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1,−1,0

Universe

in the frame of deﬁnitions

of 1, (-1), 0 created on the base of

the action and the inaction

Krzysztof Wypych

Copyright c

Krzysztof Wypych

All rights reserved

Cover: Gerard Wypych

Publisher: self-published

The ﬁrst edition

Józefów 2021

ISBN 978-83-932217-1-4

Contents

Abstract 7

Acknowledgements 9

From the Author 11

1 Introduction 13

2 Assumptions 15

3 Basic concepts 17

3.1 Action ....................... 17

3.2 Inaction ...................... 19

4 Deﬁnitions 20

4.1 Deﬁnition of 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.2 Deﬁnition of (-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

4.3 Deﬁnition of 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

5 Conclusions 26

5.1 Energy....................... 26

5.2 Time........................ 26

5.3 Clock........................ 27

5.4 Geometry ..................... 29

6 Future work 33

6.1 Time technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

6.2 Space technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

References 37

5

Abstract

Based on the general natural phenomena: the action and the

inaction, I present a thought experiment that leads to the

deﬁnitions of: 1, (-1), 0. As a result of reasoning, I determine

as follows:

•the total value of energy Edeﬁnes the total value of the

action, where the action is mathematically represented

by the symbol 1

•the total value of time Tdeﬁnes the total value of the in-

action, where the inaction is mathematically represented

by the symbol (-1)

•the total value of emptiness deﬁnes sum of the total value

of energy and the total value of time, where emptiness

is mathematically represented by the symbol 0

On the basis of the spoken deﬁnitions, I conclude that

a quantum of energy results from the action of time, and the

quantum of time results from the action of energy. The above

allows me to distinguish two levels of abstraction: causative

and geometric. The causative level is represented by the 3D

clock, described as the object on the road, where: the object

is represented by energy, and the road is represented by time.

The geometric level is represented by space-mass, where: mass

results from the action of time, and space results from the ac-

tion of energy.

The arrangement of the levels of abstraction allows to for-

mulate the general description of universe as follows:

E+T=R+M(1)

Which means: the 3D clock determines space-mass. Where,

the 3D clock is the relationship between energy Eand time

T:E+T. And space-mass is the relationship between space

Rand mass M:R+M.

7

Acknowledgements

I thank my son, Gerard, especially for the enormous amount

of time he has spent listening to and criticizing my ideas. It is

thanks to his apt questions and insights that the book ﬁnally

looks what it looks like. Not only from a substantive point

of view. The entire technical side of the book is his merit

and commitment. At the same time, I consider the idea for

a “quantum” cover to be brilliant.

I also thank my wife, Ewa, for her patience. Inevitably, she

had to participate in this work, often listening to discussions

that dragged on until late at night.

9

From the Author

The purpose of this publication is the presentation of certain

concept regarding the general structure and principles of op-

eration of universe. The very concept is not entirely new. Its

residual outline was formed in my head about twenty-ﬁve years

ago. Since then, the concept has evolved, and this publication

presents the result of this evolution.

The idea contained here certainly diﬀers from generally

accepted standards in physics. For someone who is used to

these standards, the way I formulate diﬀerent concepts may

therefore seem strange. As an excuse, I can only say that I am

neither a professional physicist nor mathematician. Besides,

since I show the concept diﬀerent from the currently working

one, its description cannot be obvious. In order to get through

the subsequent layers of abstraction, I am forced to use what

already exists. Whereas the concept that already works cannot

be redeﬁned in one sentence.

Wherein, I would like to point out that in order to un-

derstand “what the author meant”, there is a need to cut oﬀ

almost completely from the classical method of interpretation.

In my interpretation: an object is not a classically understood

object, space is not classically understood space, mass is not

classically understood mass, time is not classically understood

time, and the 3D clock is not a classically understood clock.

