in the frame of deﬁnitions
of 1, (-1), 0 created on the base of
the action and the inaction
All rights reserved
Cover: Gerard Wypych
The ﬁrst edition
From the Author 11
1 Introduction 13
2 Assumptions 15
3 Basic concepts 17
3.1 Action ....................... 17
3.2 Inaction ...................... 19
4 Deﬁnitions 20
4.1 Deﬁnition of 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2 Deﬁnition of (-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3 Deﬁnition of 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5 Conclusions 26
5.1 Energy....................... 26
5.2 Time........................ 26
5.3 Clock........................ 27
5.4 Geometry ..................... 29
6 Future work 33
6.1 Time technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.2 Space technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Based on the general natural phenomena: the action and the
inaction, I present a thought experiment that leads to the
deﬁnitions of: 1, (-1), 0. As a result of reasoning, I determine
•the total value of energy Edeﬁnes the total value of the
action, where the action is mathematically represented
by the symbol 1
•the total value of time Tdeﬁnes the total value of the in-
action, where the inaction is mathematically represented
by the symbol (-1)
•the total value of emptiness deﬁnes sum of the total value
of energy and the total value of time, where emptiness
is mathematically represented by the symbol 0
On the basis of the spoken deﬁnitions, I conclude that
a quantum of energy results from the action of time, and the
quantum of time results from the action of energy. The above
allows me to distinguish two levels of abstraction: causative
and geometric. The causative level is represented by the 3D
clock, described as the object on the road, where: the object
is represented by energy, and the road is represented by time.
The geometric level is represented by space-mass, where: mass
results from the action of time, and space results from the ac-
tion of energy.
The arrangement of the levels of abstraction allows to for-
mulate the general description of universe as follows:
Which means: the 3D clock determines space-mass. Where,
the 3D clock is the relationship between energy Eand time
T:E+T. And space-mass is the relationship between space
Rand mass M:R+M.
I thank my son, Gerard, especially for the enormous amount
of time he has spent listening to and criticizing my ideas. It is
thanks to his apt questions and insights that the book ﬁnally
looks what it looks like. Not only from a substantive point
of view. The entire technical side of the book is his merit
and commitment. At the same time, I consider the idea for
a “quantum” cover to be brilliant.
I also thank my wife, Ewa, for her patience. Inevitably, she
had to participate in this work, often listening to discussions
that dragged on until late at night.
From the Author
The purpose of this publication is the presentation of certain
concept regarding the general structure and principles of op-
eration of universe. The very concept is not entirely new. Its
residual outline was formed in my head about twenty-ﬁve years
ago. Since then, the concept has evolved, and this publication
presents the result of this evolution.
The idea contained here certainly diﬀers from generally
accepted standards in physics. For someone who is used to
these standards, the way I formulate diﬀerent concepts may
therefore seem strange. As an excuse, I can only say that I am
neither a professional physicist nor mathematician. Besides,
since I show the concept diﬀerent from the currently working
one, its description cannot be obvious. In order to get through
the subsequent layers of abstraction, I am forced to use what
already exists. Whereas the concept that already works cannot
be redeﬁned in one sentence.
Wherein, I would like to point out that in order to un-
derstand “what the author meant”, there is a need to cut oﬀ
almost completely from the classical method of interpretation.
In my interpretation: an object is not a classically understood
object, space is not classically understood space, mass is not
classically understood mass, time is not classically understood
time, and the 3D clock is not a classically understood clock.
Of all the possible eﬀort putted into understanding the
content, this “cut-oﬀ procedure” may turn out to be the most
troublesome. Nevertheless, looking at the Sun wandering in
the sky, it is also hard to believe that it does not revolve around
the Earth. What I mean by this is that what seems obvious,
because it comes from a trivial observation based on sensual
impressions, is not really so. In my opinion, geometry is an il-
lusion. Just as it is the illusion that the Earth is ﬂat or that the
Sun revolves around the Earth. I assume that exists a higher
dimension in which the picture of geometry is created. The
part of this higher dimension is time. Time is a phenomenon
that seems to elude any clear deﬁnition. In my opinion, this
is because time is considered in the form of abstraction de-
tached from the phenomenon which complements it, namely
from energy. Therefore, the dimension on which time is cur-
rently fastened, in my opinion, is incomplete. This determines
the direction of the higher dimension only to the part respon-
sible for what we commonly interpret as time. In my opinion,
only time combined with energy gives the full dimension that
goes beyond geometry.
