Chapter

Pediatric Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Authors:
  • The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States
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Abstract

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in children is a relatively common entity with significant negative effect on quality of life and significant utilization of health care resources. Methods: This textbook chapter is an exhaustive up-to-date review of CRS in children including latest information about pathophysiologic factors, associated comorbidities, and medical and surgical management. Results: CRS in children is an inflammatory disease with an increase in eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the sinus mucosa. Bacterial infection probably contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease, and there is emerging evidence to support the contribution of bacterial biofilms. Unlike adult CRS, the adenoids play an important role in children and probably act as a bacterial reservoir that contributes to CRS. Several comorbidities are associated with CRS to different extents, and they include allergic rhinitis, immune deficiencies, primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, and allergic fungal sinusitis. Mainstay of therapy is medical and includes nasal saline irrigations, intranasal steroids, and antibiotics. Surgical therapy is reserved to medical failures and includes adenoidectomy, sinus irrigation, and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Conclusions: CRS is encountered by pediatricians, allergists, otolaryngologists, and infectious disease specialists. We present a comprehensive review of clinical disease and an evidence-based review of diagnosis, and medical and surgical management strategies.

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Chapter
Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESC) is a surgical technique that has been safely performed on children since the 1980s. Although the anatomical structures are similar to those of the adult anatomy, the small size of the area involved, the anatomical structures and barriers being thinner and fragile, and various surgical indications all mean that these require special surgical equipment, scrupulous anatomical investigation, and good surgical experience. Endoscopic surgery in children is difficult and it is more difficult to establish surgical indication. The inability to perform regular symptomatic questioning in children and difficulty of examination also make the decision to operate problematic. The possibility of comprehensive surgery inside the nose causing impairment to the developing facial skeletal structure also highlighted the need to reconsider the relevant indications. Indications for ESC at the 1998 consensus agreement in Belgium in 1998 are as follows: (1) Complete nasal obstruction due to cystic fibrosis-related massive polyposis and excessive medialization of the lateral nasal wall, (2) antrochoanal polyps, (3) intracranial complications of sinus diseases, (4) mucocele and mucopyocele, (5) orbital abscess, (6) traumatic injury of the optic canal, (7) dacryocystorhinitis secondary to sinusitis, (8) fungal sinusitis, (9) some meningoencephaloceles, (10) some skull base tumors such as angiofibroma, and (11) chronic sinusitis resistant to medical treatment.
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Background: Although balloon sinus dilation is a treatment option for adults with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), there have been few studies performed in pediatric patients. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, single-arm investigation. Children (2 to 21 years old) with CRS who had failed medical management were treated with balloon sinus dilation and followed to 6 months postprocedure. Results: Fifty children were treated at 4 centers; 33 participants were 2 to 12 years old (mean ± standard deviation age: 6.6 ± 2.2 years) and 17 participants were >12 to 21 years (mean age: 15.7 ± 2.5 years). A total of 157 sinus dilations were attempted (98 maxillary, 30 frontal, and 29 sphenoid sinuses) and all were successful with no complications. Significant improvement in the Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5) was seen for all children between baseline and 6 months (4.6 ± 1.2 vs 1.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.0001) and 92% improved by a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 1.0 or more. Those children aged 2 to 12 years with standalone balloon dilation also showed significant SN-5 improvements between baseline and follow-up (4.5 ± 1.0 vs 1.9 ± 0.8; p < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis showed no differences or associations of SN-5 improvement at 6 months with the presence of allergy, asthma, or concomitant procedures. For adolescents, overall 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) mean scores were also significantly improved at 6 months (42.2 ± 19.2 vs 10.4 ± 9.7; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Balloon sinus dilation is safe and appears effective for children with CRS aged 2 years and older.
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Background: The use of nasal irrigation for the treatment of nose and sinus complaints has its foundations in yogic and homeopathic traditions. There has been increasing use of saline irrigation, douches, sprays and rinsing as an adjunct to the medical management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Treatment strategies often include the use of topical saline from once to more than four times a day. Considerable patient effort is often involved. Any additional benefit has been difficult to discern from other treatments. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of topical saline in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Search methods: Our search included the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 2006), MEDLINE (1950 to 2006) and EMBASE (1974 to 2006). The date of the last search was November 2006. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials in which saline was evaluated in comparison with either no treatment, a placebo, as an adjunct to other treatments or against treatments. The comparison of hypertonic versus isotonic solutions was also compared. Data collection and analysis: Trials were graded for methodological quality using the Cochrane approach (modification of Chalmers 1990). Only symptom scores from saline versus no treatment and symptom and radiological scores from the hypertonic versus isotonic group could be pooled for statistical analysis. A narrative overview of the remaining results is presented. Main results: Eight trials were identified that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Three studies compared topical saline against no treatment, one against placebo, one as an adjunct to and one against an intranasal steroid spray. Two studies compared different hypertonic solutions against isotonic saline. There is evidence that saline is beneficial in the treatment of the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis when used as the sole modality of treatment. Evidence also exists in favour of saline as a treatment adjunct. No superiority was seen when saline was compared against a reflexology 'placebo'. Saline is not as effective as an intranasal steroid. Some evidence suggests that hypertonic solutions improve objective measures but the impact on symptoms is less clear. Authors' conclusions: Saline irrigations are well tolerated. Although minor side effects are common, the beneficial effect of saline appears to outweigh these drawbacks for the majority of patients. The use of topical saline could be included as a treatment adjunct for the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by mucous overproduction and submucosal gland hyperplasia. The global protein profile of sinonasal secretions in pediatric CRS has not been studied. We hypothesized that MUC5B, a glandular mucin, would be relatively increased in CRS secretions compared to other mucins.Methods Secretions were collected at Children's National Health System (Children's National) from CRS patients undergoing sinus surgery and from control patients without CRS undergoing craniofacial procedures. Proteins were extracted, digested to peptides, and analyzed by mass spectometry. Fold change significance was calculated using the QSpec algorithm. Western blot analysis was performed to validate proteomic findings.ResultsIn total, 294 proteins were identified. Although both MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified in a majority of samples, the relative abundance of MUC5B was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05). Western blot data validated these findings. Other proteins with the highest significant positive-fold change in CRS samples were BP1 fold-containing family A member 1, chitinase-3-like protein 1, plastin-2, serpin 10, and BP1 fold-containing family B member 1.Conclusion Overall our data demonstrates an increase of MUC5B abundance in the sinus secretions of pediatric patients with CRS.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.187.
