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Abstract

Background and Purpose Dural arteriovenous fistulae can present with hemorrhage, but there remains a paucity of data regarding subsequent outcomes. We sought to use the CONDOR (Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research), a multi-institutional registry, to characterize the morbidity and mortality of dural arteriovenous fistula–related hemorrhage. Methods A retrospective review of patients in CONDOR who presented with dural arteriovenous fistula–related hemorrhage was performed. Patient characteristics, clinical follow-up, and radiographic details were analyzed for associations with poor outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale score ≥3). Results The CONDOR dataset yielded 262 patients with incident hemorrhage, with median follow-up of 1.4 years. Poor outcome was observed in 17.0% (95% CI, 12.3%–21.7%) at follow-up, including a 3.6% (95% CI, 1.3%–6.0%) mortality. Age and anticoagulant use were associated with poor outcome on multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 1.04, odds ratio, 5.1 respectively). Subtype of hemorrhage and venous shunting pattern of the lesion did not affect outcome significantly. Conclusions Within the CONDOR registry, dural arteriovenous fistula–related hemorrhage was associated with a relatively lower morbidity and mortality than published outcomes from other arterialized cerebrovascular lesions but still at clinically consequential rates.

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... However, it is impossible to know the dynamic formation process because the entity of the lesion is already formed when the patient is presented and diagnosed. Current views tend to define DAVF as an acquired disease, which is closely related to the inflammatory microenvironment after venous hypertension and hypoxia (120)(121)(122)(123). Cytokines related to neovascularization are the main pathologic findings. ...
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In recent years, with the current access in techniques, studies have significantly advanced the knowledge on meningeal immunity, revealing that the central nervous system (CNS) border acts as an immune landscape. The latest concept of meningeal immune system is a tertiary structure, which is a comprehensive overview of the meningeal immune system from macro to micro. We comprehensively reviewed recent advances in meningeal immunity, particularly the new understanding of the dural sinus and meningeal lymphatics. Moreover, based on the clues from the meningeal immunity, new insights were proposed into the dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pathology, aiming to provide novel ideas for DAVF understanding.
... Hemorrhagic stroke risk of poor clinical outcomes, 3 and is associated with ensuing morbidity and mortality. 4 Due to their high risk of hemorrhage, these lesions warrant aggressive treatment even when found incidentally. [5][6][7][8] The angioarchitecture of these lesions with venous outflow through fragile pial veins increases the risk of hemorrhage. ...
Article
Background Anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas (ACF-dAVFs) are aggressive vascular lesions. The pattern of venous drainage is the most important determinant of symptoms. Due to the absence of a venous sinus in the anterior cranial fossa, most ACF-dAVFs have some degree of drainage through small cortical veins. We describe the natural history, angiographic presentation and outcomes of the largest cohort of ACF-dAVFs. Methods The CONDOR consortium includes data from 12 international centers. Patients included in the study were diagnosed with an arteriovenous fistula between 1990–2017. ACF-dAVFs were selected from a cohort of 1077 arteriovenous fistulas. The presentation, angioarchitecture and treatment outcomes of ACF-dAVF were extracted and analyzed. Results 60 ACF-dAVFs were included in the analysis. Most ACF-dAVFs were symptomatic (38/60, 63%). The most common symptomatic presentation was intracranial hemorrhage (22/38, 57%). Most ACF-dAVFs drained through cortical veins (85%, 51/60), which in most instances drained into the superior sagittal sinus (63%, 32/51). The presence of cortical venous drainage predicted symptomatic presentation (OR 9.4, CI 1.98 to 69.1, p=0.01). Microsurgery was the most effective modality of treatment. 56% (19/34) of symptomatic patients who were treated had complete resolution of symptoms. Improvement of symptoms was not observed in untreated symptomatic ACF-dAVFs. Conclusion Most ACF-dAVFs have a symptomatic presentation. Drainage through cortical veins is a key angiographic feature of ACF-dAVFs that accounts for their malignant course. Microsurgery is the most effective treatment. Due to the high risk of bleeding, closure of ACF-dAVFs is indicated regardless of presentation.
... TSS-DAVFs presenting with hemorrhage are often high-grade DAVFs with CVR. 10 Therefore, the surgical field for hematoma removal usually includes CVR for this approach. Second, there is less bleeding risk than that with direct sinus packing, selective disconnection of the CVR, skeletonization, and sinus resection under craniotomy. ...