Of all the possible eﬀort putted into understanding the

content, this “cut-oﬀ procedure” may turn out to be the most

troublesome. Nevertheless, looking at the Sun wandering in

the sky, it is also hard to believe that it does not revolve around

the Earth. What I mean by this is that what seems obvious,

because it comes from a trivial observation based on sensual

impressions, is not really so. In my opinion, geometry is an il-

lusion. Just as it is the illusion that the Earth is ﬂat or that the

Sun revolves around the Earth. I assume that exists a higher

11

dimension in which the picture of geometry is created. The

part of this higher dimension is time. Time is a phenomenon

that seems to elude any clear deﬁnition. In my opinion, this

is because time is considered in the form of abstraction de-

tached from the phenomenon which complements it, namely

from energy. Therefore, the dimension on which time is cur-

rently fastened, in my opinion, is incomplete. This determines

the direction of the higher dimension only to the part respon-

sible for what we commonly interpret as time. In my opinion,

only time combined with energy gives the full dimension that

goes beyond geometry.

12

1 Introduction

The general theory of relativity formulated by Albert Einstein,

shortly speaking, goes beyond the Newtonian theory of grav-

ity. However, energy is known to be quantum in its nature,

and in modern physics exists a conviction about a need to

create a theory capable to represent gravitational eﬀects in

a quantum manner. Instead, the general relativity, like New-

ton’s theory, is still a classical theory.

Newton described the gravity as a force. Einstein presented

the same phenomenon as a certain geometric eﬀect instead.

In this way Einstein, inter alia, got rid of the concept of the

force from the description. In a consequence, at least from the

point of view of the number of concepts representing physical

phenomena, the general theory of relativity is simpler in this

juxtaposition.

In the process of constructing the theory, Einstein per-

formed a certain “trick” consisting in binding mass with en-

ergy. In general, the Einstein equation states it is matter with

energy that determines the curvature of space-time[2], and the

curvature of space-time determines the path the matter with

the energy travels.

In Einstein’s reasoning, space-time is not a “homogeneous

form of being”, i.e. a real connection of time and geometry

into one being. What can be described as a “geometric point

in space” is a separate entity in relation to what deﬁnes time.

In this case, Einstein makes it clear that time is deﬁned by the

clock[1]. Simultaneously, based on what Einstein himself says

about the relationship between mass and energy, it is diﬃcult

to ﬁrmly and unequivocally say that, in his opinion, mass and

energy are one and the same physical phenomenon. Einstein

only says that the material body contains energy. As a result,

if we were to assume that from a physical point of view, mass

and energy are not necessarily the same, then in the basis of

13

the general relativity we would have four physical phenomena:

energy, mass, space and time.

In my opinion, the existing of: energy, time, mass and

space is beyond doubt. Although, the relationships between

them need some ordering. That’s why I will show the rea-

soning which, in my opinion, leads to the correct description

of relationships between: energy, mass, space and time, in

a general sense. For this purpose, I will conduct a thought

experiment concerning the material of the universe. I will ex-

tract from this material its general features that I will then

use as an information carrier to ﬁx the key deﬁnitions for the

general description of the universe, namely: 1, (-1) and 0, — in

the order given here — hereinafter brieﬂy referred to as “3D ”,

which literally means “three deﬁnitions”.

The result of mentioned reasoning changes the interpre-

tation of the concepts of: space, energy, mass and time in

such a way that it bonds energy with space, and mass with

time. This allows for the emergence of two levels of abstrac-

tion: causative and geometric. Thanks to this, by the nature

of things, i.e. without any targeted activities in this direction,

this general description reveals, in my opinion, to be quantum.

14

2 Assumptions

To begin with, I assume that all current information about the

universe is recorded as a part of the material which builds the

universe. Continuing, I accept it tentatively that in the current

universe it is possible to distinguish between what we under-

stand as matter, and what we understand as space. Therefore

“tentatively”, because at this point of consideration “matter”

and “space” are not clearly deﬁned. Nevertheless, we are aware

that exist such a thing as: star, planet, atom or elementary

particle, such as electron. We also understand that, for exam-

ple, there is nothing “material like” between electrons in atom

and still electrons are not directly connected to each other.

Likewise, we do not see any “tangible” objects that have any-

thing to do with the spacing of planets and stars from each

other. What separates electrons, or celestial bodies, is com-

monly interpreted as void or empty space. We do not know

what object and void really are. A typical classic approach to

the concept of space and matter consists in “an intuitive sense”

of their meaning. This intuition comes from a sensory judg-

ment, which is from the image that our mind generates, and

not from the actual state of aﬀairs. Therefore, this “working

picture” only aims at some classical “visualization” of concep-

tual base which seems to be commonly understood.

