online learning. Based on these results, the researcher recommended training the students on e-learning skills and platforms and providing them with the required technologies for the effective adoption of e-learning.
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Communication skills in English are essential in global relations. The media get relevant and needed information. In practice, improving communication skills in English requires learning media as a tool. This study aims to develop digital comic media and their influence on improving communication skills. This research used a method with the gradual development of ADDIE: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. After being validated by media experts and material experts, the development results show that digital comic meets the criteria as media. In addition, the results of testing the application of digital comic media in learning English found that the communication skills were better by the increase in the ability to guess, arrange arguments, formulate definitions, and generalize. Applying digital comic media to improve communication skills can be a reference in learning English.
Article
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Aim. Foreign language education widely utilizes various forms of eLearning or blended learning techniques and tools, and this trend has recently been supported and speeded up by the global pandemics of COVID-19. The study attempts to analyse the students’ experience with the use of digital media used for foreign language education with the aim of providing clear implications needed for future digital (online) language higher education. Methodology. The methodology used to collect data was a questionnaire distributed online to the students of the University of Diyala in Iraq in July 2021 with n=394 making it a very representative and statistically relevant sample. Five hypotheses (H) were created and tested with these results. (H1) there is no correlation between a well-prepared teacher and subjective satisfaction of the students with online classes. (H2) the students will significantly prefer traditional teaching to online L2 acquisition. (H3) there will be a correlation between increased screen time and students´ dissatisfaction with online learning. (H4) the more they have to use digital media, the more they will prefer print text for their L2 acquisition. (H5) the most important subjectively perceived negative aspect of online learning will be reduced communication possibilities both with the tutor and with their peers. Results. The students significantly supported traditional foreign language techniques over digital ones despite the fact that the tutors were evaluated with very high grades by the students. Thus, the fact that the tutors are well prepared, they use modern technology and attempt to motivate the students very successfully, the final result of the online foreign language class did not prove to be parallel to the traditional class regarding students´ satisfaction. Conclusions. The results could be important for applied linguistics and psycholinguistics as they provide a clear overview of the current state of affairs in L2 acquisition with the use of digital technologies, which is a crucial topic that is more and more important for the development of both psycholinguistics and applied linguistics. Despite the fact that this study deals only with the subjective satisfaction of the participants, it can be generalized and can be transferrable on a large geographical scale. This geographical limitation can be rectified by larger-scale research that can be initiated by this early study. There are many implications connected to these findings, such as moving towards non-digital learning tools, such as print textbooks, focusing on more personal discussions rather than just various online assignments. Moreover, the results of the study should be a contribution to the current scientific discussion about the development of psycholinguodidactics and its role in solving the problem of mastering foreign languages.
Article
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The researchers investigated the advantages and disadvantages of the sudden shift to e-learning from the perspectives of Saudi EFL students during COVID-19. That shift was the only learning option for a long time to come after the existence of new variants of the virus. Studying students' perspectives during the pandemic was important to display how they took responsibility for their learning, interact with the teachers, and collaborate. The researchers performed this study to describe: (a) EFL students' perspectives on e-learning, (b) advantages of e-learning for EFL, and (c) disadvantages of e-learning for EFL in Saudi Arabia during Coronavirus variants. A self-devised questionnaire and individual interviews were administered virtually during COVID-19 with male EFL students while they were studying an integrated-skills English course as an intermediate-level course in the PYP of a Saudi university. Using the Constant Comparative Method to analyze the qualitative data resulted in eight benefits and four drawbacks of e-learning for the Saudi EFL context. Most students viewed that e-learning and Social Media as supporting platforms of their learning while a few of them did not think favorably of e-learning. Recommendations were offered to enhance the benefits and decrease the drawbacks.
Book
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This book defines engagement for the field of language learning and contextualizes it within existing work on the psychology of language learning and teaching. Chapters address broad substantive questions concerned with what engagement is or looks like, and how it can be theorized for the language classroom; methodological questions related to the design, measurement and analysis of engagement in language classrooms and beyond; as well as applied issues examining its antecedents, factors inhibiting and enhancing it, and conditions fostering the reengagement of language learners who have become disengaged. Through a mix of conceptual and empirical chapters, the book explores similarities and differences between motivation and engagement and addresses questions of whether, how and why learners actually do exert effort, allocate attention, participate and become involved in tangible language learning and use. It will serve as an authoritative benchmark for future theoretical and empirical research into engagement within the classroom and beyond, and will be of interest to anyone wishing to understand the unique insights and contributions the topic of engagement can make to language learning and teaching.