The general theory of relativity formulated by Albert Einstein,
shortly speaking, goes beyond the Newtonian theory of grav-
ity. However, energy is known to be quantum in its nature,
and in modern physics exists a conviction about a need to
create a theory capable to represent gravitational eﬀects in
a quantum manner. Instead, the general relativity, like New-
ton’s theory, is still a classical theory.
Newton described the gravity as a force. Einstein presented
the same phenomenon as a certain geometric eﬀect instead.
In this way Einstein, inter alia, got rid of the concept of the
force from the description. In a consequence, at least from the
point of view of the number of concepts representing physical
phenomena, the general theory of relativity is simpler in this
In the process of constructing the theory, Einstein per-
formed a certain “trick” consisting in binding mass with en-
ergy. In general, the Einstein equation states it is matter with
energy that determines the curvature of space-time, and the
curvature of space-time determines the path the matter with
the energy travels.
In Einstein’s reasoning, space-time is not a “homogeneous
form of being”, i.e. a real connection of time and geometry
into one being. What can be described as a “geometric point
in space” is a separate entity in relation to what deﬁnes time.
In this case, Einstein makes it clear that time is deﬁned by the
clock. Simultaneously, based on what Einstein himself says
about the relationship between mass and energy, it is diﬃcult
to ﬁrmly and unequivocally say that, in his opinion, mass and
energy are one and the same physical phenomenon. Einstein
only says that the material body contains energy. As a result,
if we were to assume that from a physical point of view, mass
and energy are not necessarily the same, then in the basis of
the general relativity we would have four physical phenomena:
energy, mass, space and time.
In my opinion, the existing of: energy, time, mass and
space is beyond doubt. Although, the relationships between
them need some ordering. That’s why I will show the rea-
soning which, in my opinion, leads to the correct description
of relationships between: energy, mass, space and time, in
a general sense. For this purpose, I will conduct a thought
experiment concerning the material of the universe. I will ex-
tract from this material its general features that I will then
use as an information carrier to ﬁx the key deﬁnitions for the
general description of the universe, namely: 1, (-1) and 0, — in
the order given here — hereinafter brieﬂy referred to as “3D ”,
which literally means “three deﬁnitions”.
The result of mentioned reasoning changes the interpre-
tation of the concepts of: space, energy, mass and time in
such a way that it bonds energy with space, and mass with
time. This allows for the emergence of two levels of abstrac-
tion: causative and geometric. Thanks to this, by the nature
of things, i.e. without any targeted activities in this direction,
this general description reveals, in my opinion, to be quantum.
To begin with, I assume that all current information about the
universe is recorded as a part of the material which builds the
universe. Continuing, I accept it tentatively that in the current
universe it is possible to distinguish between what we under-
stand as matter, and what we understand as space. Therefore
“tentatively”, because at this point of consideration “matter”
and “space” are not clearly deﬁned. Nevertheless, we are aware
that exist such a thing as: star, planet, atom or elementary
particle, such as electron. We also understand that, for exam-
ple, there is nothing “material like” between electrons in atom
and still electrons are not directly connected to each other.
Likewise, we do not see any “tangible” objects that have any-
thing to do with the spacing of planets and stars from each
other. What separates electrons, or celestial bodies, is com-
monly interpreted as void or empty space. We do not know
what object and void really are. A typical classic approach to
the concept of space and matter consists in “an intuitive sense”
of their meaning. This intuition comes from a sensory judg-
ment, which is from the image that our mind generates, and
not from the actual state of aﬀairs. Therefore, this “working
picture” only aims at some classical “visualization” of concep-
tual base which seems to be commonly understood.
