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Effect of Social Media Use on Academic Performance among University Students in Bangladesh

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Effect of Social Media Use on Academic Performance among University Students in Bangladesh

Abstract and Figures

Around the world, social media sites are becoming a part of people's daily life. The students are also getting involved in these sites for several purposes. So, it is very important to understand the effect of social media on university students. In recent years, researchers around the world have taken this issue as a topic of great interest. Considering the social impact of this issue, the current research was conducted at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Data were collected from 200 students using the google forms questionnaire and the time of data collection was July-September, 2020. The findings of the study suggest that Facebook was the most used social media by the respondents, followed by YouTube. The majority of the students use social media for communication purposes and 46% of respondents were found to use these sites for 41-55 hours per week. The majority of them had moderate mood after using social media. In addition, the study also finds that students use social media to gather academic information, they consider this information as reliable. Respondents were also found to think that social media sites are saving their time as well as effort. Finally, the study identifies a negative relation between academic performance and time spent on social media. The findings of this paper may be utilized to provide practical strategies for improving students' educational success through maintaining a balance between recreation, knowledge sharing, and academic performance. It is recommended for the students to utilize their time wisely and not making social media the only means of recreation.
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_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
*Corresponding author: Email: saifurgext41486@bau.edu.bd;
Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies
20(3): 1-12, 2021; Article no.AJESS.72495
ISSN: 2581-6268
Effect of Social Media Use on Academic
Performance among University Students in
Bangladesh
Saifur Rahman
1*
and Md. Nur Alom Sarkar Mithun
1
1
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between both authors. Both authors read and approved the
final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/AJESS/2021/v20i330484
Editor(s):
(1)
Dr. Der-Jang Chi, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan.
Reviewers:
(1)
Shaista Noor, Taylor’s University, Malaysia.
(2)
Michael Owusu Tabiri, Ghana Communication Technology University, Ghana.
(3)
Leovigildo Lito D. Mallillin, Gulf College, Oman.
Complete Peer review History:
https://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/72495
Received 14 June 2021
Accepted 18 August 2021
Published 26 August 2021
ABSTRACT
Around the world, social media sites are becoming a part of people's daily life. The students are
also getting involved in these sites for several purposes. So, it is very important to understand the
effect of social media on university students. In recent years, researchers around the world have
taken this issue as a topic of great interest. Considering the social impact of this issue, the current
research was conducted at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Data were
collected from 200 students using the google forms questionnaire and the time of data collection
was July-September, 2020. The findings of the study suggest that Facebook was the most used
social media by the respondents, followed by YouTube. The majority of the students use social
media for communication purposes and 46% of respondents were found to use these sites for 41-
55 hours per week. The majority of them had moderate mood after using social media. In addition,
the study also finds that students use social media to gather academic information, they consider
this information as reliable. Respondents were also found to think that social media sites are
saving their time as well as effort. Finally, the study identifies a negative relation between
academic performance and time spent on social media. The findings of this paper may be utilized
to provide practical strategies for improving students’ educational success through maintaining a
balance between recreation, knowledge sharing, and academic performance. It is recommended
for the students to utilize their time wisely and not making social media the only means of
recreation.
Original Research Article
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021; Article no.AJESS.72495
2
Keywords: Social media; academic performance; university students; CGPA; Bangladesh.
1. INTRODUCTION
The use of social media has become a very
common phenomenon in this modern era of
science and technology. People are using social
media sites mostly for communication, sharing
their beliefs, thinking, facts, success stories. [1-
4]. The most popular and widely used social
networks include Facebook, Skype, YouTube,
Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and WhatsApp [5-
7]. Presently, 3.8 billion people regularly use
social networking websites around the world [8].
According to 2021 Statistic [9], Facebook is the
most popular social media platform with 2.79
billion monthly active users, followed by YouTube
(2.29 billion) and WhatsApp (2 billion). These
sites have been warmly welcomed by teenagers
and youths as a method of virtual communication
with their friends globally [10,11]. The students of
different levels are using it in a number of ways.