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BACKGROUND Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) can present with massive hematoma, which sometimes requires emergent removal. Therefore, a surgical strategy for single-session hematoma removal and shunt occlusion in the same surgical field is important. OBSERVATIONS A 73-year-old man was transferred to the authors’ hospital with a headache. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed an intracerebral hematoma in the right temporoparietal lobe (hematoma volume 12 ml). A cerebral angiogram revealed a right isolated transverse-sigmoid sinus (TSS)-DAVF fed by the occipital artery and middle meningeal artery. There was cortical venous reflux into the Labbé vein and posterior parietal vein. Percutaneous transarterial and transvenous embolization were unsuccessful. The following day, his consciousness level acutely declined with a headache, and brain CT showed hematoma expansion (hematoma volume 41 ml) with a midline shift. Therefore, the authors performed single-session hematoma removal and a transcortical venous approach for coil embolization of an isolated TSS-DAVF in a hybrid operating room. His postoperative course was uneventful. No recurrence was observed 3 months postoperatively on cerebral angiography. LESSONS Single-session hematoma removal and a transcortical venous approach for coil embolization of an isolated TSS-DAVF is considered in cases with massive hematoma. This strategy is useful, considering recent developments in hybrid operating rooms.
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Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) are a rare cause of intracranial haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate outcome of patients with intracranial haemorrhage from a DAVF. We performed a systematic literature search for studies reporting outcome after intracranial haemorrhage caused by a DAVF. We used predefined selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. In addition, we studied outcome in all patients with DAVF who had presented with intracranial haemorrhage at two university centers in the Netherlands, between January 2007 and April 2012. We calculated case fatality and proportions of patients with poor outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale ≥ 3 or Glasgow Outcome Scale ≤ 3) during follow-up. We investigated mean age, sex, mid-year of study and percentage of patients with parenchymal haemorrhage as determinants of case fatality and poor outcome. The literature search yielded 16 studies, all but two retrospective and all hospital-based. Combined with our cohort of 29 patients the total number of patients with DAVF-related intracranial haemorrhage was 326 (58 % intracerebral haemorrhage). At a median follow-up of 12 months case fatality was 4.7 % (95 % CI 2.5–7.5; 17 cohorts) and the proportion of patients with poor outcome 8.3 % (95 % CI 3.1–15.7; nine cohorts). We found no effect of mean age, sex, mid-year of the cohorts and percentage of patients with parenchymal haemorrhage on either outcome. Hospital based case-series suggest a relatively low risk of death and poor outcome in patients with intracranial haemorrhage due to rupture of a DAVF. These risks may be underestimated because of bias. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-015-7898-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Article
There is a strong correlation between the venous drainage pattern of intracranial dural arteriovenous shunts (ICDAVSs) and the affected patients' clinical presentation. The ICDAVSs that have cortical venous reflux (CVR) (retrograde leptomeningeal drainage: Borden Type 2 and 3 lesions) are very aggressive and have a poor natural history. Although the necessity of treatment remains debatable in ICDAVSs that drain exclusively into a sinus (Borden Type 1), lesions with CVR must be treated because of the negative effects of the retrograde venous drainage. Surgery, radiosurgery, and embolization have been proposed for management of these lesions, but endovascular therapy is considered the most appropriate therapeutic strategy in ICDAVSs. New embolic materials, such as Onyx, have been recently developed and are considered to represent a kind of "gold standard" for embolization of these lesions. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of transarterial embolization using acrylic glue in the therapeutic management of ICDAVSs with CVR, and to compare the results the authors obtained using this treatment with those reported in the literature for Onyx treatment of the same type of dural shunts. The clinical and radiological records of 53 consecutive patients suffering from ICDAVSs with CVR (Borden Types 2 or 3) were reviewed. All cases were managed with the same angiographic and therapeutic protocol. Localization of the lesions, their clinical symptoms, their angioarchitecture, their therapeutic management, and the results were analyzed. Fourteen ICDAVSs were located at the superior sagittal sinus and/or convexity veins, 13 at the transverse and sigmoid sinuses, 10 at the tentorium, 5 in the anterior cranial fossa, 4 at the foramen magnum, 3 at the torcula, 2 at the straight sinus, and 1 at the vein of Galen. One patient presented with an infantile form of ICDAVS with multiple shunts. Hemorrhage had occurred in 36% of cases. Forty-three patients underwent transarterial embolization (42 with acrylic glue). Complete closure of the fistula was obtained in 34 patients. Suppression of the CVR with partial occlusion of the main shunt was achieved in all other cases. No mortality or permanent morbidity was observed in this series. Intracranial dural arteriovenous shunts can be safely managed by transarterial embolization, which can be considered in most instances as an effective first-intention treatment. Acrylic glue still allows a cheap, fast, and effective treatment with high rates of cures that compare favorably to those obtained with new embolic materials.