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Apical potassium channels regulate ion transport in airway epithelial cells and influence air surface liquid (ASL) hydration and mucociliary clearance (MCC). We sought to identify whether genetic variation within genes encoding airway potassium channels is associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes for selected potassium channels were derived from data generated on the Illumnia HumanHap550 BeadChip or Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip for 828 unrelated individuals diagnosed with CRS and 5,083 unrelated healthy controls from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Statistical analysis was performed with set-based tests using PLINK, and corrected for multiple testing. Set-based case control analysis revealed the gene KCNMA1 was associated with CRS in our Caucasian subset of the cohort (598 CRS cases and 3,489 controls; p = 0.022, based on 10,000 permutations). In addition there was borderline evidence that the gene KCNQ5 (p = 0.0704) was associated with the trait in our African American subset of the cohort (230 CRS cases and 1,594 controls). In addition to the top significant SNPs rs2917454 and rs6907229, imputation analysis uncovered additional genetic variants in KCNMA1 and in KCNQ5 that were associated with CRS. We have implicated two airway epithelial potassium channels as novel susceptibility loci in contributing to the pathogenesis of CRS.
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Although chronic and recurrent rhinosinusitis is prevalent in children, little is known about its causes. Here, we investigated the humoral immunity in children with chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis. We examined 16 children attending the outpatient clinic at the CHA Bundang Medical Center including 11 boys and 5 girls, aged 3.11 years (mean age, 5.6 years), who had rhinosinusitis for >3 months or >3 times per year. The complete blood count with differential and total serum concentrations of Immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgA, IgD, IgM, IgG, and IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) of all children were measured. All subjects received 23-polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccination (PPV), and the levels of antibodies to 5 serologic types (4, 6B, 14, 18C, and 23F) of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigens were measured before and after vaccination. Post-PPV antibody titers ≥0.35 µg/mL or with a ≥4-fold increase were considered as positive responses. The titers of IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgM were within normal range in all 16 children, whereas the total IgE concentration was higher than normal in 2 children. IgG1 deficiency was observed in 1 patient and IgG3 deficiency in 3. After PPV, 1 patient failed to respond to all 5 serologic types, 2 failed to respond to 4 serologic types, and 2 failed to respond to 3 serologic types. Clinicians should consider the evaluation of humoral immune functions in children with chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis who do not respond to prolonged antibiotic treatment.
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To assess surgical outcomes in children undergoing sinus balloon catheter dilation for whom previous adenoidectomy has failed. Adenoidectomy is the first line of surgical management for children with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). This procedure is successful in about 50 percent of patients. Prospective review of children who had surgery for CRS. A referral tertiary health care system. Children with persistent symptoms after adenoidectomy, despite medical treatment, as documented by the sinonasal 5 (SN-5) score and the Lund-Mackay computed tomography (CT) score. The SN-5 score at 1 year post procedure. Twenty-six children met the inclusion criteria. The age range was 4 to 12 years (mean [SD] age, 9.0 [2.5] years). The mean (SD) CT score was 7.3 (2.9). The minimum preoperative SN-5 score was 3.0 (mean [SD], 4.6 [0.9]). The mean (SD) time of postoperative follow-up was 13 (3.0) months. The mean (SD) SN-5 score at 1 year was 3.0 (1.2). This was a significant change from preoperative scores (P < .001). Surgical success, measured by a decrease of more than 0.5 on the postoperative SN-5 score, was achieved in 21 children (81%). Sinus balloon catheter dilation has previously been shown to be safe and effective in children. This current study demonstrates that balloon dilation is effective in children for whom previous adenoidectomy has failed. Balloon catheter dilation may be considered prior to proceeding to functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children with CRS.
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The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed.
Article
Objective: To compare the management of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (PCRS) between members of the American Rhinologic Society (ARS) and the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO). Study design: Comparison of surveys. Methods: A web-based survey was distributed to ASPO membership twice in September-October 2016. Data were compared to previously published data from ARS membership in March-April 2016. Results: ASPO survey completion rate was 22%. ARS members were more likely to employ oral steroids in initial ( P = .025) and maximal medical management ( P = .001). ASPO members more commonly performed adenoidectomy before computed tomography (CT) ( P < .001). Both groups commonly included adenoidectomy as part of initial surgical management (90% vs 94%, P = .316), while ASPO members more frequently performed adenoidectomy alone (70% vs 43%, P = .001). If initial surgical treatment failed, both groups commonly performed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS; 81% vs 88%, P = .56) with a similar extent including frontal ( P ≥ .207) and sphenoid ( P ≥ .304) surgery. Conclusions: Pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis management is similar between groups, yet there are differences including oral steroid use, relative order of CT versus adenoidectomy, and performing concomitant procedures with adenoidectomy. Both groups commonly perform ESS with similar surgical extent if prior surgical treatment fails. Management by both groups is largely in agreement with published consensus statements.
Article
Objectives Pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis has a substantial impact, but its epidemiology has yet to be elucidated. Our objectives were (1) to determine the associated national visit burden and (2) to assess its frequency relative to other frequent childhood otolaryngological illnesses. Study Design Analysis of national survey databases. Setting Ambulatory care settings in the United States, 2005 to 2012. Subjects and Methods Cases with a diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis were assessed in total and as a proportion of all visits reported in National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys. To place these data into context, results for acute rhinosinusitis, allergic rhinitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and otitis media were also extracted and compared. Data specific to individual age group and calendar year were assessed. Results Chronic rhinosinusitis accounted for 5.6 million visits per annum (range, 3.7-7.5 million) among patients 0 to 20 years of age. Children in the >5- to 10-year-old and >10- to 15-year-old age groups were more likely to be affected ( P < .001). Among all visits, chronic rhinosinusitis was diagnosed in 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9%-2.4%), acute rhinosinusitis in 0.6% (95% CI, 0.5%-0.7%), allergic rhinitis in 2.6% (95% CI, 2.3%-2.8%), upper respiratory tract infection in 8.0% (95% CI, 7.5%-8.4%), and otitis media in 6.7% (95% CI, 6.5%-7.1%). Chronic rhinosinusitis visits were significantly more prevalent than for acute rhinosinusitis (relative risk, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.70-4.10; P < .0001). Among those >15 to 20 years of age, chronic rhinosinusitis was 2.18-fold (95% CI, 1.65-2.70) more frequently diagnosed than otitis media. Conclusions The visit burden from pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis exceeds that of acute rhinosinusitis and equals the burden from allergic rhinitis.