Due to the existence of these two qualitatively diﬀerent
manifestations of physical being, I interpret the all current
universe as one object, where the material which builds this
object is not evenly distributed within it. Observations of
galaxies, stars, planets show they do not take up all the avail-
able space but are separated from each other. Likewise for
the case of atom. Most of what builds up the form of atom is
called empty space.
In the homogeneous universe there should be either only
space or only matter. Mixed form means that the condition
of homogeneity is not met. There are at least two diﬀerent
physical entities in the terms of quality. When exist two of
qualitatively diﬀerent beings, they are diﬃcult to interpret
unequivocally. It is quite easy to misjudge their actual form.
This is because, as a part of our universe, we do not stand
outside the universe. As a result, we are deprived of a reference
system that would allow us to objectively evaluate the quality
of its individual elements. The interpretation which says that
object or matter is a certain “compact” being and that space is
a certain “open” being is a subjective image built in our minds.
Similarly subjective is the impression derived from a trivial
observation that the Sun goes around the Earth. From such
a position, I ﬁnd it troublesome to correctly interpret physical
phenomena. Therefore, from now on, I assume the current
universe as non-existent, and in its place I introduce a new
universe from scratch.
To start with, I assume that the new form of universe is
represented by a qualitatively homogeneous object. Wherein,
the “object” means the material which builds the universe. It
does not matter what constitutes the material of the universe
in a physical sense. The only important thing is the existence
of this material. Since there is only the material of the uni-
verse, there is no frame of reference which would allow any
evaluation of it. There is no observer in such a situation. Al-
though it can also be said that the material of the universe
and the observer are the same.
I also assume that the object fulﬁlls the entire available po-
tential of the universe. Fulﬁlling all available potential means
reaching the full value of the only dimension that actually ex-
ists. Where by “dimension” I mean a parameter that subject to
the value change. In this particular case: the universe. Where
the highest value of the parameter is the full value. And the
smallest value of the parameter is the empty value.
3 Basic concepts
The basic concepts, I will write about, are something that re-
sembles primary concepts in mathematics. On the basic con-
cept is ﬁxed basic information, which is information that can-
not be more generalized. In other words, the basic concept is
information which is not composed of other information.
In relation to the concepts of “full value” and “empty value”,
it is necessary to interpret their meaning. Since no limit is
visible, the dimension of the full universe may appear to be
inﬁnite. Therefore, it may seem the full universe is an inﬁnitely
large object. Nevertheless, such an assessment results from ill-
posed question which is: how big is the full universe? In my
opinion, the question of how big the object is, only make sense
if the question does not concern the entire universe. The rea-
son is that only then a geometric interpretation makes sense,
from which follows the question as to what we mean by size.
The concept of an inﬁnitely large object is an extension of ge-
ometric dimension. Geometry, in turn, results directly from
our biological sensory-analytical conditioning. In other words,
geometry exists in our “classical” minds. Same as color and
sound. Instead, the universe in its entirety is beyond the scope
of the “classical” interpretation. Something even described as
inﬁnitely large does not mean that it is described as complete
in the absolute sense. Nevertheless, I believe the concept of
inﬁnity approximates certain general feature of the universe,
which is crucial for the general description of the universe.
Well, let’s take, for example, two glasses: one empty and
the other full. There is an obvious diﬀerence in a content
between them. Apart from the material forming the walls of
vessels, it can be said that in one case the thing is full, and
in the other case the thing is empty. Similarly, the universe
represented by the object could be full or empty.
However, the glasses diﬀer not only in their content. For
the empty glass to become full, the content must change, where
the change is an action of ﬁlling the empty glass. So, in ad-
dition to the material which builds the glass and its content,
there is something else it diﬀers from this material, namely:
the action. The action is a dimension diﬀerent from that of
the object’s material. However, it is related to this material.
In my opinion, the action is related to the material so that it
evokes an eﬀect of increasing the value of the material.