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Article
Spontaneous (non-traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) has a high case-fatality and leaves many survivors disabled. Clinical characteristics and outcome seem to vary according to the cause of ICH, but population-based comparisons are scarce. We studied two prospective, population-based cohorts to determine differences in outcome [case-fatality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS)] after incident ICH due to brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) [Scottish Intracranial Vascular Malformation Study (SIVMS), n = 90] and spontaneous ICH [Oxford Vascular Study (OXVASC), n = 60]. Patients with AVM-ICH were younger, had lower pre-stroke and admission blood pressure (BP), higher admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and were more likely to have an ICH in a lobar location than patients with spontaneous ICH (sICH). Case fatality throughout 2-year follow-up was greater following sICH than AVM-ICH [34/56 (61%) versus 11/90 (12%) at 1 year, odds ratio (OR) 11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5-25)], as was death or dependence (mRS >or= 3) [40/48 (83%) versus 26/65 (40%) at 1 year, OR 8 (3-19)]. Differences in outcome persisted following stratification by age and sensitivity analyses. In multivariable analyses of 1 year outcome, independent predictors of death were sICH (OR 21, 4-104) and increasing ICH volume (OR 1.03, 1.01-1.05), and independent predictors of death or dependence were sICH (OR 11, 2-62) and GCS on admission (OR 0.79, 0.67-0.93). Outcome after AVM-ICH is better than after sICH, independent of patient age and other known predictors of ICH outcome.
Article
OBJECTIVE Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions, hampering efforts to understand them and improve their care. To address this challenge, investigators with an established record of dAVF investigation formed an international, multicenter consortium aimed at better elucidating dAVF pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, natural history, and patient outcomes. This report describes the design of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) and includes characterization of the 1077-patient cohort. METHODS Potential collaborators with established interest in the field were identified via systematic review of the literature. To ensure uniformity of data collection, a quality control process was instituted. Data were retrospectively obtained. RESULTS CONDOR comprises 14 centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan that have pooled their data from 1077 dAVF patients seen between 1990 and 2017. The cohort includes 359 patients (33%) with Borden type I dAVFs, 175 (16%) with Borden type II fistulas, and 529 (49%) with Borden type III fistulas. Overall, 852 patients (79%) presented with fistula-related symptoms: 427 (40%) presented with nonaggressive symptoms such as tinnitus or orbital phenomena, 258 (24%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and 167 (16%) presented with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. A smaller proportion (224 patients, 21%), whose dAVFs were discovered incidentally, were asymptomatic. Many patients (85%, 911/1077) underwent treatment via endovascular embolization (55%, 587/1077), surgery (10%, 103/1077), radiosurgery (3%, 36/1077), or multimodal therapy (17%, 184/1077). The overall angiographic cure rate was 83% (758/911 treated), and treatment-related permanent neurological morbidity was 2% (27/1467 total procedures). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 380 days (IQR 120–1038.5 days). CONCLUSIONS With more than 1000 patients, the CONDOR registry represents the largest registry of cranial dAVF patient data in the world. These unique, well-annotated data will enable multiple future analyses to be performed to better understand dAVFs and their management.