Article
To determine the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in relatives of children with a diagnosis of CRS. Retrospective observational cohort study with population-based matched controls. A unique genealogical database linked to medical records was used to identify subjects ≤12 years old with a diagnosis of CRS from 1996 to 2011. The familial recurrence risks of CRS in first- through fifth-degree relatives of probands were calculated using Cox models and compared to controls randomly selected from the Utah population and matched 10:1 on sex and birth year. We identified 496 pediatric patients with CRS. Siblings of patients with CRS demonstrated a 57.5-fold increased risk (P < 10(-8) ) of also having pediatric CRS. First cousins had a 9.0-fold increased risk (P < 10(-3) ) and second cousins had a 2.9-fold increased risk (P = .002) of pediatric CRS. First-degree relatives, second-degree relatives, and first cousins of pediatric cases demonstrated a significant increased risk of having adult CRS. Parents of probands demonstrated a 5.6-fold increased risk (P < 10(-15) ). Fifty-five probands had one affected parent versus three probands with two affected parents. In the largest population study to date of children with CRS, a significant familial risk is confirmed. Parents of probands were also at increased risk, although it was much more likely for one parent to be affected than both, suggesting a genetic component of the disease. Further understanding of the genetic basis of CRS and its interplay with environmental factors could clarify the etiology and lead to more effective targeted treatments. 3b Laryngoscope, 2015. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Article
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether functional endoscopic sinus (FES) surgery performed in children with chronic rhinosinusitis alters facial growth. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING This was a retrospective age-matched cohort outcome study performed at a tertiary care hospital. RESULTS Sixty-seven children participated. There were 46 boys and 21 girls, and the mean age was 3.1 years at presentation and 13.2 years at follow-up. There were 46 children who underwent FES surgery and 21 children who did not undergo FES surgery. Quantitative anthropomorphic analysis was performed using 12 standard facial measurements. A facial plastic expert performed qualitative facial analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses showed no statistical significance in facial growth between children who underwent FES surgery and those who did not undergo FES surgery. CONCLUSIONS In this study, there was no evidence that FES surgery affected facial growth. SIGNIFICANCE These results will aid physicians when discussing with parents the risks of FES surgery.
Article
Objective To determine whether intravenous administration of dexamethasone during endoscopic sinus surgery in children will decrease scarring and edema during a second-look procedure. Design Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting University medical center. Patients Forty-eight children undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. Intervention Twenty-four children received intravenous dexamethasone and 24 received placebo intraoperatively before the start of the procedure. Main Outcome Measures The status of the ethmoid cavity, the status of the mucosa in the maxillary sinuses, and the patency of the maxillary sinus ostium during the second-look procedure performed 2 to 3 weeks after the primary procedure. Results Children who received intravenous dexamethasone had significantly less maxillary sinus mucosal edema, less ethmoid scarring, and a lower incidence of closure of the maxillary ostium (P = .02). During the second-look procedure, 62% of children in the noncorticosteroid group had abnormal findings vs 29% in the corticosteroid group. Patients with asthma, lower computed tomography scores, and no exposure to smoking had a significantly lower incidence of scarring with use of corticosteroids. Children older than 6 years benefited from intravenous corticosteroid therapy vs children 6 years and younger. Conclusions Treatment with intravenous dexamethasone during endoscopic sinus surgery was safe and was helpful in reducing scarring and swelling noted during the second-look procedure. Use of corticosteroids was particularly helpful in children with asthma, lower computed tomography scores, and no exposure to smoking and in children older than 6 years.
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma frequently coexist in children and adults. However, the precise pathophysiologic mechanism of this interaction is still poorly understood, especially in children, owing to the lack of direct measurements of mucosal inflammation in the upper airways. To determine the pathophysiologic mechanism by analyzing the expression of a large array of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the sinus and adenoid tissues surgically removed from pediatric patients with CRS refractory to medical management. Twenty-eight children 2 to 12 years old diagnosed with CRS with or without asthma and 10 controls were included in this prospective, nonrandomized study. Mucosal expression of 40 inflammatory cytokines was measured with a multiplex assay and was normalized to total tissue protein. Compared with children with CRS and without asthma, children with CRS and asthma had significantly higher sinus levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and adenoid levels of epidermal growth factor, eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, growth-related oncogene, and platelet-derived growth factor-AA. The inflammatory response in the upper airway mucosa of children with asthma and CRS was similar, but more severe, compared with children with CRS without asthma. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that asthma in these patients is caused or exacerbated by severe upper airway disease and supports the concept that treating sinus disease is paramount in the management of chronic asthma in children using, for the first time, direct measurements of airway inflammation in children. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare (1:15 000) condition resulting in recurrent suppurative respiratory tract infections, progressive lung damage and hearing impairment. As the diagnosis is often delayed for years, the purpose of this study was to review the presenting features of children with PCD attending Australia's initial diagnostic PCD service over a 30-year period. A retrospective review of the symptoms of children diagnosed with PCD at Concord Hospital between 1982 and 2012 was undertaken. One thousand thirty-seven paediatric patients were referred for assessment and underwent nasal ciliary brushing. Eighty-four (8.1%) had PCD based on microscopic analysis of nasal cilia. This included 81 with ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities demonstrated on electron microscopy and 3 with a suggestive phenotype, reduced ciliary beat frequency and a family history of PCD. The median age at diagnosis was 6.4 years (range 0.1 to 18.2 years). Forty-six per cent had situs abnormalities and 31% had a family member with PCD. Recurrent cough (81%), rhinosinusitis (71%), recurrent otitis media (49%) and neonatal respiratory distress (57%) were reported. Bronchiectasis at presentation was documented in 32%. Situs abnormalities and neonatal respiratory distress were present together in 26%. PCD remains under-recognised by health-care workers. The combination of neonatal respiratory distress, chronic suppurative cough and rhinosinusitis was the most common documented symptom cluster at presentation in cases of PCD. A heightened awareness of the clinical features of the disease may help to lower the age at diagnosis, facilitate appropriate treatment and improve long-term outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Article
Objectives: To study the utilization of balloon catheter dilation (BCD) compared to traditional endoscopic surgery (ESS) in pediatric patients. Study design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Hospital and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers in California, Florida, Maryland, and New York Subjects: Patients less than 18 years who underwent BCD(316) or ESS(2346), as identified by CPT codes from the State Ambulatory Surgery Databases 2011. Methods: Patient and facility demographics, mean charges, and operating room time were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 2662 children underwent surgery, with BCD used in 10.6% of maxillary, 8.4% of sphenoid, and 11.8% of frontal procedures. Adjusted analysis found that children with asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), GERD, or concomitant adenoidectomy were more likely to have BCD compared to patients without these comorbidities, asthma odds ratio (OR) = 1.94 (95% CI, 1.84-3.41), AR OR = 1.77 (95% CI, 1.03-3.07), GERD OR = 2.79 (95% CI, .59-4.90), or without adenoidectomy OR = 2.50 (95% CI, 1.84-3.41). Patients with cystic fibrosis were less likely to have BCD, OR = 0.33 (95% CI, 0.11-0.95). Median charges for patients undergoing maxillary antrostomy alone by BCD (P = .042) or with adenoidectomy (P < .001) were approximately $2100 and $4200 greater than the median of patients undergoing those procedures with ESS. However, operating room time was similar (P = .81) between patients undergoing maxillary antrostomy, regardless of whether BCD was used, but was longer (P < .001) in those undergoing maxillary antrostomy and adenoidectomy when BCD was utilized. Conclusions: BCD was used in 11.9% of pediatric sinus surgery and had higher average charges with no decrease in OR time compared to procedures that only utilized ESS. Future research is necessary to evaluate whether BCD may lead to improved outcomes and eventually decreased operating room time for pediatric patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
Article
Chronic adenoiditis (CA) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in children are difficult to distinguish based on symptoms alone. A computed tomography (CT) scan is one way to distinguish between the two entities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CT scores can predict outcome of adenoidectomy. A retrospective review was performed over a 10-year period. All children who failed medical treatment had a CT scan and an adenoidectomy, which were reviewed. Children who had a CT score of ≥5 were included in the CA with concurrent CRS group, whereas those who had a CT score of <5 were included in the CA without CRS group. Two hundred thirty-three children met the aforementioned criteria. Mean age was 5.5 years and mean CT score was 6.4. The CRS group had a success rate of 43%, whereas the CA group had a 65% success rate (p = 0.0017). Those children who were asthmatic and had CRS had a success rate of 28% compared with 53% for those who had CA (p = 0.022). Making the diagnosis of CRS in children seems to be critical in determining whether, initially, an adenoidectomy alone is an appropriate treatment, specifically for those who have asthma.