For the full universe material case, there is no information
as to how fast the action runs. There is no information that
can speed up or slow down the action in any way. Hence,
a thought might arise that the action inﬁnitely fast builds up
an inﬁnitely large universe. However, it is therefore pointless
to ask about the size of the full universe, because it is pointless
to ask about its pace of action. These two phenomena are
closely related. To ask about the pace of action, appears a need
for a concept of time and for that a clock is needed. The clock
is nothing but an object placed on a road1. The full universe
represents only the object instead. There is no road. Even if
we assume that the road exists but its size is simply equal to 0,
then the resulting clock does not measure time. Therefore, the
action cannot run inﬁnitely fast. Inﬁnitely fast action means
the existence of inﬁnitely small time intervals, but time of the
full universe does not pass at all. Therefore, in my opinion,
the action of the full universe is inherently immediate.
For comparison: inﬁnity is not immediate. The feature of
inﬁnity is the continuity of the action. Inﬁnity goes. Instant-
ness is. I would even say that inﬁnity goes where instantness
When in the currently existing universe we look at the action of
emptying or ﬁlling the glass, we see that it has such a property
that it lasts. This proves the action we observe in current
universe does not proceed instantly. The glass, for example
empty, does not become full instantly. This means that in
addition to the action, there is something else it determines
the diﬀerent content of the glass. This “something” causes the
action does not reach its entire dimension. Hence, I conclude
that apart from the action, there is also the inaction.
Eventually, the operation of emptying or ﬁlling the glass
is completed. This proves that in the current universe the
inaction occupies only part of the action.
The glass can be ﬁlled faster or slower. When the glass is
ﬁlled faster, what we perceive as the inaction is smaller than
when the glass is ﬁlled more slowly. In the case of immedi-
ate action, considered in section 3.1, the inaction does not
exist at all. However, when the inaction value will occupy the
whole action, the glass cannot be ﬁlled at all. From a volume
perspective, the full inaction value does not ﬁll any volume.
Thus, the full value of the inaction means the empty value of
The basic concepts, although they may seem understandable,
are not comfortable to use in practice. The purpose of below
deﬁnitions is to convert the basic concepts into the concepts
that already exist in physics. After associating the basic con-
cepts with the known concepts, I will bind the latter with my
own physical interpretation. In other words, I will add to the
concepts of energy and time their physical representations. In
this way, I will step from the basic concept to the eﬀect that
it evokes on the observer.
4.1 Deﬁnition of 1
From the description contained in the sections: 3.1 and 3.2,
I conclude the existence of two fundamental natural phenom-
ena: the action and the inaction. More general phenomena in
my opinion do not exist.
As to the action, I state that the action is what we in-
terpret as energy. I assume that energy in its entire volume
represents the symbol 1. Where, the symbol 1 here does not
mean a number, e.g. a real number. Thus, 1 as used here may
or may not be subject to all known mathematical operations.
However, marking energy with the symbol 1 does not say
what energy means. On the one hand, there is a word “energy”
and on the other the symbol 1. Energy cannot be expressed
without the material which is subjected to energy, because
there is a lack of medium that could carry information about
the value of energy. So, what exactly comes from energy and
what in a future can be used as an unit of energy measurement,
is missing. Hence, I assume that for energy equal to 1 the
object reaches its entire volume, and the object means the
product of the action.
I don’t know how the full object looks like. As previously
reasoned, the total value of the object goes beyond the geomet-
ric description. I also don’t know if reaching the total value
of the object is possible at all. The total value of the object
seems to be the purely theoretical state of aﬀairs. Neverthe-
less, within the existing universe, in my opinion, we observe at
least a part of representation of what we understand in terms
of the object. This representation shows the phenomenon we
used to interpret as space.
I would like to emphasize that the interpretation described
here, directly means that space is the object. So, it is com-
pletely diﬀerent from the commonly accepted view which in-
terprets space as a kind of emptiness that is devoid of objects.
It is very important at this point to convert the image of void-
ness into the image of fullness. I am aware that such a change
may seem impossible at ﬁrst. The possible reason is that we
get the impression that something full has no room for any
action. Speciﬁcally, it does not allow anything to move. How-
ever, I assure that this is not true. In the next subsection
I will show a place for the action. Besides, I am talking about
a partial representation of the object that is not fully built for
some reason. The complete object is impossible to imagine.