Due to the existence of these two qualitatively diﬀerent

manifestations of physical being, I interpret the all current

universe as one object, where the material which builds this

object is not evenly distributed within it. Observations of

galaxies, stars, planets show they do not take up all the avail-

able space but are separated from each other. Likewise for

the case of atom. Most of what builds up the form of atom is

called empty space.

In the homogeneous universe there should be either only

space or only matter. Mixed form means that the condition

15

of homogeneity is not met. There are at least two diﬀerent

physical entities in the terms of quality. When exist two of

qualitatively diﬀerent beings, they are diﬃcult to interpret

unequivocally. It is quite easy to misjudge their actual form.

This is because, as a part of our universe, we do not stand

outside the universe. As a result, we are deprived of a reference

system that would allow us to objectively evaluate the quality

of its individual elements. The interpretation which says that

object or matter is a certain “compact” being and that space is

a certain “open” being is a subjective image built in our minds.

Similarly subjective is the impression derived from a trivial

observation that the Sun goes around the Earth. From such

a position, I ﬁnd it troublesome to correctly interpret physical

phenomena. Therefore, from now on, I assume the current

universe as non-existent, and in its place I introduce a new

universe from scratch.

To start with, I assume that the new form of universe is

represented by a qualitatively homogeneous object. Wherein,

the “object” means the material which builds the universe. It

does not matter what constitutes the material of the universe

in a physical sense. The only important thing is the existence

of this material. Since there is only the material of the uni-

verse, there is no frame of reference which would allow any

evaluation of it. There is no observer in such a situation. Al-

though it can also be said that the material of the universe

and the observer are the same.

I also assume that the object fulﬁlls the entire available po-

tential of the universe. Fulﬁlling all available potential means

reaching the full value of the only dimension that actually ex-

ists. Where by “dimension” I mean a parameter that subject to

the value change. In this particular case: the universe. Where

the highest value of the parameter is the full value. And the

smallest value of the parameter is the empty value.

16

3 Basic concepts

The basic concepts, I will write about, are something that re-

sembles primary concepts in mathematics. On the basic con-

cept is ﬁxed basic information, which is information that can-

not be more generalized. In other words, the basic concept is

information which is not composed of other information.

3.1 Action

In relation to the concepts of “full value” and “empty value”,

it is necessary to interpret their meaning. Since no limit is

visible, the dimension of the full universe may appear to be

inﬁnite. Therefore, it may seem the full universe is an inﬁnitely

large object. Nevertheless, such an assessment results from ill-

posed question which is: how big is the full universe? In my

opinion, the question of how big the object is, only make sense

if the question does not concern the entire universe. The rea-

son is that only then a geometric interpretation makes sense,

from which follows the question as to what we mean by size.

The concept of an inﬁnitely large object is an extension of ge-

ometric dimension. Geometry, in turn, results directly from

our biological sensory-analytical conditioning. In other words,

geometry exists in our “classical” minds. Same as color and

sound. Instead, the universe in its entirety is beyond the scope

of the “classical” interpretation. Something even described as

inﬁnitely large does not mean that it is described as complete

in the absolute sense. Nevertheless, I believe the concept of

inﬁnity approximates certain general feature of the universe,

which is crucial for the general description of the universe.

Well, let’s take, for example, two glasses: one empty and

the other full. There is an obvious diﬀerence in a content

between them. Apart from the material forming the walls of

vessels, it can be said that in one case the thing is full, and

17

in the other case the thing is empty. Similarly, the universe

represented by the object could be full or empty.

However, the glasses diﬀer not only in their content. For

the empty glass to become full, the content must change, where

the change is an action of ﬁlling the empty glass. So, in ad-

dition to the material which builds the glass and its content,

there is something else it diﬀers from this material, namely:

the action. The action is a dimension diﬀerent from that of

the object’s material. However, it is related to this material.

In my opinion, the action is related to the material so that it

evokes an eﬀect of increasing the value of the material.