Article
Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in children has been associated with a variety of disorders including atopic disease, cystic fibrosis, immunologic disorders and ciliary dyskinesia. Although a strong association, or even cause and effect relationship, between allergic rhinitis (AR) and CRS is commonly assumed, the epidemiologic relationship between these disorders has not yet been defined in children. Methods A retrospective review of all children diagnosed with CRS on otolaryngology or allergy office evaluation at a large tertiary-care pediatric hospital over a ten-year period was performed. Demographic data and concomitant diagnoses of AR, cystic fibrosis, immunologic disorders and primary ciliary dyskinesia were analyzed for relationships with CRS. Results A total of 4,044 children with an average age of 8.9 years and a slight male predominance (53.8%) with CRS were identified. Of these children, 0.2% had primary ciliary dyskinesia, 4.1% had cystic fibrosis, 12.3% had an immunologic disorder, and 26.9% had AR. A concomitant asthma diagnosis was positively associated with a diagnosis of AR (OR = 6.24, 95% CI: 5.27–7.39, P < 0.001), whereas a concomitant cystic fibrosis diagnosis was negatively associated (OR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.06–0.26, P < 0.001). Conclusions AR is more prevalent than the other comorbidities combined in children with CRS, and is independently associated with the presence of asthma. Formal allergy testing, guided by clinical history and regional allergen sensitivity prevalence, should be strongly considered in all children with CRS, in particular those with reactive airway disease.
Article
The objective of this study was to describe CT and MR findings in patients with allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS). CT and MR images were examined from 10 patients with histologically proven AFS. All patients demonstrated CT evidence of central sinus high attenuation and T2-weighted MR signal void corresponding to surgically proven areas of thick inspissated allergic mucin. AFS is a distinct clinical entity with a highly specific radiographic appearance based on CT and MRI.
Article
To determine the compliance with and tolerance of nasal saline irrigation in children. Phone survey. Tertiary pediatric hospital. Children diagnosed with nasal congestion and rhinorrhea from sinusitis, chronic rhinitis or allergic rhinitis were identified. Children who were prescribed a therapeutic course of nasal saline, who were instructed how to administer the treatment and who were available for follow up were included. Parents were contacted by phone and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their child's experience with nasal saline irrigation. 61 Children met inclusion criteria. 73% of parents initially thought that nasal saline irrigation would be helpful, but only 28% thought that their children would tolerate the treatment. 93% of children made an attempt to use nasal saline irrigation and 86% were able to tolerate the treatment. 84% of parents whose children attempted nasal saline irrigation noted an improvement in their child's nasal symptoms. 77% of children that attempted nasal saline irrigation continue to use this treatment for symptom relief. 93% reported an improvement in their child's overall health that they attributed to this treatment. Perhaps the biggest barrier to routine recommendation of nasal saline irrigation in children is the assumption by both parents and physicians that children will not tolerate it. However, this study demonstrates that the majority of children, regardless of age, were judged by their parents to tolerate nasal saline irrigation.
Article
To compare efficacy and outcome of daily saline irrigation versus saline/gentamicin for treating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Forty children diagnosed with CRS were enrolled. Patients were randomized to once-daily irrigation with saline or saline/gentamicin for 6 weeks. Treatment outcomes were measured using 1) Lund-Mackay scoring system of pre- and post-treatment computer tomography (CT); and 2) Sinonasal Quality-of-Life Survey (SN-5) completed at baseline, and after 3 weeks and 6 weeks of irrigation. Thirty-four patients completed the study and follow-up. There were statistically significant improvements in quality-of-life (QoL) scores after 3 weeks of irrigation within both groups. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the SN-5 scores between the two treatment groups after 3 and 6 week (P = .067). CT scores for each sinus and total scores were reduced for both groups after 6 weeks, and the differences in scores were statistically significant within each group after treatment, but there were no differences between the two treatment groups. Only one patient required functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to persistent symptoms. Compliance was over 90% for once daily irrigation over the 6 week treatment period. Once-daily intranasal irrigation for 6 weeks is safe and equally effective in the treatment of pediatric CRS using saline or saline plus gentamicin, and QoL was significantly improved after 3 weeks of irrigation in both groups. High tolerance, compliance, and effectiveness of irrigation support its use as a first-line treatment for pediatric CRS before considering surgical intervention.
Article
To compare postoperative outcomes of adenoidectomy versus adenoidectomy with maxillary sinus wash as surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in children. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Children who failed to respond to medical therapy for CRS and had an adenoidectomy alone (A) or an adenoidectomy with a maxillary sinus wash (wash/A) were reviewed. Outcome was assessed at least 12 months postoperatively. Sixty children who satisfied the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Thirty-two of the children had a sinus wash at the time of adenoidectomy. The age range was 3 to 13 years (mean, 6.3 years) and the mean computed tomography (CT) score was 6.1. The two surgical groups were comparable with regard to age, sex, presence of allergies, asthma, and smoking in the household. Twenty-eight (87.5%) of the 32 patients who underwent wash/A showed improvement of their symptoms after 12 months follow-up compared with 17 (60.7%) of 28 patients who underwent A (P = .017). Multivariable analysis using logistic regression analysis with age, sex, asthma, allergy, and CT score as covariables showed that the success of wash/A compared with adenoidectomy was higher (93% to 60%) for children with a high CT score compared to those with a lower CT score (P = .011). None of the other variables showed statistical significance. Children with more severe sinus disease as evidenced by a high CT score had a higher success rate if a maxillary sinus wash was performed at the time of adenoidectomy. Children with a low CT score did not have that benefit.