By spoken nature of the total value of the object, it is never
full space but a partial one. This can be visualized quite eas-
ily by making a hypothetical observation from the position of
full dimension. The full value of the object means a material
homogeneity. Whereas in the real universe we do not observe
only space. Besides space exist such entities as: atoms, planets
or stars, as well. Although there are much less of them than
space, they still occupy some space for their own bodies’ ma-
terial. The total value of the object, according to the shown
reasoning, lies beyond geometrical description. The partial
one — commonly available — gives us an idea of what space
distance means from the point of view of geometry.
Hence, I assume that the full value of the action generates
the full value of space. The action means energy and space
means the object, which is the universe. Therefore, I assume
that energy determines space:
E= 1 = R(2)
1- mathematical symbol
4.2 Deﬁnition of (-1)
If the object E= 1 = Rplaced on a road builds a clock and
the clock shows time, then the slower operation of the clock
shows the larger time span. Hence, the greater value of time,
the greater value of the inaction. The full value of time means
the full value of the inaction and time works in the opposite
direction to energy within the frame of the same dimension.
Just as qualitatively homogeneous action means the full
value of the phenomenon, also qualitatively homogeneous in-
action means the full value of the phenomenon. This means
that since there is no information about the action limiting
the dimension of the inaction, by default the inaction is im-
However, the action and the inaction are entirely oppo-
site phenomena. Therefore, since I denote the action with the
symbol 1, I denote the inaction with the symbol (-1) to distin-
guish between the relative directions of energy and time action.
Where, like the symbol 1, the symbol (-1) does not mean a real
number here, so it may or may not subject to known math-
ematical operations. A negative sign in front of the symbol
1 means that the inaction is in the opposite direction to the
Similarly as with the case of energy, now with time, on the
one side of the equation appears, in this case (-1), and on the
other side the word “time”. The symbol (-1) is mathematical
symbol, so it does not explain what time is, but only replaces
the word “time” with (-1). The information carrier is miss-
ing again. In this case for time. Therefore, I am asking the
question of what does actually represent time? Which means,
what actually comes from the operation of time?
From the adopted earlier object’s point of view, the full
value of time means no object, which is no space. As in the
case of energy, I cannot say what the full value of space looks
like, so in the case of time I cannot say what the total lack of
space looks like. Nevertheless, just as the partial representa-
tion of energy is the part of space, in my opinion, a deﬁcit of
space also has a naturally existing representation in the cur-
rent universe. Namely, the deﬁcit of space which is an eﬀect of
time operation, is nothing but mass. Mass is the physical phe-
nomenon that, in my opinion, builds an insuﬃciency of space.
The greater mass in space, the bigger insuﬃciency of space.
The result of local insuﬃciency of space is what we classically
interpret as the appearance of mass of given object.
Hence, I assume that time determines the deﬁcit of space:
T= (−1) = M(3)
M- space deﬁcit (mass)
(−1) - mathematical symbol
4.3 Deﬁnition of 0
Mathematical symbols used in the form of 1 and (-1) do not
show the independent values of the deﬁned objects. In each
deﬁnition there is a certain default frame of reference which
indicates what the object takes its own value against to.
For the deﬁnition of 1, full energy means the empty value
of time. For the deﬁnition of (-1), full time value means the
empty value of energy (ﬁgure 1).
Figure 1. The symbolic relationship between energy and time.
The dashed line marks the void dimension where energy and
time do not exist at all.
I assume that empty value represents the mathematical
Hence, energy and time are related to each other in such
a way that:
1E+ 0T= 1 (4)
(−1)T+ 0E= (−1) (5)
From this relationship it follows that the empty dimension
is the result of combining the full energy dimension with the
full time dimension:
0 = E+T(6)
0- mathematical symbol
The deﬁnitions shown above provide grounds for drawing the
speciﬁc conclusions regarding the structure and the operation
of the universe.
According to 3D, the full energy value is equal to the full
dimension of the action:
E= 1 (7)
However, in the current universe the dimension of the ac-
tion is reduced by some non-zero value of the inaction.
In general it follows that:
E= 1 + T(8)
(−1) < T < 0
Hence, I interpret that the action is interrupted by the
inaction. The dimension of the inaction causes the action to
lose its continuity.