For the full universe material case, there is no information

as to how fast the action runs. There is no information that

can speed up or slow down the action in any way. Hence,

a thought might arise that the action inﬁnitely fast builds up

an inﬁnitely large universe. However, it is therefore pointless

to ask about the size of the full universe, because it is pointless

to ask about its pace of action. These two phenomena are

closely related. To ask about the pace of action, appears a need

for a concept of time and for that a clock is needed. The clock

is nothing but an object placed on a road1. The full universe

represents only the object instead. There is no road. Even if

we assume that the road exists but its size is simply equal to 0,

then the resulting clock does not measure time. Therefore, the

action cannot run inﬁnitely fast. Inﬁnitely fast action means

the existence of inﬁnitely small time intervals, but time of the

full universe does not pass at all. Therefore, in my opinion,

the action of the full universe is inherently immediate.

For comparison: inﬁnity is not immediate. The feature of

inﬁnity is the continuity of the action. Inﬁnity goes. Instant-

ness is. I would even say that inﬁnity goes where instantness

already is.

1Author’s deﬁnition

18

3.2 Inaction

When in the currently existing universe we look at the action of

emptying or ﬁlling the glass, we see that it has such a property

that it lasts. This proves the action we observe in current

universe does not proceed instantly. The glass, for example

empty, does not become full instantly. This means that in

addition to the action, there is something else it determines

the diﬀerent content of the glass. This “something” causes the

action does not reach its entire dimension. Hence, I conclude

that apart from the action, there is also the inaction.

Eventually, the operation of emptying or ﬁlling the glass

is completed. This proves that in the current universe the

inaction occupies only part of the action.

The glass can be ﬁlled faster or slower. When the glass is

ﬁlled faster, what we perceive as the inaction is smaller than

when the glass is ﬁlled more slowly. In the case of immedi-

ate action, considered in section 3.1, the inaction does not

exist at all. However, when the inaction value will occupy the

whole action, the glass cannot be ﬁlled at all. From a volume

perspective, the full inaction value does not ﬁll any volume.

Thus, the full value of the inaction means the empty value of

the universe.

19

4 Deﬁnitions

The basic concepts, although they may seem understandable,

are not comfortable to use in practice. The purpose of below

deﬁnitions is to convert the basic concepts into the concepts

that already exist in physics. After associating the basic con-

cepts with the known concepts, I will bind the latter with my

own physical interpretation. In other words, I will add to the

concepts of energy and time their physical representations. In

this way, I will step from the basic concept to the eﬀect that

it evokes on the observer.

4.1 Deﬁnition of 1

From the description contained in the sections: 3.1 and 3.2,

I conclude the existence of two fundamental natural phenom-

ena: the action and the inaction. More general phenomena in

my opinion do not exist.

As to the action, I state that the action is what we in-

terpret as energy. I assume that energy in its entire volume

represents the symbol 1. Where, the symbol 1 here does not

mean a number, e.g. a real number. Thus, 1 as used here may

or may not be subject to all known mathematical operations.

However, marking energy with the symbol 1 does not say

what energy means. On the one hand, there is a word “energy”

and on the other the symbol 1. Energy cannot be expressed

without the material which is subjected to energy, because

there is a lack of medium that could carry information about

the value of energy. So, what exactly comes from energy and

what in a future can be used as an unit of energy measurement,

is missing. Hence, I assume that for energy equal to 1 the

object reaches its entire volume, and the object means the

product of the action.

I don’t know how the full object looks like. As previously

20

reasoned, the total value of the object goes beyond the geomet-

ric description. I also don’t know if reaching the total value

of the object is possible at all. The total value of the object

seems to be the purely theoretical state of aﬀairs. Neverthe-

less, within the existing universe, in my opinion, we observe at

least a part of representation of what we understand in terms

of the object. This representation shows the phenomenon we

used to interpret as space.

I would like to emphasize that the interpretation described

here, directly means that space is the object. So, it is com-

pletely diﬀerent from the commonly accepted view which in-

terprets space as a kind of emptiness that is devoid of objects.

It is very important at this point to convert the image of void-

ness into the image of fullness. I am aware that such a change

may seem impossible at ﬁrst. The possible reason is that we

get the impression that something full has no room for any

action. Speciﬁcally, it does not allow anything to move. How-

ever, I assure that this is not true. In the next subsection

I will show a place for the action. Besides, I am talking about

a partial representation of the object that is not fully built for

some reason. The complete object is impossible to imagine.