Article
The place of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of children with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains unclear. We sought to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of oral methylprednisolone as an anti-inflammatory adjunct in the treatment of CRS in children. Forty-eight children (age, 6-17 years) with clinically and radiologically proved CRS were included. Patients were randomly assigned to either oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMX/C) and methylprednisolone or AMX/C and placebo twice daily for 30 days. Oral methylprednisolone was administered for the first 15 days with a tapering schedule. Primary parameters were mean change in symptom and sinus computed tomographic (CT) scan scores after treatment. Secondary study parameters were mean changes in individual symptom scores after treatment, relapse rate, and tolerability. Forty-five patients completed the study: 22 received AMX/C and methylprednisolone, and 23 received AMX/C and placebo. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in symptom and sinus CT scores when comparing baseline values with end-of-treatment values (P < .001). Methylprednisolone as an adjunct was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing CT scores (P = .004), total rhinosinusitis symptoms (P = .001), and individual symptoms of nasal obstruction (P = .001), postnasal discharge (P = .007), and cough (P = .009). At the end of treatment, 48% of the children in the placebo group still had abnormal findings on CT scans versus 14% in the methylprednisolone group (P = .013). Therapy-related adverse events were not different between groups. Although insignificant, the incidence of clinical relapses was also less in the methylprednisolone group (25%) compared with that in the placebo group (43%, P = .137). Oral methylprednisolone is well tolerated and provides added benefit to treatment with antibiotics for children with CRS.
Article
To assess the correlation between bacterial pathogens in the adenoid core and the middle meatus, in children with hypertrophied adenoids and chronic or recurrent sinusitis. The study was conducted at Alexandria University Hospitals. We included 103 children aged four to 12 years who were scheduled for adenoidectomy and who had clinical and/or radiological evidence of chronic or recurrent sinusitis. Adenoid core specimens and middle meatal swabs were obtained from every patient and were sent for bacteriological evaluation using standard qualitative and quantitative microbiological techniques. The results were statistically analysed. The bacterial species isolated most frequently from the adenoid core were coagulase-negative staphylococci (40.8 per cent), Staphylococcus aureus (22.3 per cent), Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.4 per cent), Haemophilus influenzae (16.5 per cent) and group A streptococci (15.5 per cent). The bacterial species isolated most frequently from the middle meatus were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41.7 per cent), S aureus (32 per cent), S pneumoniae (28.1 per cent), H influenzae (21.6 per cent) and group A streptococci (19.4 per cent). The adenoid core and middle meatal cultures were both positive for at least one bacterial species in 63 cases, and were both negative in 25 cases. In six cases, a positive adenoid core culture was associated with a negative middle meatal culture. In five cases, a negative adenoid core culture was associated with a positive middle meatal culture (for one or more pathogenic species). Thus, adenoid core culture had a positive predictive value of 91.5 in forecasting the middle meatal culture result, and a negative predictive value of 84.3. Apart from its effect on nasal airway patency, adenoidal tissue may function as a bacterial reservoir initiating and maintaining sinus infection in children. These study findings support a potential role for adenoidectomy in the treatment of chronic or recurrent paediatric sinusitis.
Article
Adenoidectomy is the first step in the surgical management of children with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Adenoidectomy, however, is only effective in half of these children. Although endoscopic sinus surgery is effective for CRS, there is concern for facial growth retardation and major complications. We propose that balloon catheter sinuplasty (BCS) is a minimally invasive, effective procedure in the treatment of pediatric CRS. We undertook a nonrandomized, controlled, prospective review of children with failed medical management of CRS who underwent BCS or adenoidectomy. Outcomes were assessed at 1 year of follow-up and were based on SN-5 scores and the need for revision surgery. Forty-nine children who satisfied the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Thirty of the children had BCS. The age range was 4 to 11 years (mean, 7.7 years), and the mean computed tomography score (Lund-Mackay system) was 7.5. Twenty-four of the 30 patients (80%) who underwent BCS showed improvement of their symptoms after 12 months of follow-up, compared with 10 of the 19 patients (52.6%) who underwent adenoidectomy (p < 0.05). A multivariate analysis using logistic regression analysis with age, sex, asthma, and computed tomography score as covariables showed that BCS was also more effective than adenoidectomy in older children. None of the other variables showed statistical significance. Balloon catheter sinuplasty offers a procedure that is more effective than adenoidectomy and less invasive than endoscopic sinus surgery in the treatment of pediatric CRS.
Article
Most studies demonstrated that the results of endoscopically directed middle meatal cultures (EDMMC) compare favorable with those of maxillary sinus taps in adults rhinosinusitis. Studies comparing results of EDMMC and antral puncture cultures in pediatric rhinosinusitis, however, revealed a decreased correlation. Sampling by suction aspiration was considered likely to improve the reliability of culture. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiology results obtained by EDMMC using swabs or suction aspiration with the results of maxillary sinus taps in pediatric rhinosinusitis. Thirty-one children with chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Patients enrolled in 2007 (group A), underwent EDMMC using a swab, whereas those enrolled in 2008 (group B) underwent EDMMC using suction aspiration. Results obtained by EDMMC were compared with those of maxillary sinus taps. In group A, 29 paired cultures were obtained from 15 patients. In group B, 30 paired cultures were obtained from 16 patients. In group A, EDMMC by swab demonstrated a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 100%, and a correlation of 66%. In group B, EDMMC by suction aspiration provided a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 100%, and a correlation of 87%. The difference in density of growth between EDMMC with swab and maxillary sinus tap was not significant, but the difference between EDMMC with aspiration and maxillary sinus tap was significant. Aspiration technique can significantly enhance the reliability of endoscopy cultures in children with rhinosinusitis, probably by increasing the amount of specimen obtained.
Article
Few studies in the past decade have focused on antimicrobial resistance of bacteria in pediatric rhinosinusitis. This study aimed to characterize organisms cultured from pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis, as well as current resistance patterns of pathogens. The study was conducted from January 2001 to December 2006. Children with radiograph-proven chronic rhinosinusitis underwent maxillary sinus punctures to obtain pathogens and for analysis of antibiotic resistance. The total 295 cultures obtained from 165 children yielded 399 isolates. The most common isolates were alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus (20.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (19.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.0%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (13.0%), and Staphylococcus aureus (9.3%). Anaerobes accounted for 8.0% of all isolates. Susceptibility rates of H influenzae for ampicillin and co-trimoxazole were 44.7% and 42.1%, respectively, in the first 3 years of the study and 25% and 40%, respectively, in the next 3 years. Susceptibility rates of S pneumoniae were 83.3% for penicillin, 0% for erythromycin, and 33.3% for clindamycin in the first 3 years and 73.7%, 5.3%, and 28.9%, respectively, in the latter 3 years. This study showed a different pattern of antibiotic resistance in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis as compared with previous studies in both children and adults. The resistance rate of H influenzae for ampicillin appears to be a growing problem in pediatric rhinosinusitis.