Article
OBJECTIVE The rarity of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) has precluded analysis of their natural history across large cohorts. Investigators from a considerable proportion of the few reports that do exist have evaluated heterogeneous groups of untreated and partially treated lesions. In the present study, the authors exclusively evaluated the untreated course of dAVFs across a multi-institutional data set to delineate demographic, angiographic, and natural history data. METHODS A multi-institutional database of dAVFs was queried for demographic and angiographic data as well as untreated disease course. After dAVFs were stratified by Djindjian type, annual nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND) and hemorrhage rates were derived, as were risk factors for each. A multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios. RESULTS Two hundred ninety-five dAVFs had at least 1 month of untreated follow-up. For 126 Type I dAVFs, there were no episodes of NHND or hemorrhage over 177 lesion-years. Respective annualized NHND and hemorrhage rates were 4.5% and 3.4% for Type II, 6.0% and 4.0% for Type III, and 4.5% and 9.1% for Type IV dAVFs. The respective annualized NHND and hemorrhage rates were 2.3% and 2.9% for asymptomatic Type II–IV dAVFs, 23.1% and 3.3% for dAVFs presenting with NHND, and 0% and 46.2% for lesions presenting with hemorrhage. On multivariate analysis, NHND presentation (HR 11.49, 95% CI 3.19–63) and leptomeningeal venous drainage (HR 5.03, 95% CI 0.42–694) were significant risk factors for NHND; hemorrhagic presentation (HR 17.67, 95% CI 2.99–117) and leptomeningeal venous drainage (HR 10.39, 95% CI 1.11–1384) were significant risk factors for hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS All Type II–IV dAVFs should be considered for treatment. Given the high risk of rebleeding, lesions presenting with NHND and/or hemorrhage should be treated expediently.
Article
OBJECTIVE Sinus-preserving (SP) embolization techniques augment endovascular treatment options for intracranial lateral dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). The authors aimed to perform a retrospective comparison of their primary success rates, complication rates, and long-term follow-up with those of sinus-occluding (SO) treatment variants in the collective of low- and intermediate-grade lateral DAVFs (Cognard Types I–IIb). METHODS Clinical symptoms, complication rates, and Cognard grading prior to and after endovascular DAVF treatment using different technical approaches was retrospectively analyzed in 36 patients with lateral DAVF Cognard Types I–IIb. The long-term success rate was determined by a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The SO approaches offered a higher rate of definitive fistula occlusion (93% SO vs 71% SP) but were accompanied by a significantly higher complication rate (33% or 20% SO vs 0% SP). The patients interviewed reported very high satisfaction with their health in long-term follow-up in both groups. CONCLUSIONS A higher rate of definitive fistula occlusion in the SO group was attained at the price of a significantly higher complication rate. The SP approaches offered a good primary success rate in combination with a very low complication rate. Despite some limitations of the data (e.g., a small sample size) the authors thus recommend an SP variant as the primary therapeutic option for the endovascular treatment of low- and intermediate-grade DAVFs. The SO approaches should be restricted to cases in which SP treatment does not achieve a downgrading to no worse than Cognard Type IIa.
Article
Object: The purpose of this report was to provide overall arteriovenous malformation (AVM) hemorrhage rates and, with enhanced statistical power, to elucidate significant risk factors for hemorrhage. Methods: The authors performed a meta-analysis via the PubMed database through January 2012 using the terms "AVM," "arteriovenous malformation," "natural history," "bleed," and "hemorrhage." Additional studies were identified through reference searches in each reviewed article. English language studies providing annual hemorrhage rates for AVMs were included. Data extraction, performed independently by the authors, included demographic data, hemorrhage rates, and hazard ratios for hemorrhage risk factors. The analysis was performed using a random effects model. Results: Nine natural history studies with 3923 patients and 18,423 patient-years of follow-up were identified for analysis. The overall annual hemorrhage rate was 3.0% (95% CI 2.7%-3.4%). The rate of hemorrhage was 2.2% (95% CI 1.7%-2.7%) for unruptured AVMs and 4.5% (95% CI 3.7%-5.5%) for ruptured AVMs. Prior hemorrhage (HR 3.2, 95% CI 2.1-4.3), deep AVM location (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-3.4), exclusively deep venous drainage (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-3.8), and associated aneurysms (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) were statistically significant risk factors for hemorrhage. Any deep venous drainage (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.75) and female sex (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-2.1) demonstrated a trend toward an increased risk of hemorrhage that was not statistically significant. Small AVM size and older patient age were not significant risk factors for hemorrhage. Conclusions: Arteriovenous malformations with prior hemorrhage, deep location, exclusively deep venous drainage, and associated aneurysms have greater annual hemorrhage rates than their counterparts, influencing surgical decision making and the selection of radiosurgery for these lesions.