Therefore, in general: E= 1 + Tshows one quantum of
energy. The value of the coeﬃcient is undetermined here be-
cause E= 1 + Tshows — in this speciﬁcally case — the only
quantum of energy that hypothetically exists.
If, in accordance with 3D, we look at the current relation be-
tween energy and time, but from the time frame of reference,
then in general:
T= (−1) + E(9)
0< E < 1
Hence, I interpret that the inaction is interrupted by the
action. The dimension of the action causes the inaction to lose
Therefore, in general: T= (−1) +Eshows one quantum of
time. The value of the coeﬃcient is undetermined here because
T= (−1) + Eshows — in this speciﬁcally case — the only
quantum of time that hypothetically exists.
Let Erepresent the object, let Trepresent the road, and let
both of them represent the clock, say: the 3D clock. The re-
sulting 3D clock is built by two phenomena: the action and the
inaction. Hence, every 3D clock is inherently the phenomenon
that has some feature of a wave, namely the maximum and
minimum of value of the action.
The 3D clock diﬀers from the classic clock that we are
used to. In the classic clock the road is classic space that
is traversed by some classic object which is the conventional
pointer of the clock. Whereas, in the 3D clock the road has
a potential value, where the potential value is a lack of the
action. And the very lack of the action is time. Therefore,
it can be said that the 3D clock is “the action stepping after
We wait for the “pointer shift”, which means we wait for the
action, because this “pointer” does not step continuously. The
action is interrupted by the inaction. The bigger value of time
means more and longer delays within the action. Therefore,
the action deprived of time is immediate. The total lack of the
action is a permanent awaiting instead.
At the moment, I do not know how exactly the next 3D
clocks in the universe were created. Nevertheless, I know that
more than one 3D clock exists.
Let energy represent 1 as deﬁned above, time as deﬁned
above (-1) and emptiness as deﬁned above 0.
Suppose that by entirely activating some 3D clock signed
by a letter A, we emerge its entity, but we lose its time.
For this case:
A= 1 (10)
In the real universe, this entity is such an eﬀect that:
(−1) < T < 0
That means that in the real universe, Ais not equal to 1.
So that “entirely activating some 3D clock ” is just a theoretical
assumption of discarding the accompanying time.
Let us also assume that by entirely stopping some next 3D
clock signed by a letter B, we lose its entity, but we gain its
road. For this case:
B= (−1) (12)
In the real universe, the mentioned road is such an eﬀect
1> E > 0
That means that in the real universe, Bis not equal to
(-1). So that “entirely stopping some next 3D clock” is just
a theoretical assumption of discarding the accompanying en-
Let Arepresent the object, and let Brepresent the road
in such gained subsequent 3D clock. It follows that:
A+B= 0 ⇐⇒ A= (−B)(14)
That means that the bond between the 3D clocks depends
only on the degree to which the value of the quantum of energy
of 3D clock Ais aligned with the quantum of time of 3D
clock B. The 3D clocks disappear when they are completely
The 3D clock by showing time shows the value of an await-
ing for the action. From a physical point of view, time is an
amorphous form of being. Time is the potential that provides
a place for energy. It is characterized by the lack of any ma-
terial form. However, while waiting for the hand to move on
the clock face, we are actually waiting for the potential to be
seized by the action. The action is immediate. The inaction is
also of this nature. Thus, the size of the awaiting is due to the
fact that the action does not occupy all the available potential
in “one step”, because the value of the action is not equal the
value of the available inaction. In this way the inaction forces
subsequent “steps” of the action, and it divides the action into
parts. Whereas, the traversed road of potential becomes what
we classically interpret as empty space.
Thus, in general, the 3D clock shows not only the value of
time but also the value of space.
Wherein, from the classical point of view, energy coming
into place of time creates... nothing. After entire time volume
is occupied by the entire volume of energy, from a mathe-
matical point of view, 0 appears. Therefore, neither what we
interpret as mass nor what we interpret as space, possesses
what we commonly understand as matter.
At ﬁrst glance, such an inference may seem pointless. Nev-
ertheless, physics in principle describes the measurable phe-
nomena. Time and energy are actually the measurable phe-
nomena. Regardless of what the information about them is
ﬁxed on from a material point of view. In the case of the uni-
verse, information is ﬁxed on the operation of the 3D clock.