Article
To evaluate whether topical steroids provide symptomatic relief in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of the articles identified by two independent reviewers of all randomized controlled trials that had evaluated intranasal corticosteroids in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without polyps. The quality of included studies was evaluated, and results synthesized using standard random-effects meta-analytical methods. Of 424 potential studies, only nine randomized trials involving 657 patients in total were eligible. Quality of design and reporting was suboptimal, with only one trial adhering to accepted standards for reporting. Five trials combined outcome measures and reported on overall response of CRS without polyps to topical steroids. The summary estimate for overall response to treatment showed no significant benefit and substantial variability among studies (5 trials: RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.50-1.10, P = 0.14, chi(2) = 13.78, I(2) = 66.2%). Total symptom score was reported in three trials with a standardized mean difference favoring topical steroids (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.16-1.09, P = 0.009), with no evidence of heterogeneity (chi(2) = 3.03, P = 0.22). Although the data were limited, there were no reports of increased adverse effects with topical steroids. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate a clear overall benefit for topical steroids in CRS without polyps; however, their use appears safe and may show some symptomatic benefit. A class effect among different topical steroids cannot be assumed, and further trials are required.
Article
Symptom score questionnaires for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in adults does not correlate with computed tomography (CT) scan scores of paranasal sinuses. The SN-5 is a validated symptom score questionnaire for the evaluation of CRS in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of the SN-5 with the CT score in children. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Thirty-two children between the ages of 2 years and 12 years were seen prospectively for symptoms of CRS. The mean age was 7.7 years (range, 3.6-11.5; SD = 2.4). The caretakers completed the SN-5 during their visit when a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses was obtained. The mean SN-5 score was 4.1 (SD = 1.03) and the mean Lund-Mackay CT score was 6.8 (SD = 4.3). There was a significant correlation between the SN-5 score and Lund-MacKay CT score (rho = 0.68; P < .0001) for all children in the study. Twelve (38%) children had asthma, and for those children the correlation was poorer and did not reach statistical significance (rho = 0 .57; P = .057). For nonasthmatics the correlation was stronger (rho = 0.73; P = .0003). Symptom score questionnaire (SN-5) correlated to the disease severity as measured by the Lund-MacKay CT scan score. This is different from what has been found in adults. These findings have positive implications for the follow-up of treatment of CRS in children because the frequent use of CT scans in children is discouraged due to concern for radiation exposure.
Article
The goal of this article is to investigate the factors leading to protracted nasal discharge after pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery. A retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients who had received endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis between January 2002 and September 2006 was conducted. The patients were assigned to the "protracted" group if they demonstrated persistent mucopurulent nasal discharge for more than 3 months after endoscopic sinus surgery, and otherwise to the "resolved" group. There were 21 "protracted" patients (39.6%) and 32 "resolved" patients (60.4%). Among these patients, age at diagnosis or operation, time from initial diagnosis to operation, and blood eosinophil count did not differed significantly between the "protracted" and the "resolved" groups. On the other hand, sinonasal polyposis (80.9% vs. 53.1%, P=0.039), history of allergic rhinitis (52.4% vs. 12.5%, P=0.002) and gender (male vs. female=80.9% vs. 43.7%, P=0.007) were more frequently observed in the "protracted" group than in the "resolved" group. These associations remained significant in a multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio=9.36, 10.69 and 14.84, respectively). Sinonasal polyposis, history of allergic rhinitis and gender were significant and independent risk factors for protracted nasal discharge after pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery. These risk factors should be taken into consideration during preoperative counseling.
Article
Balloon sinuplasty is a new technique that was recently introduced for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The initial experience in adults has been promising. The technique allows for restoring ventilation to the sinuses with minimal risk and trauma to the tissues. I present our initial experience of its use for treatment of CRS in children. I performed a prospective study of 30 children in whom medical therapy failed and who were scheduled for surgery. They were offered treatment with balloon sinuplasty of selected sinuses. The data collected included age, computed tomography score, and comorbid conditions. The primary outcome was the intraoperative success of dilation of the sinuses and the rate of adverse events due to the procedure. The procedure was successful in 51 of 56 sinuses (91%) in 30 children. Five sinuses, of which 4 were hypoplastic maxillary sinuses and 1 was a frontal sinus, were not amenable to dilation. No complications or side effects were noted. The initial experience with balloon sinuplasty in children seems to be very encouraging. Because there is no bone or tissue removal, the procedure seems to be suitable for use in children. A hypoplastic sinus may not be amenable to balloon sinuplasty.
Article
Revision endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in children is uncommon. Causes of failure, however, are not very well delineated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical causes of failure in children after ESS. A retrospective review of children who had ESS at a tertiary children's referral center between 1993 and 2005 for chronic rhinosinusitis. ESS was performed on 243 children. Children with cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency/suppression, and ciliary abnormalities were excluded because the reasons of failure in those children are well known. Data were available on 176 children with at least one year of follow-up. Twenty-three (13%) children required revision. The most common finding was adhesions in 57%, followed by maxillary sinus ostium stenosis or missed maxillary sinus ostium in 52% of the cases. In 39% of the cases, there was recurrent disease in the sinuses that were operated on initially. Interestingly, however, we found that in 26% surgery was needed because of disease that was present in nonoperated sinuses during the primary ESS. A deviated septum and a mucocele were the cause of failure in 17% and 13% of the patients, respectively. Presence of asthma and younger age contributed to the failure in some of these children. Adhesions and a scarred, narrow maxillary sinus ostium were the most common cause of failure in children after ESS. Steps taken during surgery may be required to help reduce the need for revision in particular for younger asthmatic children. Laryngoscope, 2009.
Article
Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) affects children at a young age. Current guidelines recommend intranasal corticosteroids as the first-line treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe or persistent disease or in those who have congestion. In this study, the long-term safety and efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) were assessed in children with PAR. In this multicenter, active-controlled, evaluator-blind, 12-month study, 255 children aged 6-11 years with a >or=1-year history of PAR were randomized to receive once-daily MFNS 100 microg (n=166) or the active comparator beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) 168 microg (n=85). Changes from baseline in overall PAR symptoms and response to treatment were rated at each visit. Cosyntropin stimulation testing, as well as tonometry and slit lamp procedures, were performed. Safety variables were assessed. A total of 137 subjects in the MFNS group and 68 in the BDP group completed treatment. The mean reductions in physician- and subject-rated overall condition of PAR at week 52 were -42.1% and -39.7%, respectively, for MFNS, compared with -44.0% and -39.0%, respectively, for BDP. A total of 94% and 100% of MFNS and BDP subjects, respectively, reported adverse events (AEs), which were mostly mild or moderate. The most frequently reported treatment-related AEs in both groups were epistaxis, headache, and pharyngitis. Response to cosyntropin was normal and no posterior subcapsular cataracts were observed in either group. Although no significant changes in intraocular pressure were observed with MFNS, one subject receiving BDP demonstrated this effect. Treatment with MFNS 100 microg once daily for 1 year was well tolerated in children 6-11 years old, with negligible systemic exposure and no evidence of suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or ocular changes.