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The 40 th anniversary of the Journal of Language and Social Psychology occurs around the corner of another anniversary, the language motivation field reaching 60 years. At this occasion, we pause to reflect on the contribution of language motivation research to language teaching practice. We argue that this contribution has been negligible and put forward two main reasons. The first is related to an identity crisis in the language motivation field, falling at the intersection of applied linguistics, education, and psychology; the second is the marginalization of the role of context. To address these issues, we first present insights from two perspectives-sociocultural theory and complex dynamic systems theory-and then propose three solutions to incorporate these insights: 1) moving from the abstract notion of "motivation" to the more tangible construct of "engagement", 2) encouraging rigorous transdisciplinary research, and 3) taking advantage of the potential of artificial intelligence to translate research findings into practice.
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Although an important goal of learner peer feedback is promoting critical thinking, little attention has been paid to the nature of the topic, particularly whether it is controversial. In this article, we report on a study where 52 English majors were asked to comment on essays written by their peers using the PeerMark module of Turnitin. Half of the essays were about controversial topics in the Saudi society (e.g., women driving and banning cigarettes), whereas the other half were less controversial (e.g., importance of sleep and respecting parents). Our results showed that the participants provided significantly more critical, global comments on controversial essays. At the same time, this increase in global comments did not come at the expense of local, language-related comments-in that the participants did not provide significantly fewer language comments on controversial essays. The participants also reported favorable attitudes toward this task due to the convenience and anonymity of online feedback, thus allowing them to express their opinions more freely on controversial topics. We therefore concluded that utilizing an online platform that permits double-blind peer review on controversial essays seems to have to the potential to stimulate critical thinking among language learners.
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Well-planned online learning experiences are meaningfully different from courses offered online in response to a crisis or disaster. Colleges and universities working to maintain instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic should understand those differences when evaluating this emergency remote teaching.
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This article centers on the development of multimedia and technology that proliferates around 21st century English language learners creating a media—rich environment, but accessibility of these may not be similar on how other learners may benefit. This imparts how learners benefit indiscriminately through integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) with pragmatic tasks from authentic materials incorporating digital taxonomy. As adapted methods, a rigid review of related studies and practical examples to underpin three conceptualized techniques. These were subjected for exemplification in the discussion: (a) producing varied independent outputs through different materials, (b) creating a single independent output through intertwined task from a single material, and (c) producing varied independent outputs from varied tasks through a single material. It is recommended that researches alluding to this paper must be conducted quantitatively to find out the correlation or significance of students’ critical thinking achievement with the engagement of digital taxonomy such as what Cotton (1991) emphasized that Computer Assisted Instruction aids the development of students’ critical thinking in which learners’ Higher Order Thinking skills (HOTs) activities are generated from varied computer manipulation. She further supported her study and claims through experimental researches conducted by Bass and Perkins (1984); Riding and Powell (1987); Pogrow (1988) and Baum (1990) that tend to be dominant manifestations prior to the formal discovery of digital taxonomy, its importance has been pioneered by several scholars.
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The present contribution offers an overview of a new area of research in the field of foreign language acquisition, which was triggered by the introduction of Positive Psychology (PP) (MacIntyre and Gregersen, 2012). For many years, a cognitive perspective had dominated research in applied linguistics. Around the turn of the millennium researchers became increasingly interested in the role of emotions in foreign language learning and teaching, beyond established concepts like foreign language anxiety and constructs like motivation and attitudes toward the foreign language. As a result, a more nuanced understanding of the role of positive and negative learner and teacher emotions emerged, underpinned by solid empirical research using a wide range of epistemological and methodological approaches. PP interventions have been carried out in schools and universities to strengthen learners and teachers' experiences of flow, hope, courage, well-being, optimism, creativity, happiness, grit, resilience, strengths, and laughter with the aim of enhancing learners' linguistic progress. This paper distinguishes the early period in the field that started with MacIntyre and Gregersen (2012), like a snowdrop after winter, and that was followed by a number of early studies in relatively peripheral journals. We argue that 2016 is the starting point of the current period, characterized by gradual recognition in applied linguistics, growing popularity of PP, and an exponential increase in publications in more mainstream journals. This second period could be compared to a luxuriant English garden in full bloom.