University students are the most active users of
social networking sites among all categories of
students [1]. Students are now communicating
with their teachers for academic collaboration,
accessing course materials, customizing their
profiles, and creating student groups using social
media platforms to access any information faster
than before [12,13,14]. Besides, educational
institutions are also utilizing social media to
interact with students and alumni as well as to
disseminate academic information [15]. In
addition, the academic performance and career
development of the students largely depend on
the social networking sites [12,16,17] as they
spend much of their time on these sites [18]. So,
it is evident to say that social networking
websites are playing a key role in the academic
sector [18,19,20].
On the other hand, some negative sides of social
media are also visible in the life of the students
[5,11,12,21]. When social media usage is
poorly handled, it can have severe implications
on the career of the students [1,22]. Students
using social media more than the average have
poor educational progress, as measured by their
Grade Point Average (GPA), and a low rate of
attention in class [23,24,25]. In addition,
excessive use of social media has a detrimental
impact on mental health, leading to stress and
panic [26]. Thus, the effects of social networking
sites among university students must be
explored to secure their bright futures and
careers [18].
The number of social media users in Bangladesh
is about 83.72 million and the majority of them
are university students [27, 28]. According to
Internet world stats [29], Bangladesh ranks 9
th
in
terms of the number of internet users. W e must
know if social media in having any impact on the
academic performance of the university students
of Bangladesh. Considering the above situations,
the current study was conducted to explore the
impact of social media on the academic
performance of university students of
Bangladesh.
1.1 Literature review
Tariq et al. [30] identified that the education of
teenagers and children is getting hampered by
social media usage. He also recommended
banning the use of social media by the students.
Alwagait et al. [31] conducted research on the
impact of social media on the academic
performance of university students in Saudi
Arabia. The research identified that use of social
media doesn’t have any impact on the academic
performance of the students. In addition, time
management was found to be an important factor
that affected academic performance. Usher et al.
[32] conducted research with 1088 medical
students and identified that majority of the
students are considering social media as a
relevant source of information while only 20%
were found to depend on a peer-reviewed
journal. It was further added that educational
institutions are facing problems with this issue.
Camilia et al. [33] investigated that, students are
wasting their valuable time on social media sites
doing unnecessary chats and acts which is
reducing their study time, and ultimately their
result is falling. Aljuboori et al. [34] conducted
research on the impact of social media among
Iraqi university students. He found that students
have a positive impression regarding social
media and it is rising day by day. In addition,
students are more interested in using social
media for their academic purpose rather than
political and other issues. Karjo et al. [35]
identified that Indonesian students are familiar
with social media but they like to use it more for
communication rather than learning or academic
purpose. Akubugwo [36] found that social media
is hampering students’ academic performance.
Talaue et al., [37] considered social media as a
useful tool for the development of students in the
academic field and social media has a dual
impact on the achievement of students. The
research further added that students are
communicating with peers to discuss their
academic as well as life issues.
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021; Article no.AJESS.72495
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In Bangladesh, several related research has
been done. Kabir et al, [38] researched university
students’ social media usage. He identified that
27% of the respondents were addicted to social
media and the majority had a highly positive
attitude towards social media sites. Again, Alam
et al. [39] conducted research with 100 post-
graduate students and identified that social
media sites are contributing to students’
knowledge level. Besides, Saha [27] researched
with 502 university students and found that
students are using social media sites for more
than one hour per day. In addition, students were
found to have a high perception, low negative
attitude, and moderate dependency on social
media. So, from the literature review, it is quite
understandable that this topic has received
researchers’ attention to a great extent. But still,
in Bangladesh, no research work was found
where students CGPA was considered as the
prime factor of academic performance. That’s
why we undertook this current study considering
students' CGPA as the measure of academic
performance.