Article
Objectives Experience of flow control techniques during endovascular treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) using the Onyx liquid embolic system is reported, with an emphasis on high flow shunts. Methods Data were evaluated in patients with DAVFs treated endovascularly with Onyx. Adjunctive techniques with coils, acrylics and balloon assistance were utilized to reduce the rate of flow with transarterial and transvenous approaches. Results The following types of adjunctive techniques were used in 58 patients who underwent a total of 84 embolization sessions with Onyx: transvenous coiling with transvenous or transarterial Onyx embolization in 36 patients, transarterial coiling with transarterial Onyx embolization in eight patients, arterial or venous balloon assisted technique with transarterial or transvenous Onyx embolization in 11 patients, transarterial high concentration acrylics with transarterial Onyx embolization in one patient and staged transarterial or transvenous coiling and Onyx embolization in two patients. Complete obliteration of the fistulae was achieved in 41 patients (70.7%) and 27 patients (65.9%) with high flow fistulae after endovascular treatment alone. Periprocedural complications were encountered in 16 patients, and 13 complications were associated with the adjunctive techniques. There were four neurologic and two non-neurologic clinical sequelae. Distal Onyx migration occurred in four, microcatheter retention in three and cranial neuropathy in three patients. There was one instance each of cerebellar hemorrhage, thromboembolism, coil stretching and retention, and dissection. 56 survivors experienced complete resolution or significant improvement of their symptoms on follow-up. Conclusions Flow control techniques are safe and effective adjunctive methods in primary endovascular Onyx embolization of high flow DAVFs.
Article
The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). A formal literature search of MEDLINE (November 1, 2006, through May 1, 2010) was performed. Data were synthesized with the use of evidence tables. Writing group members met by teleconference to discuss data-derived recommendations. The American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm was used to grade each recommendation. The guideline draft was reviewed by 7 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Leadership and Manuscript Oversight Committees. It is intended that this guideline be fully updated every 3 years. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients presenting with aSAH. The focus of the guideline was subdivided into incidence, risk factors, prevention, natural history and outcome, diagnosis, prevention of rebleeding, surgical and endovascular repair of ruptured aneurysms, systems of care, anesthetic management during repair, management of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia, management of hydrocephalus, management of seizures, and management of medical complications. aSAH is a serious medical condition in which outcome can be dramatically impacted by early, aggressive, expert care. The guidelines offer a framework for goal-directed treatment of the patient with aSAH.
Article
This article presents a modification to the existing classification scales of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas based on newly published research regarding the relationship of clinical symptoms and outcome. The 2 commonly used scales, the Borden-Shucart and Cognard scales, rely entirely on angiographic features for categorization. The most critical anatomical feature is the identification of cortical venous drainage (CVD; Borden-Shucart Types II and III and Cognard Types IIb, IIa + b, III, IV, and V), as this feature identifies lesions at high risk for future hemorrhage or ischemic neurological injury. Yet recent data has emerged indicating that within these high-risk groups, most of the risk for future injury is in the subgroup presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. The authors have defined this subgroup as symptomatic CVD. Patients who present incidentally or with symptoms of pulsatile tinnitus or ophthalmological phenomena have a less aggressive clinical course. The authors have defined this subgroup as asymptomatic CVD. Based on recent data the annual rate of intracerebral hemorrhage is 7.4-7.6% for patients with symptomatic CVD compared with 1.4-1.5% for those with asymptomatic CVD. The addition of asymptomatic CVD or symptomatic CVD as modifiers to the Borden-Shucart and Cognard systems improves their accuracy for risk stratification of patients with high-grade dural arteriovenous fistulas.
Article
A classification is proposed that unifies and organizes spinal and cranial dural arteriovenous fistulous malformations (AVFMs) into three types based upon their anatomical similarities. Type I dural AVFMs drain directly into dural venous sinuses or meningeal veins. Type II malformations drain into dural sinuses or meningeal veins but also have retrograde drainage into subarachnoid veins. Type III malformations drain into subarachnoid veins and do not have dural sinus or meningeal venous drainage. The arterial supply in each of these three types is derived from meningeal arteries. The anatomical basis of the proposed classification is presented with several cases that illustrate the three types of dural AVFMs. A rationale for the treatment of spinal and cranial dural AVFMs according to their anatomical characteristics is discussed.