By spoken nature of the total value of the object, it is never

full space but a partial one. This can be visualized quite eas-

ily by making a hypothetical observation from the position of

full dimension. The full value of the object means a material

homogeneity. Whereas in the real universe we do not observe

only space. Besides space exist such entities as: atoms, planets

or stars, as well. Although there are much less of them than

space, they still occupy some space for their own bodies’ ma-

terial. The total value of the object, according to the shown

reasoning, lies beyond geometrical description. The partial

one — commonly available — gives us an idea of what space

distance means from the point of view of geometry.

Hence, I assume that the full value of the action generates

21

the full value of space. The action means energy and space

means the object, which is the universe. Therefore, I assume

that energy determines space:

E= 1 = R(2)

where:

E- energy

R- space

1- mathematical symbol

4.2 Deﬁnition of (-1)

If the object E= 1 = Rplaced on a road builds a clock and

the clock shows time, then the slower operation of the clock

shows the larger time span. Hence, the greater value of time,

the greater value of the inaction. The full value of time means

the full value of the inaction and time works in the opposite

direction to energy within the frame of the same dimension.

Just as qualitatively homogeneous action means the full

value of the phenomenon, also qualitatively homogeneous in-

action means the full value of the phenomenon. This means

that since there is no information about the action limiting

the dimension of the inaction, by default the inaction is im-

mediate.

However, the action and the inaction are entirely oppo-

site phenomena. Therefore, since I denote the action with the

symbol 1, I denote the inaction with the symbol (-1) to distin-

guish between the relative directions of energy and time action.

Where, like the symbol 1, the symbol (-1) does not mean a real

number here, so it may or may not subject to known math-

ematical operations. A negative sign in front of the symbol

1 means that the inaction is in the opposite direction to the

action.

22

Similarly as with the case of energy, now with time, on the

one side of the equation appears, in this case (-1), and on the

other side the word “time”. The symbol (-1) is mathematical

symbol, so it does not explain what time is, but only replaces

the word “time” with (-1). The information carrier is miss-

ing again. In this case for time. Therefore, I am asking the

question of what does actually represent time? Which means,

what actually comes from the operation of time?

From the adopted earlier object’s point of view, the full

value of time means no object, which is no space. As in the

case of energy, I cannot say what the full value of space looks

like, so in the case of time I cannot say what the total lack of

space looks like. Nevertheless, just as the partial representa-

tion of energy is the part of space, in my opinion, a deﬁcit of

space also has a naturally existing representation in the cur-

rent universe. Namely, the deﬁcit of space which is an eﬀect of

time operation, is nothing but mass. Mass is the physical phe-

nomenon that, in my opinion, builds an insuﬃciency of space.

The greater mass in space, the bigger insuﬃciency of space.

The result of local insuﬃciency of space is what we classically

interpret as the appearance of mass of given object.

Hence, I assume that time determines the deﬁcit of space:

T= (−1) = M(3)

where:

T- time

M- space deﬁcit (mass)

(−1) - mathematical symbol

23

4.3 Deﬁnition of 0

Mathematical symbols used in the form of 1 and (-1) do not

show the independent values of the deﬁned objects. In each

deﬁnition there is a certain default frame of reference which

indicates what the object takes its own value against to.

For the deﬁnition of 1, full energy means the empty value

of time. For the deﬁnition of (-1), full time value means the

empty value of energy (ﬁgure 1).

Figure 1. The symbolic relationship between energy and time.

The dashed line marks the void dimension where energy and

time do not exist at all.

I assume that empty value represents the mathematical

symbol 0.

Hence, energy and time are related to each other in such

a way that:

1E+ 0T= 1 (4)

(−1)T+ 0E= (−1) (5)

24

From this relationship it follows that the empty dimension

is the result of combining the full energy dimension with the

full time dimension:

0 = E+T(6)

where:

E- energy

T- time

0- mathematical symbol

25

5 Conclusions

The deﬁnitions shown above provide grounds for drawing the

speciﬁc conclusions regarding the structure and the operation

of the universe.

5.1 Energy

According to 3D, the full energy value is equal to the full

dimension of the action:

E= 1 (7)

However, in the current universe the dimension of the ac-

tion is reduced by some non-zero value of the inaction.

In general it follows that:

E= 1 + T(8)

where:

(−1) < T < 0

Hence, I interpret that the action is interrupted by the

inaction. The dimension of the inaction causes the action to

lose its continuity.