1.2 Research objectives
The main goal of this research is to identify the
impact of social media on the academic
performance of students. The following are some
specific goals:
i. To identify the most used social media by
university students,
ii. To investigate students purpose in using
social media,
iii. To know about time spent on social media
as well as mood after using social media,
iv. To inquire of students thinking about social
media on their academics,
v. To identify if there is any relation between
the academic performance of the students
and their social media usage
2. METHODOLOGY
The students of the Agriculture Faculty of
Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) were
taken as the population of the study. There are
almost 1200 students in the agriculture faculty.
Among them, 200 students were taken randomly
as a sample of this study. The sample size is
16% of the population. The sampling procedure
is similar to Kabir [38]. To have valid and reliable
data a primary questionnaire was prepared using
google form keeping the sole purpose of the
study in mind. Data was collected using the pre-
tested questionnaire and before finalizing the
questionnaire, necessary corrections, and
modifications were done based on the pre-test
experience. Data were collected from July to
September of the year 2020. The questionnaire
link was sent to each participant with an email.
The first page of the questionnaire had detailed
information regarding the purpose of the study,
ethical approval was also taken from each
respondent, and instructions were also given
regarding how to withdraw the provided
information (If anyone wishes). The answers of
the respondents were kept private. The data has
been saved to an environment secured by
passwords.
2.1 Data Analysis
In accordance with the study goals, data
obtained from interviewees was statistically
checked, collated, tabled, and evaluated. The
statistics utilized to describe the variables were
frequency, percentage, range, mean, and
standard deviation (SD). For further explanation,
tables and figures were utilized. The data were
analyzed using the statistical package for social
science (SPSS-20) computer software. We also
used a scatter diagram to identify if there is any
relation between students’ academic
performance and time spent on social media.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Demographics of Respondents
Table 1 shows the students' selected attributes.
The result indicates that the average age of the
respondents was 23.21. As the respondents
were third-year and fourth-year students to it is
evident that they belong to age 23-24. Again,
data shows that 57.4% of students were male
and 42.6% were female. Lastly, the average
CGPA of the respondents was 3.55. Generally, in
agriculture faculty, the students have a good
CGPA. The findings suggest the same.
3.2 Mostly used Social Media by the BAU
Students
Fig. 1 represents respondents’ profiles on
different social networks. Facebook was the most
used social media according to the data. A
similar finding was made in the study of Kabir as
well as Emerick [38,40]. Followed by YouTube
and Instagram [27,34]. LinkedIn and Twitter hold
the fourth and fifth positions, respectively
followed by other social media. Out of 200
respondents, 98% have Facebook profiles while
67.3% have YouTube and 25.7% have an
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021; Article no.AJESS.72495
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Instagram profile. In Bangladesh, for the last few
years, students' involvement with Facebook has
increased to a great extent. Almost every section
and the practical group have separate Facebook
group for sharing class information and notes.
That’s why students need to check their
Facebook ID at least once in a day so that they
do not miss any class information. In some
cases, teachers also share the class information
on Facebook so that the message reaches more
students within a short period. Again, as
agriculture is a technical subject so videos help
the students in learning. In addition, YouTube is
also a great source of entertainment for the
students. That’s why after Facebook, YouTube
was the most used social media site among
respondents.
3.3 The Aim of using Social Media
The proper use of social media allows students
to be more inventive, dynamic, and research-
oriented [12]. The purposes of using social media
by the respondents have been shown in Fig. 2.
The majority of students (41%) use social media
for communication. 32% of them use social
media for entertainment purposes. Followed by
21% for finding information, and only 6% of them
use this for learning. Globally the basic use of
social media is communicating with others. Our
findings are also in line with the global
perspective. Besides communication purposes,
entertainment, information seeking, and learning
use are also rising day by day. Students are
getting involved in Facebook groups like the
IELTS learning group, Scholarship information
group, Job exam preparation group, etc. The
findings are in line with the results of Kabir and
Karjo [38 and 35].