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A respectable amount of work dealing with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) clearly indicates a popularity of TAM in the field of technology acceptance in general. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in existing knowledge regarding representative academic literature that underlie research on TAM in educational context. The main objective of this systematic literature review is to provide an overview of the current state of research efforts on TAM application in the field of learning and teaching for a variety of learning domains, learning technologies and types of users. Through systematic search by the use of EBSCO Discovery Service, the review has identified 71 relevant studies ranged between 2003 and 2018. The main findings indicate that TAM and its many different versions represent a credible model for facilitating assessment of diverse learning technologies. TAM's core variables, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, have been proven to be antecedent factors affecting acceptance of learning with technology. The paper identifies some gaps in current work and suggests areas for further investigation. The results of this systematic review provide a better understanding of TAM acceptance studies in educational context and create a firm foundation for advancing knowledge in the field. Practitioner Notes What is already known about this topic Technology acceptance research in teaching and learning context has become an attractive trend. A number of reviews and meta‐analysis focused on specific topics related to technology acceptance in education have been conducted. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is the key model in understanding predictors of human behaviour towards potential acceptance or rejection of the technology. What this paper adds The state of current research on Technology Acceptance Model application in educational context lacks comprehensive reviews addressing variety of learning domains, learning technologies and types of users. The paper presents systematic review of relevant academic literature on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the field of learning and teaching. The paper provides empirical evidence on the predictive validity of the models based on TAM presented in selected literature. The findings revealed that TAM, along with its many different versions called TAM++, is a leading scientific paradigm and credible model for facilitating assessment of diverse technological deployments in educational context. TAM's core variables, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, have been proven to be antecedent factors that have affected acceptance of learning with technology. Implications for practice and/or policy The systematic review adds to the body of knowledge and creates a firm foundation for advancing knowledge in the field. By following the most common research objectives and/or by filling current gaps in applied research methods, chosen sample groups and types of result analysis, an own study could be conducted. Future research may well focus on identifying additional external factors that could further explain acceptance and usage of various learning technologies. What is already known about this topic Technology acceptance research in teaching and learning context has become an attractive trend. A number of reviews and meta‐analysis focused on specific topics related to technology acceptance in education have been conducted. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is the key model in understanding predictors of human behaviour towards potential acceptance or rejection of the technology. What this paper adds The state of current research on Technology Acceptance Model application in educational context lacks comprehensive reviews addressing variety of learning domains, learning technologies and types of users. The paper presents systematic review of relevant academic literature on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the field of learning and teaching. The paper provides empirical evidence on the predictive validity of the models based on TAM presented in selected literature. The findings revealed that TAM, along with its many different versions called TAM++, is a leading scientific paradigm and credible model for facilitating assessment of diverse technological deployments in educational context. TAM's core variables, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, have been proven to be antecedent factors that have affected acceptance of learning with technology. Implications for practice and/or policy The systematic review adds to the body of knowledge and creates a firm foundation for advancing knowledge in the field. By following the most common research objectives and/or by filling current gaps in applied research methods, chosen sample groups and types of result analysis, an own study could be conducted. Future research may well focus on identifying additional external factors that could further explain acceptance and usage of various learning technologies.
Book
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This book provides practical guidance on research methods and designs that can be applied to Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) research. It discusses the contribution of CDST to the field of applied linguistics, examines what this perspective entails for research and introduces practical methods and templates, both qualitative and quantitative, for how applied linguistics researchers can design and conduct research using the CDST framework. Introduced in the book are methods ranging from those in widespread use in social complexity, to more familiar methods in use throughout applied linguistics. All are inherently suited to studying both dynamic change in context and interconnectedness. This accessible introduction to CDST research will equip readers with the knowledge to ensure compatibility between empirical research designs and the theoretical tenets of complexity. It will be of value to researchers working in the areas of applied linguistics, language pedagogy and educational linguistics and to scholars and professionals with an interest in second/foreign language acquisition and complexity theory.
Conference Paper
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There is a growing body of evidence that cheating and plagiarism are prominent problems in many universities. In informal conversations, it seems that different students perceive plagiarism differently. In this paper, we conducted a survey at Howard University to examine or to follow up with this growing trend. Specifically, team leaders in school of business were surveyed early in the Spring Semester of 2010 at a meeting and Freshmen were given the same survey at the end of the semester after their final examination. From the data generated in this survey, we determined the prevalence of cheating and the reasons why students cheat. This report is of great importance because it exposes the extent of academic dishonesty and, if successfully implemented, it could provide resources that would aid universities in solving the cheating problem.
Article
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Flow refers to a special experience of total absorption in one task. Sustained flow (also known as directed motivational currents) is the occurrence of flow in a series of tasks aimed at achieving a certain outcome (for example improving proficiency in a second language). In this article, we investigate shared, sustained flow—which occurs when a group of individuals working collaboratively experience sustained flow. Interviews were conducted with five participants (two teachers and three students) to find out the conditions perceived to have facilitated this experience during pre-sessional language courses at two British universities. The results point to three main conditions: forming a group identity, attaching personal value and providing partial autonomy. We discuss how teachers can apply these findings to design motivational out-of-class activities.