Therefore, in general: E= 1 + Tshows one quantum of

energy. The value of the coeﬃcient is undetermined here be-

cause E= 1 + Tshows — in this speciﬁcally case — the only

quantum of energy that hypothetically exists.

5.2 Time

If, in accordance with 3D, we look at the current relation be-

tween energy and time, but from the time frame of reference,

then in general:

26

T= (−1) + E(9)

where:

0< E < 1

Hence, I interpret that the inaction is interrupted by the

action. The dimension of the action causes the inaction to lose

its continuity.

Therefore, in general: T= (−1) +Eshows one quantum of

time. The value of the coeﬃcient is undetermined here because

T= (−1) + Eshows — in this speciﬁcally case — the only

quantum of time that hypothetically exists.

5.3 Clock

Let Erepresent the object, let Trepresent the road, and let

both of them represent the clock, say: the 3D clock. The re-

sulting 3D clock is built by two phenomena: the action and the

inaction. Hence, every 3D clock is inherently the phenomenon

that has some feature of a wave, namely the maximum and

minimum of value of the action.

The 3D clock diﬀers from the classic clock that we are

used to. In the classic clock the road is classic space that

is traversed by some classic object which is the conventional

pointer of the clock. Whereas, in the 3D clock the road has

a potential value, where the potential value is a lack of the

action. And the very lack of the action is time. Therefore,

it can be said that the 3D clock is “the action stepping after

awaiting”.

We wait for the “pointer shift”, which means we wait for the

action, because this “pointer” does not step continuously. The

action is interrupted by the inaction. The bigger value of time

means more and longer delays within the action. Therefore,

27

the action deprived of time is immediate. The total lack of the

action is a permanent awaiting instead.

At the moment, I do not know how exactly the next 3D

clocks in the universe were created. Nevertheless, I know that

more than one 3D clock exists.

Let energy represent 1 as deﬁned above, time as deﬁned

above (-1) and emptiness as deﬁned above 0.

Suppose that by entirely activating some 3D clock signed

by a letter A, we emerge its entity, but we lose its time.

For this case:

A= 1 (10)

In the real universe, this entity is such an eﬀect that:

A=E+T(11)

where:

E= 1

(−1) < T < 0

That means that in the real universe, Ais not equal to 1.

So that “entirely activating some 3D clock ” is just a theoretical

assumption of discarding the accompanying time.

Let us also assume that by entirely stopping some next 3D

clock signed by a letter B, we lose its entity, but we gain its

road. For this case:

B= (−1) (12)

In the real universe, the mentioned road is such an eﬀect

that:

B=T+E(13)

28

where:

T= (−1)

1> E > 0

That means that in the real universe, Bis not equal to

(-1). So that “entirely stopping some next 3D clock” is just

a theoretical assumption of discarding the accompanying en-

ergy.

Let Arepresent the object, and let Brepresent the road

in such gained subsequent 3D clock. It follows that:

A+B= 0 ⇐⇒ A= (−B)(14)

That means that the bond between the 3D clocks depends

only on the degree to which the value of the quantum of energy

of 3D clock Ais aligned with the quantum of time of 3D

clock B. The 3D clocks disappear when they are completely

matched.

5.4 Geometry

The 3D clock by showing time shows the value of an await-

ing for the action. From a physical point of view, time is an

amorphous form of being. Time is the potential that provides

a place for energy. It is characterized by the lack of any ma-

terial form. However, while waiting for the hand to move on

the clock face, we are actually waiting for the potential to be

seized by the action. The action is immediate. The inaction is

also of this nature. Thus, the size of the awaiting is due to the

fact that the action does not occupy all the available potential

in “one step”, because the value of the action is not equal the

value of the available inaction. In this way the inaction forces

subsequent “steps” of the action, and it divides the action into

parts. Whereas, the traversed road of potential becomes what

we classically interpret as empty space.

29

Thus, in general, the 3D clock shows not only the value of

time but also the value of space.

Wherein, from the classical point of view, energy coming

into place of time creates... nothing. After entire time volume

is occupied by the entire volume of energy, from a mathe-

matical point of view, 0 appears. Therefore, neither what we

interpret as mass nor what we interpret as space, possesses

what we commonly understand as matter.