3.4 Social Media usage Per Week (hours)
Fig. 3 denotes time spent on social media by
students. The majority (46%) of the students
were found to use social media for 41-55 hours
per week. The second highest usage was of 26-
40 hours by 32% of the students followed by 11-
25 hours (14%) and 8% having use of more than
55 hours per week. Almost half of the
respondents were found to use social media for
41-55 hours per week which is a huge time.
Students should focus more on their study but
with the progress of time, they are getting more
involve or getting addicted to social media.
Sometimes the parents are becoming bound to
take the smartphones away from their
son/daughter as it is killing their study hours.
Such a pattern of time spending is affecting
students’ social well-being as well as students’
relationship with their friends and family [18]. In
addition, students mental health is going to be
significantly affected by such long term social
media usage [18].
3.5 Mood after Using Social Media
Nowadays how we react, how we behave etc.
are getting related to our social media usage.
The current study tried to identify students’
moods after using social media. Fig. 4 signifies
that the majority (58%) had a moderate mood
while 20% felt bored. Followed by social media
was a pleasant experience of 18% of students
while only 4% felt extremely bored after using
social media. Surprisingly we haven’t found
anyone who found social media usage as
extremely pleasant. Social media is indeed
making connections among people, it is helping
us to be part of a large community. But at the
same time, there are some negative aspects of
social media. Social media is making students
jealous of others' success. Students find that
his/her friend going to costly restaurants,
celebrating different life events, buying costly
dresses and they start feeling depressed with
their own life. Sometimes they even argue with
their parents in terms of buying things that
his/her friend have. This all indicates that
students’ mood is changing with social media
usage. Though in the case of the moderate
group the effect of social media is very small it
can have a detrimental impact on the bored and
extremely bored group of students. Asdaque [41]
had similar findings in his study with university
students in Pakistan.
Table 1. The significant features of the students' chosen qualities
Items
Category
Value
Age Mean 23.21
SD 1.33
Gender Male 57.4 %
Female 42.6 %
CGPA Mean 3.55
SD 0.239
Source: Survey of 2020
Fig. 1.
Different
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Time spent on social media by the respondents
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021
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Different
social media used by respondents
Fig. 2.
Purpose of using social media
Time spent on social media by the respondents
AJESS.72495
Fig.4.
Students’ mood after using social media
3.6 Students’ Thinking
about
Media on
Their Academics
In this section, we have tried to figure out some
important aspects of social media on the
academics of students. The thinking of students
about social media on their academics has been
assessed using a series of questions and
answers (Table 2 and Fig.
5). The answer to the
first question reveals that more than half of the
students (51.77%) used social media for
academic purposes occasionally. As most of the
class-
related information is shared in social
media groups so it is evident that be
for recreation and academic purpose students
are also using social media for their academic
purpose. The academic achievement and career
of students largely depend on the extent of using
social media [12
]. The second response
indicates that a g
reat number of students
(71.25%) followed their university page on social
media. Nowadays every university has an official
social media page. As a result, students are
getting all the necessary information about the
university from his/her social media acc
Thus, one social media account is helping
students to gather information without visiting the
university website.
In the third question, most of them (53.56%)
considered that social media are sometimes
useful in their academic success. Social media
helps the students with updated information. In
addition, sharing study materials like word files or
power-point slide, e
tc. are now too easy because
of social media class groups. A similar result was
found by Kabir [38]. The fourth answer shows
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021
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Students’ mood after using social media
about
Social
Their Academics
In this section, we have tried to figure out some
important aspects of social media on the
academics of students. The thinking of students
about social media on their academics has been
assessed using a series of questions and
5). The answer to the
first question reveals that more than half of the
students (51.77%) used social media for
academic purposes occasionally. As most of the
related information is shared in social
media groups so it is evident that be
sides using
for recreation and academic purpose students
are also using social media for their academic
purpose. The academic achievement and career
of students largely depend on the extent of using
]. The second response
reat number of students
(71.25%) followed their university page on social
media. Nowadays every university has an official
social media page. As a result, students are
getting all the necessary information about the
university from his/her social media acc
ount.