Article
Previous investigation demonstrated predominantly lymphocytic inflammation in sinus mucosa of young children with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) rather than eosinophilic inflammation typical of adult CRS. Immunohistopathological study was undertaken to define further the cellular response in pediatric CRS. Maxillary mucosal biopsies from children and adults with CRS were stained for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD4 (helper T lymphocytes), CD8 (cytotoxic T lymphocytes), CD20 (B lymphocytes), CD68 (monocytes/macrophages), CD56 (natural killer cells), kappa and lambda (plasma cells), and myeloperoxidase (MPO; neutrophils). Nineteen children with CRS (median age, 3.0 years; range, 1.4-8.2 years) had more CD8+, MPO+, and CD68+ cells (P < or = .03) and a trend toward more CD3+ and CD4+ cells (P = .06) in their epithelium and more CD20+, kappa+ and lambda+, MPO+, and CD68+ cells (P < or = .05) and a trend toward more CD4+ cells (P = .06) in their submucosa compared with adult control subjects. Immunostains from children with positive sinus cultures were similar to those with negative cultures except for more MPO+ cells in the submucosa (P = .04). The inflammatory response of young children with CRS is characterized by a mixed lymphocyte population, macrophages, and neutrophils. Differences between pediatric and adult CRS suggest differing pathogenic mechanisms or progression in the inflammatory response with protracted disease.
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major cause of morbidity in the pediatric population and a difficult entity to treat with a poorly defined pathophysiology and diagnostic criteria. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has proven to be effective for these patients, but concerns remain regarding its possible interference with facial growth. Recently, stepwise treatment protocols, which include maxillary sinus irrigation followed by long-term intravenous (IV) antibiotics, have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to FESS. However, long-term IV therapy is inconvenient and not without complications. The purpose of this study is to review one institution's experience in treating medically refractory pediatric CRS, specifically to describe the epidemiology of the affected population and estimate the success of a stepped treatment protocol using long-term double oral antibiotic therapy for its treatment. A retrospective review of the medical records of 23 patients who received treatment. Mean age was 2.3 years. Clinical resolution was achieved in 96% of patients and in 78% without the use of IV antibiotics. Four patients who required IV antibiotics subsequently tested positive for immune deficiency. Long-term resolution rate was 78% overall and 86% for those that did not require IV antibiotics. No complications were reported, and no patients required FESS. A stepwise protocol that includes concurrent adenoidectomy and bilateral maxillary sinus irrigation followed by long-term double oral antibiotic therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of pediatric CRS. Patients with immunodeficiency may require long-term IV therapy to achieve symptom resolution.
To evaluate adenoids' importance in pediatric rhinosinusitis as a cause of mechanical blockage or as a reservoir for pathogenic bacteria. A retrospective chart review of prospectively collected data was performed, which included 410 children under the age of 14 who underwent adenoidectomy in the study. Adenoid bacteriology was evaluated with adenoid tissue culture, and sinusitis grade and adenoid size were determined using preoperative PNS X-ray. A potential correlation between these factors was then analyzed. The overall adenoid bacteria isolation rate was 79.3%. The most common bacteria were Haemophilus influenza (28.5%), Streptococcus pneumonia (21.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes (21.0%), and Staphylococcus aureus (15.6%), and bacterial isolation rate increased significantly according to sinusitis grade (p=0.000). This was especially true of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia, whose isolation rates increased significantly (p=0.011, p=0.001 each). There was no statistically significant difference in sinusitis grade or bacterial isolation rate according to adenoid size. Based on these results, adenoids contain many potentially pathogenic bacteria. We suggest that in pediatric rhinosinusitis, adenoids act as a reservoir for pathogenic bacteria rather than as a barrier causing mechanical obstruction.
To evaluate the currently available literature regarding the reported effectiveness of adenoidectomy alone in the management of medically refractory pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were systematically searched for English language manuscripts reporting on effectiveness of adenoidectomy alone in management of medically refractory pediatric rhinosinusitis. Additional manuscripts were identified by manual searching. Random effects modeling was performed to produce summary estimates of adenoidectomy effectiveness. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Six were cohort studies (level 2b) and four were case series (level 4). Mean sample size was 46 subjects (range = 10-121) with grand mean age of 5.8 years (range 4.4-6.9 years). All studies showed that sinusitis symptoms or outcomes improved in half or more patients after adenoidectomy. Eight studies were sufficiently similar to undergo meta-analysis. The summary estimate of the proportion of patients who significantly improved after adenoidectomy was 69.3% (95% CI = 56.8-81.7%, p < 0.001). The possibility of author bias was explored as one author group contributed a large proportion of patients to the study group. Adenoidectomy reduces caregiver reported symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis in a majority of pediatric patients. Given its simplicity, low risk profile, and apparent effectiveness, adenoidectomy should be considered first line therapy for medically refractory, uncomplicated pediatric rhinosinusitis.
Article
• To better understand the factors involved in chronic sinusitis in childhood, we cultured the sinuses, middle meatus, and nasopharynx in 39 children requiring surgical intervention. Sixty-nine percent of these patients had other medical problems, including asthma (49%) and immunologic compromise (18%). We cultured coagulase-negative staphylococcus in 18 patients, Streptococcus viridans in 14 patients, normal flora in 10 patients, Staphylococcus aureus in nine patients, group D streptococcus in five patients, Corynebacterium in five patients, Haemophilus influenzae in three patients, Neisseria in three patients, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces, and an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus in one patient each. Cultures yielded no growth in nine patients. A strong association between cultures of the middle meatus obtained ipsilaterally and cultures of the maxillary (83%) and ethmoid sinuses (80%) occurred. A poor correlation was found between cultures of the nasopharynx and maxillary (45%) and ethmoid sinuses (49%). All seven patients who had both maxillary and ethmoid sinus cultures showed the same organisms in both sinuses. Only 41% of organisms were found on both sides when procedures were performed bilaterally. Cultures of the middle meatus appear to be sensitive and specific for organisms within sinuses. The presence of predominantly nonvirulent organisms in low titers suggests that additional factors other than bacterial overgrowth contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis in children. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117:980-983)
Article
Cultures from 105 children with chronic sinusitis who had failed aggressive medical management were retrospectively studied. Patients with immunodeficiency and cystic fibrosis were excluded from the study. Because the most common sites of disease were the infundibula and anterior ethmoid sinuses, samples of mucosa removed from the anterior ethmoid bullae during endoscopic ethmoidectomy were routinely cultured for aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Fungal cultures were performed for 55 bullae. The principal organisms isolated were alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae non-type B. Only 12 anaerobic organisms and four fungi were isolated. Of the 204 bullae cultured, multiple organisms were found in 61 bullae and 40 showed no growth. Isolates of other less common organisms were also found. These data are analyzed on the basis of age and duration of symptoms, and antibiotic treatment is described.