At ﬁrst glance, such an inference may seem pointless. Nev-

ertheless, physics in principle describes the measurable phe-

nomena. Time and energy are actually the measurable phe-

nomena. Regardless of what the information about them is

ﬁxed on from a material point of view. In the case of the uni-

verse, information is ﬁxed on the operation of the 3D clock.

That means that only the functioning 3D clock exists in the

sense of a measurable entity. There are no non-working 3D

clocks. Or in other words, non-working 3D clocks are immea-

surable. It can also be said that since the 3D clock does not

work, it does not interact with the observer. It becomes invisi-

ble, completely transparent. Hence, even if the material exists

in an absolute sense, it means nothing.

The 3D clock is a non-geometric form of abstraction, but

its action generates the eﬀects that can be considered in the

geometric sense. Wherein, geometry builds a diﬀerent level of

abstraction than the 3D clock. Namely, space comes from the

action, but space itself is not the action. Likewise, mass comes

from time, but the very mass is not time. Space and mass are

eﬀects that can be considered in the geometric terms. Energy

and time, in turn, are eﬀects that are not subject to geometry.

As a consequence, the entire above study can be summa-

rized brieﬂy as follows:

E+T=R+M(15)

30

Which means: the 3D clock determines space-mass.

Where, the 3D clock is the energy-time relationship men-

tioned above: E+T. While space-mass is the relationship

between 3D clock derivative eﬀects, which is mass and space:

R+M.

Figure 2. The drawing symbolically depicts the relationship

between energy and time as well as between space and mass.

The dashed line marks the void dimension, the hypothetical

zero axis around which the action and the inaction oscillate to

determine the current status of the 3D clock.

The advantage of above reasoning is the clear separation

of non-geometric eﬀects from the geometric ones. The emer-

gence of another level of abstraction running beyond geometry

produces what can be called the next, higher dimension. The

higher dimension makes it possible to show the universe in any

scale and in a quantum manner, because it provides a place

for the observer in a sense “outside” the universe. Thanks to

this, the universe can be described in isolation from geometry,

because this another dimension has its own relative relations

independent from geometry. On the other hand, interpretation

problems resulting from mixing the non-geometric eﬀects with

31

the geometric ones begin to appear on the scale of individual

quanta. The cause of these problems is quite simple. Accord-

ing to 3D, the single quantum is not the geometric object. The

single quantum, such as photon, is the 3D clock. Trying to

imagine the geometry related to photon, in my opinion, will

be similar to trying to imagine the geometry of the complete

universe. However strange it may look from a geometry per-

spective where we set some limitations, in my opinion, photon

does not travel the classically understood road. The 3D clock

is not geometrically limited, because it has no such thing as

a physical body.

The result of the relationship between the 3D clocks can

be an eﬀect that looks like something we interpret as the ob-

ject. But such classic object is only the result of the deeper

phenomenon transferred to the layer of geometry. This deeper

phenomenon is the exchange of the quantum of action and

inaction between the 3D clocks.

There is no geometry in the 3D clock system. Geometry

works within classical space with a classically deﬁned spatial

distance. And the 3D clock only generates what we interpret

as classic space. So it works on the diﬀerent level of abstrac-

tion, within the frame of diﬀerent space.

The 3D clock works within the frame of energy and time.

Time and energy are not geometrical entities instead. The

distances between the 3D clocks determine the diﬀerences of

the action and the inaction — not the spatial distance. The

action and the inaction generate own non-geometric relative

directions. Therefore, from the point of view of the single

action quantum, the action does not run in some geometric

direction, but in the direction of available potential. Thus,

photon in its own frame of reference is immediately on every

available road. Where, “road” means the potential for the

action, which is time. Not classically understood space. In

other words, photon travels over time. Not over space.

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6 Future work

It is diﬃcult to imagine the possibility of applying informa-

tion in such a general form as shown above to some speciﬁc

applications. To calculate anything, units of measurement are

needed to act as the frame of reference. Nevertheless, the gen-

eral description is, in my opinion, the basis for the detailed one.

Without the general description that sets out what constitutes

the basis of the existence and the principle of its operation, it

is diﬃcult to correctly formulate the detailed description re-

lating to some speciﬁc cases.