Thus, one social media account is helping
students to gather information without visiting the
In the third question, most of them (53.56%)
considered that social media are sometimes
useful in their academic success. Social media
helps the students with updated information. In
addition, sharing study materials like word files or
tc. are now too easy because
of social media class groups. A similar result was
found by Kabir [38]. The fourth answer shows
that there was a majority (45.89%) who found
social media as a substitute for scientifically
recognized sources occasionally. Becau
social media usage, people are believing in many
a thing that does not have any scientific base.
There are different types of people who share
different types of theories on social media sites.
So, it becomes difficult to understand right or
wrong so
metimes. In the fifth query, 48.83% of
students stated that social media sometimes may
be a reliable source of academic information. We
observed that students are greatly dependent on
the social media class groups for having all types
of academic informati
on. Every group has one or
a few representative persons. So, whenever a
representative shares some of the information
then generally he/she makes sure that the
academic information is correct, as many of
his/her friends are going to use that academic
infor
mation. The finding is similar to
[42]. A vast majority (67.99%) agreed with the
sixth statement that social media are lessening
time, effort, and money to access academic
material. Earlier students have to meet their
friends in person to collect assignments, practical
sheets, or any neces
sary documents for study.
Even they had to meet for group study. But now
social media is making it easier for the students
to do all these things virtually which is saving
their time, effort, and money.
Aljuboori
had similar findings in their s
tudy. The last
question was about rating social media in terms
of respondents' academic life. 45% of the
students rated social media as moderate while
29% rated it as good and only 26% were found to
rate social media as bad. Asdaque had similar
findings in his study [41].
AJESS.72495
se of
Richardson
et al. [34]
Table 2.
No.
Questions
Q1
Do you use social media for academic
purposes?
Q2
Do you use social media to keep up with
your university's website?
Q3
Do you believe social media is a valuable
resource in the academic field?
Q4
Do you think social media can replace
scientifically validated sources?
Q5
Do you believe that social media is a
credible source of academic Information?
Q6 Do you think
social media are lessening
time, effort, and money to access
academic material?
Q7
How do you rate social media in terms of
your academic life?
Fig. 5.
Students’ thinking about social media on their academics
3.6.1
Does the use of social media increase or
decrease the academic performance of
the students?
Students' CGPA and their time spent on social
media were taken into account
to investigate the
relationship between the two variables. A strong
correlation was found between social media use
per week and students’ CGPA, with R
Fig.
6 shows a downhill pattern from left to right,
which indicates a negative relation between the
two concerning variables which means an
increase in social media usage reduces the
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021
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7
Table 2.
Academic questions with answers
Category based on answers
Response (%)
Do you use social media for academic
Sometimes
51.77
Always
30.15
Never
18.08
Do you use social media to keep up with
Yes
71.25
Sometimes
15.61
No
13.14
Do you believe social media is a valuable
resource in the academic field?
Sometimes
53.56
Yes
31.18
No
15.26
Do you think social media can replace
scientifically validated sources?
Sometimes
45.89
Yes
35.13
No
18.98
Do you believe that social media is a
credible source of academic Information?
Sometimes
48.83
Yes
32.56
No
18.61
social media are lessening
time, effort, and money to access
Yes
67.99
Sometimes
22.45
No
9.56
How do you rate social media in terms of
Moderate
45
Good
29
Bad
26
Source: Survey of 2020
Students’ thinking about social media on their academics
Does the use of social media increase or
decrease the academic performance of
Students' CGPA and their time spent on social
to investigate the
relationship between the two variables. A strong
correlation was found between social media use
per week and students’ CGPA, with R
2
= 0.374.