Article
Sixty-one patients with chronic sinusitis who were referred for an allergy evaluation were evaluated for immunologic competence including assessment of quantitative serum immunoglobulin levels, IgG subclass levels, and response to pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae vaccines. In addition to chronic sinus disease, recurrent otitis media and asthma exacerbation were common problems in this group. Five patients had an elevated age-adjusted IgE level and 22 patients had positive prick tests to one or more environmental inhalants; these findings suggest an allergic component in this subgroup. Twelve additional patients had highly reactive intradermal tests to common environmental allergens, which also may be clinically significant for underlying atopy. Eleven patients had low immunoglobulin levels, 6 had low immunoglobulin levels and vaccine hyporesponsiveness, and 17 had poor vaccine response only. Thus, 34 of 61 patients with refractory sinusitis had abnormal results on immune studies, with depressed IgG3 levels and poor response to pneumococcal antigen 7 being most common. In addition to allergy, immunologic incompetence may be an important etiologic factor in patients with chronic, refractory sinusitis.
Article
CT-scan was used to examine rhinosinusitis in the developing sinuses; 196 children aged from 3 to 14 years were selected on the base of their chronic rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and cough. The patient group was subdivided into six age groups (3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13-14 years). In the youngest age group, the authors noted maxillary involvement in 63%, ethmoidal involvement in 58%, and even sphenoidal sinus involvement in 29% of the children. Involvement decreased gradually with age, with 10% of ethmoidal and 0% of sphenoidal involvement in the 13-14 years age group. Maxillary sinusitis, however, persisted very frequently in the oldest age group (65%). Frontal involvement seems to become significant at the age of 7-8 years (7%) but it never exceeds 15% (11-12 age group). Septal deviations occurred in 16% of the youngest up to 72% in the oldest age group. A prevalence of bullous conchae increased with age too, although less prominently.
Article
We performed a prospective study of 70 infants and children with recurrent sinusitis. We compared plain radiographs with coronal CT scans of the sinuses to determine if plain radiographs can be used to accurately diagnose and localize residual sinus disease amenable to endoscopic surgery. This residual disease is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of recurrences of sinusitis. The patients were taking antibiotics and were clinically well at the time of the two examinations (performed on the same day). Findings on slightly over 80% of the CT scans were abnormal. In about 75% of the patients, the findings on plain radiographs did not correlate with those on CT scans. About 45% of the patients had normal findings on plain radiographs of at least one sinus with an abnormality of that sinus shown on CT scans. Almost 35% of the patients had what was interpreted as an abnormality of at least one sinus on plain radiographs, but that sinus was normal on CT scans. Sinusitis in infants and children is often underdiagnosed or overdiagnosed on the basis of findings on plain radiographs of the sinuses. Plain radiographs cannot be used to determine the need for, or to guide, endoscopic surgery on the sinuses.
Article
The paranasal sinuses were prospectively evaluated by CT, clinical history, and physical examination in infants and children having cranial CT for indications unrelated to upper respiratory inflammation (URI). One hundred and one CT scans were studied, and sinus abnormalities were detected in 18% of patients older than 1 year and without signs or symptoms of URI. When signs and/or symptoms of recent URI were present, the incidence of abnormalities was 31%. Maxillary antral were not identifiable or were opacified in 72% of all infants under 1 year old. Because of the high incidence of sinus abnormalities on CT in children with and without evidence of recent URI, abnormalities should not be ascribed to sinusitis without close clinical correlation.
In the present study 141 children aged between 3 and 10 years and suffering from chronic maxillary sinusitis were treated non-selectively in one of 4 ways: amoxicillin combined with decongestive nose drops, drainage of the maxillary sinus, a combination of the two, or a placebo. The duration of the follow-up period was 6 months. The therapeutic effects of the 4 forms of treatment did not differ significantly. Haemophilus influenzae and streptococcus pneumoniae were the micro-organisms encountered most often in these children. The results are discussed.
Article
A prospective evaluation of the paranasal sinuses was performed on a consecutive series of 137 pediatric patients referred for cranial CT. Approximately one-half of the patients less than 13 years of age had some degree of maxillary or ethmoid sinus opacification. The prevalence and severity of opacification was approximately the same for the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses. Sphenoid sinus abnormality was less common (16% of patients) and was usually minimal or mild. No incidental frontal sinus abnormalities were observed. This study confirms previous reports, based on plain film radiography, of the prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus opacification in children. However, contrary to some prior studies, we did not find a relatively higher rate of opacification in children less than 1 year of age. This may be due to overdiagnosis of maxillary sinus opacification on plain films, in small children. The diagnosis of sinusitis in childhood must take into account not only the radiographic findings but clinical signs and symptoms. Correlation is needed to avoid overdiagnosis in patients referred for sinus radiography for nonspecific indications or who have incidental opacification noted on radiographic or CT studies of the skull and brain.
Article
Sinus disease has been described as one of several aggravating factors for chronic adult-onset asthma. Forty-eight children whose reactive airway disease (asthma) was significantly improved with treatment of their sinusitis have been observed. All of the subjects were seen in the office with chronic (more than 3 months) respiratory symptoms; all had daytime and nighttime cough and/or wheeze. The 48 children (32 male and 16 female) had a mean age of 8.2 +/- 1.2 (SD) years (range 4 to 13 years). Fourteen (35%) were nonatopic as determined by family history, personal history, and skin test reactivity to inhalant and pollen antigens. Eighteen of the patients were receiving or had recently received oral corticosteroids. All had been taking bronchodilators daily for at least 3 months without adequate control of the asthma. Sinus radiographs (Waters view) revealed the following abnormalities of the maxillary sinuses: greater than 6 mm of mucosal thickening (ten children [21%]), one opacified (12 children [25%]), bilateral opacification (18 children [38%]) and air fluid level(s) (eight children [17%]). All children were treated with antimicrobial agents for 2 to 5 weeks. Thirty-nine responded both clinically and radiologically. Antral lavage was performed in nine children. Of the 48 subjects, 38 (79%) were able to discontinue taking the bronchodilators with resolution of their sinusitis. It is concluded that sinus disease in children may be an aggravating factor for chronic reactive airway disease and that proper, aggressive treatment of the former will notably improve the latter.