In my opinion, the presented description can serve as an

input for the quantum theory of gravity. At the same time,

it is necessary to former determine the coeﬃcient determining

the value of time quantum. There is also the need to decide

how to represent the size of the object. The functioning unit of

size — as well as the unit of mass — is not quantum in nature.

Some time ago, I proposed within ResearchGate to base the

unit of size on the naturally existing diﬀerence between the

excited state and the basic state of hydrogen atom. Of course,

I meant the diﬀerence in the size of electron shell.

Below I show some outline of the hypothetical possibilities

based on the general description that seem quite plausible.

6.1 Time technology

In my opinion, classically interpreted space is generated, inter

alia, in the area lying between quark triplets. Where the bonds

between the quarks result from the fact that the 3D clock that

generates the form of the quarks goes towards the unoccupied

space exactly in between quark triplets. It is one of the places

where there is the remaining potential of the action in the

universe. At this point, ordinary, classically understood space

does not yet exist.

33

The area between the quarks looks so small that could be

raised doubts about the possibility of building anything in be-

tween. This is what could be imagined when the evaluation of

dimension is subject to the classically understood geometry of

space. Meanwhile, the real dimension of potential between the

quarks looks diﬀerent than the value of ordinary space. Ordi-

nary space naturally separates what we classically interpret as

the objects. That is because ordinary space is actually what

should be called the object. According to 3D, by increasing its

value, space increases what we interpret as the size of spatial

distance. While the time dimension, according to 3D, has the

opposite eﬀect. Time shortens the size of ordinary space. As

a result, it invokes the attracting eﬀect.

As to the rule, the size cannot be literally “seen”. Neither

the potential nor the positive one. We only see what we in-

terpret as a light of a varying frequency. By “seeing” the size,

we experience the interpretation resulting from the analysis of

quantum wave of the action and the inaction, which is from

the analysis of the 3D clock. Where “experience” comes from

perceiving within whole sense range.

Turning back time does not seem completely impossible in

such a setup. If the potential reaches its full value, the 3D

clock simply stops working. Hence, it can be said that the

universe is nothing but... a battery. Turning back time means

recharging the battery, which is removing used space from the

3D clock. I think that, at least from a local point of view, the

thing is technically possible.

6.2 Space technology

If the quark triplets that build the hadrons are combined with

other quark triplets that build the other hadrons in such a way

that they go towards a shared potential of place, then this con-

nection could be used, for example, in information technology.

34

The rationale is as follows. If the quarks “can see each other

on the other side”, perhaps there is no distance delay known

“on our side”. “On the other side” the classical distance be-

tween quarks, from the individual’s point of view of hadrons,

theoretically does not exist.

The action, say, inter-spatial, if it turned out to be possible,

would certainly ﬁnd its place in many areas of our life, e.g. in

telecommunication or in medicine. Transferring information

that is not limited by the speed of light would undoubtedly

represent a breakthrough in the ﬁeld of telecommunication.

For the second case, the ability to intervene in a relatively

non-invasive manner practically anywhere and on any scale in

a living organism does not seem impossible. Perhaps there

is a real possibility of creating a controlled tunnel between

hadrons, bypassing ordinary space, so subtle that it would be

practically unnoticeable from the point of view of a potential

patient.

If so, then perhaps we should also consider this possible

way of communication when looking for signals from alleged

alien civilizations.

However, the development of technologies based on the

inter-spatial communication requires prior conﬁrmation of ac-

tual connection between hadrons out of ordinary space. Al-

though such associations seem possible, it may as well turn out

that the hadrons are completely cut oﬀ from each other in the

region of the potential. They can also be linked by such subtle

channels that in practice they are in no way useful, or useful

but in a very narrow ﬁeld of application. However, if it turned

out that the connectivity between hadrons in the potential

region is preserved, the possibilities of using this connection

would be limited only by our imagination.

35

References

[1] A. Einstein. Relativity: The Special and General Theory.

Methuen & Co Ltd, 1916.

[2] M. Kaku. Hiperprzestrzeń. Naukowa podróż przez

wszechświaty równoległe, pętle czasowe i dziesiąty wymiar.

Prószyński i S-ka, 1996.

[3] D. T. Leon Lederman. Boska Cząstka. Jeśli Wszechświat

jest odpowiedzią, jak brzmi pytanie. Prószyński i S-ka,

1996.

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