That means that only the functioning 3D clock exists in the
sense of a measurable entity. There are no non-working 3D
clocks. Or in other words, non-working 3D clocks are immea-
surable. It can also be said that since the 3D clock does not
work, it does not interact with the observer. It becomes invisi-
ble, completely transparent. Hence, even if the material exists
in an absolute sense, it means nothing.
The 3D clock is a non-geometric form of abstraction, but
its action generates the eﬀects that can be considered in the
geometric sense. Wherein, geometry builds a diﬀerent level of
abstraction than the 3D clock. Namely, space comes from the
action, but space itself is not the action. Likewise, mass comes
from time, but the very mass is not time. Space and mass are
eﬀects that can be considered in the geometric terms. Energy
and time, in turn, are eﬀects that are not subject to geometry.
As a consequence, the entire above study can be summa-
rized brieﬂy as follows:
Which means: the 3D clock determines space-mass.
Where, the 3D clock is the energy-time relationship men-
tioned above: E+T. While space-mass is the relationship
between 3D clock derivative eﬀects, which is mass and space:
Figure 2. The drawing symbolically depicts the relationship
between energy and time as well as between space and mass.
The dashed line marks the void dimension, the hypothetical
zero axis around which the action and the inaction oscillate to
determine the current status of the 3D clock.
The advantage of above reasoning is the clear separation
of non-geometric eﬀects from the geometric ones. The emer-
gence of another level of abstraction running beyond geometry
produces what can be called the next, higher dimension. The
higher dimension makes it possible to show the universe in any
scale and in a quantum manner, because it provides a place
for the observer in a sense “outside” the universe. Thanks to
this, the universe can be described in isolation from geometry,
because this another dimension has its own relative relations
independent from geometry. On the other hand, interpretation
problems resulting from mixing the non-geometric eﬀects with
the geometric ones begin to appear on the scale of individual
quanta. The cause of these problems is quite simple. Accord-
ing to 3D, the single quantum is not the geometric object. The
single quantum, such as photon, is the 3D clock. Trying to
imagine the geometry related to photon, in my opinion, will
be similar to trying to imagine the geometry of the complete
universe. However strange it may look from a geometry per-
spective where we set some limitations, in my opinion, photon
does not travel the classically understood road. The 3D clock
is not geometrically limited, because it has no such thing as
a physical body.
The result of the relationship between the 3D clocks can
be an eﬀect that looks like something we interpret as the ob-
ject. But such classic object is only the result of the deeper
phenomenon transferred to the layer of geometry. This deeper
phenomenon is the exchange of the quantum of action and
inaction between the 3D clocks.
There is no geometry in the 3D clock system. Geometry
works within classical space with a classically deﬁned spatial
distance. And the 3D clock only generates what we interpret
as classic space. So it works on the diﬀerent level of abstrac-
tion, within the frame of diﬀerent space.
The 3D clock works within the frame of energy and time.
Time and energy are not geometrical entities instead. The
distances between the 3D clocks determine the diﬀerences of
the action and the inaction — not the spatial distance. The
action and the inaction generate own non-geometric relative
directions. Therefore, from the point of view of the single
action quantum, the action does not run in some geometric
direction, but in the direction of available potential. Thus,
photon in its own frame of reference is immediately on every
available road. Where, “road” means the potential for the
action, which is time. Not classically understood space. In
other words, photon travels over time. Not over space.
6 Future work
It is diﬃcult to imagine the possibility of applying informa-
tion in such a general form as shown above to some speciﬁc
applications. To calculate anything, units of measurement are
needed to act as the frame of reference. Nevertheless, the gen-
eral description is, in my opinion, the basis for the detailed one.
Without the general description that sets out what constitutes
the basis of the existence and the principle of its operation, it
is diﬃcult to correctly formulate the detailed description re-
lating to some speciﬁc cases.
In my opinion, the presented description can serve as an
input for the quantum theory of gravity. At the same time,
it is necessary to former determine the coeﬃcient determining
the value of time quantum. There is also the need to decide
how to represent the size of the object. The functioning unit of
size — as well as the unit of mass — is not quantum in nature.