6 shows a downhill pattern from left to right,
which indicates a negative relation between the
two concerning variables which means an
increase in social media usage reduces the
CGPA and low use of social media improves the
CGPA. Azizi et al., [1] and Wak
il et al., [
a similar pattern of results in their study of the
role of social media on students'
CGPA.
Extreme values of social media use and CGPA
score have been presented in Table 3. The
findings specified that in the majorit
the values of both variables coincide, i.e., when
CGPA is high, the time spent on social media is
low, and when CGPA is low, the time spent on
social media is high.
AJESS.72495
Response (%)
51.77
30.15
18.08
71.25
15.61
13.14
53.56
31.18
15.26
45.89
35.13
18.98
48.83
32.56
18.61
67.99
22.45
9.56
45
29
26
43] found
y of cases,
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021; Article no.AJESS.72495
8
Fig. 6. Scatter diagram
Table 3. Extreme values of social media usage and CGPA score
Case Number
Value
Hours spent on social media per week
Highest 02 61
12 60
04 60
14 59
05 58
Lowest 200 15
186 16
199 17
196 17
198 17
Students CGPA
Highest 200 3.931
199 3.912
198 3.900
197 3.897
196 3.892
Lowest 1 2.670
2 2.710
3 2.940
4 2.940
5 2.951
Source: Survey of 2020
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDA-
TIONS
Social media is becoming a part of student's life
as they are getting more and more involved in it
for the sake of information. From the current
study, it is evident to say that social media usage
has a significant impact on the university
students of Bangladesh. Findings of the study
indicate that Facebook is the most used social
media site among the respondents followed by
YouTube and communication was identified as
the main purpose of using different social media.
In addition to that, students were also found to
use social media for entertainment as well as for
information-seeking purposes. Though it is not
wise for students to spent huge time on social
media but study finds that students are spending
Rahman and Mithun; AJESS, 20(3): 1-12, 2021; Article no.AJESS.72495
9
a big part of their daily time on different social
media sites. Due to such usage majority was
found to have moderate as well as the boring
feeling after using social media. When some
academic-related questions were asked it was
found that the majority use social media sites for
their academic purpose sometimes, they use
social media to get informed about university
updates. Respondents also answered that they
believe academic information in social media is
credible and usage of social media is saving their
time. Our study also finds that students’
academic performance has a negative
relationship with their time spent on social media.
So, ultimately the whole research indicates that
students are getting benefitted from social media
usage but at the same time it is killing their study
time, making their academic results fall, and
impacting their mood as well relationship. So, it is
suggested that university students should not get
addicted to different social media sites and
besides having virtual communication they
should not forget the importance of face-to-face
or real-life communication. In addition, it will be
better for the student if they fix a particular time
of the day for using social media, and to make
sure that they are using that fixed amount it is
suggested to use different time tracking apps that
will monitor social media usage and inform the
user about time spent. The university authority
also needs to make sure that students are
getting involved in different extra-curricular
activities so that social media doesn’t become
students' only way of passing the leisure time.
5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
One of the limitations of this study is that it was
conducted in one particular university. Further
study could be done including medical,
engineering, and general university students
which could provide a broader thinking area.
Again, due to the Covid-19 issue data was
collected using google form. It would be much
better if we could collect data through a face-to-
face interview.
DISCLAIMER
The products used for this research are
commonly and predominantly use products in our
area of research and country. There is no conflict
of interest between the authors and producers of
the products because we do not intend to use
these products as an avenue for any litigation but
the advancement of knowledge. Also, the
research was not funded by the producing
company rather it was funded by the personal
efforts of the authors.
CONSENT
As per international standard or university
standard, respondents’ written consent has been
collected and preserved by the authors.
ETHICAL APPROVAL
As per international standard or university
standard written ethical approval has been
collected and preserved by the authors.
COMPETING INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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