Article
To review the symptoms and progression of dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and correlate the findings with various angiographic patterns. Patterns of venous drainage allowed classification of dural AVFs into five types: type I, located in the main sinus, with antegrade flow; type II, in the main sinus, with reflux into the sinus (IIa), cortical veins (IIb), or both (IIa + b); type III, with direct cortical venous drainage without venous ectasia; type IV, with direct cortical venous drainage with venous ectasia; and type V, with spinal venous drainage. Type I dural AVFs had a benign course. In type II, reflux into the sinus induced intracranial hypertension in 20% of cases, and reflux into cortical veins induced hemorrhage in 10%. Hemorrhage was present in 40% of cases of type III dural AVFs and 65% of type IV. Type V produced progressive myelopathy in 50% of cases. This classification provides useful data for determination of the risk with each dural AVF and enables decision-making about the appropriate therapy.
Article
Intracranial hemorrhage is an important complication of treatment with anticoagulants. We studied outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurring in patients on anticoagulant drugs because this may influence management of patients needing anticoagulant treatment but with increased risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage. From the prospective database of patients admitted with SAH to the Utrecht University Hospital, we compared 3-month outcome in patients with or without anticoagulant drugs by means of stratified analyses to adjust relative risks for biological and clinical differences between the two groups. Death or dependency after SAH occurred in 14 of 15 patients on anticoagulant treatment and in 62 of 126 patients not being treated with anticoagulants (relative risk, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.4). The patients on treatment with anticoagulants were more often comatose on admission; the frequencies of rebleeding, secondary ischemia, and hydrocephalus were not higher in patients on anticoagulants. In the stratified analysis the worse outcome in the group on anticoagulant drugs was not essentially influenced by differences in sex, age, cardiovascular history, site of aneurysm, amount of cisternal blood, or extension of hemorrhage into the ventricles. The outcome of aneurysmal SAH in patients or anticoagulant drugs is extremely poor. The explanation for the worse prognosis in patients on anticoagulants lies in a worse clinical condition from the outset. The poor outcome urges a reconsideration of the balance of risks for anticoagulant treatment in patients with an unoperated intracranial aneurysm or with a family history of SAH and may lead to withholding treatment with anticoagulant drugs or to a preventive operation.
Article
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) constitutes 10% to 15% of all strokes and remains without a treatment of proven benefit. Despite several existing outcome prediction models for ICH, there is no standard clinical grading scale for ICH analogous to those for traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or ischemic stroke. Records of all patients with acute ICH presenting to the University of California, San Francisco during 1997-1998 were reviewed. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were identified by logistic regression. A risk stratification scale (the ICH Score) was developed with weighting of independent predictors based on strength of association. Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale score (P<0.001), age >/=80 years (P=0.001), infratentorial origin of ICH (P=0.03), ICH volume (P=0.047), and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.052). The ICH Score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: GCS score 3 to 4 (=2 points), 5 to 12 (=1), 13 to 15 (=0); age >/=80 years yes (=1), no (=0); infratentorial origin yes (=1), no (=0); ICH volume >/=30 cm(3) (=1), <30 cm(3) (=0); and intraventricular hemorrhage yes (=1), no (=0). All 26 patients with an ICH Score of 0 survived, and all 6 patients with an ICH Score of 5 died. Thirty-day mortality increased steadily with ICH Score (P<0.005). The ICH Score is a simple clinical grading scale that allows risk stratification on presentation with ICH. The use of a scale such as the ICH Score could improve standardization of clinical treatment protocols and clinical research studies in ICH.
Committee and the Oxford Vascular Study. Outcome after spontaneous and arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage: population-based studies
  • J Van Beijnum
  • C E Lovelock
  • C Cordonnier
  • P M Rothwell
  • C J Klijn
  • van Beijnum J
Consortium for dural arteriovenous fistula outcomes research (condor): rationale design and initial characterization of patient cohort
  • C J Guniganti R Giordan E Chen
  • Abecassis
  • M R Levitt
  • A Durnford
  • J Smith
  • C P Samaniego E Derdeyn
  • A Kwasnicki
  • Etal