Some time ago, I proposed within ResearchGate to base the
unit of size on the naturally existing diﬀerence between the
excited state and the basic state of hydrogen atom. Of course,
I meant the diﬀerence in the size of electron shell.
Below I show some outline of the hypothetical possibilities
based on the general description that seem quite plausible.
6.1 Time technology
In my opinion, classically interpreted space is generated, inter
alia, in the area lying between quark triplets. Where the bonds
between the quarks result from the fact that the 3D clock that
generates the form of the quarks goes towards the unoccupied
space exactly in between quark triplets. It is one of the places
where there is the remaining potential of the action in the
universe. At this point, ordinary, classically understood space
does not yet exist.
The area between the quarks looks so small that could be
raised doubts about the possibility of building anything in be-
tween. This is what could be imagined when the evaluation of
dimension is subject to the classically understood geometry of
space. Meanwhile, the real dimension of potential between the
quarks looks diﬀerent than the value of ordinary space. Ordi-
nary space naturally separates what we classically interpret as
the objects. That is because ordinary space is actually what
should be called the object. According to 3D, by increasing its
value, space increases what we interpret as the size of spatial
distance. While the time dimension, according to 3D, has the
opposite eﬀect. Time shortens the size of ordinary space. As
a result, it invokes the attracting eﬀect.
As to the rule, the size cannot be literally “seen”. Neither
the potential nor the positive one. We only see what we in-
terpret as a light of a varying frequency. By “seeing” the size,
we experience the interpretation resulting from the analysis of
quantum wave of the action and the inaction, which is from
the analysis of the 3D clock. Where “experience” comes from
perceiving within whole sense range.
Turning back time does not seem completely impossible in
such a setup. If the potential reaches its full value, the 3D
clock simply stops working. Hence, it can be said that the
universe is nothing but... a battery. Turning back time means
recharging the battery, which is removing used space from the
3D clock. I think that, at least from a local point of view, the
thing is technically possible.
6.2 Space technology
If the quark triplets that build the hadrons are combined with
other quark triplets that build the other hadrons in such a way
that they go towards a shared potential of place, then this con-
nection could be used, for example, in information technology.
The rationale is as follows. If the quarks “can see each other
on the other side”, perhaps there is no distance delay known
“on our side”. “On the other side” the classical distance be-
tween quarks, from the individual’s point of view of hadrons,
theoretically does not exist.
The action, say, inter-spatial, if it turned out to be possible,
would certainly ﬁnd its place in many areas of our life, e.g. in
telecommunication or in medicine. Transferring information
that is not limited by the speed of light would undoubtedly
represent a breakthrough in the ﬁeld of telecommunication.
For the second case, the ability to intervene in a relatively
non-invasive manner practically anywhere and on any scale in
a living organism does not seem impossible. Perhaps there
is a real possibility of creating a controlled tunnel between
hadrons, bypassing ordinary space, so subtle that it would be
practically unnoticeable from the point of view of a potential
If so, then perhaps we should also consider this possible
way of communication when looking for signals from alleged
However, the development of technologies based on the
inter-spatial communication requires prior conﬁrmation of ac-
tual connection between hadrons out of ordinary space. Al-
though such associations seem possible, it may as well turn out
that the hadrons are completely cut oﬀ from each other in the
region of the potential. They can also be linked by such subtle
channels that in practice they are in no way useful, or useful
but in a very narrow ﬁeld of application. However, if it turned
out that the connectivity between hadrons in the potential
region is preserved, the possibilities of using this connection
would be limited only by our imagination.
 A. Einstein. Relativity: The Special and General Theory.
Methuen & Co Ltd, 1916.
 M. Kaku. Hiperprzestrzeń. Naukowa podróż przez
wszechświaty równoległe, pętle czasowe i dziesiąty wymiar.
Prószyński i S-ka, 1996.
 D. T. Leon Lederman. Boska Cząstka. Jeśli Wszechświat
jest odpowiedzią, jak brzmi pytanie. Prószyński i S-ka,