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Invertebrados marinos del norte de Chile: guía para la identificación y mantención en cautiverio. Vol. ll. Fundación Reino Animal & ONG por la conservación de la vida salvaje. Arica, Chile. 1-85 pp.

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Glena mielkei Vargas, 2010 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae: Boarmiini) is a Neotropical geometrid moth native to the Atacama Desert of northern Chile whose larvae are folivorous on the shrub Trixis cacalioides (Asteraecae). The last instar and pupa are described and illustrated, and DNA barcode sequences are provided for the first time for G. mielkei. Descriptions are made based on larvae collected in the type locality. Comparisons with the available descriptions of congeneric species suggest that the chaetotaxy of the SV group of the abdominal segment and the morphology of the cremaster could be useful tools to species identification based on last instar and pupa, respectively. A search in BOLD (Barcode of Life Data System) showed that the only DNA barcode haplotype found in the two specimens sequenced was closest to Physocleora Warren, 1897 than Glena Hulst, 1896. These results coincide with the morphological peculiarities of the genitalia highlighted in the original description of G. mielkei, suggesting that a definitive assessment of the generic status of this geometrid moth deserves further integrative studies.
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Todo sobre como armar y mantener su acuario marino con especies nativas de la costa chilena.
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The aim of this study was to report the colouration patterns of live specimens of two Blenniidae species: Scartichthys gigas and S. viridis, from tide pools in the coastal area of 3 localities of northern Chile. Colouration patterns for S. gigas were: the two-bar front head covered/uncovered and the uniform orange-brown, found in specimens associated to kelps, for juveniles; an intermediate juvenile-adult reticulated bar-stained pattern described for the first time and the reticulated pattern for adults. For S. viridis the dark-light green pattern is described for juveniles and adults. The findings are discussed in terms of colouration patterns previously described for both species, with emphasis on the importance of using colouration patterns to improve species identification, reduce habitat disturbance and specimen removal from the wild.
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Solids removal across two settling devices, i.e., a swirl separator and a radial-flow settler, and across a microscreen drum filter was evaluated in a fully recirculating system containing a single 150 m3 ‘Cornell-type’ dual-drain tank during the production of food-size Arctic char and rainbow trout. The flow through the culture tank was 4500–4800 L/min. Approximately 92–93% of the system flow exited through the Cornell-type sidewall drain. The remaining 7–8% of the flow, approximately 340 L/min, exited through a bottom–center drain and an external standpipe and then to the settling tank. The surface-loading rate applied to both settling tank designs was 0.0031 m3/s per square meter (4.6 gpm/ft2) of settling area. The swirl separator and the radial-flow settler were evaluated over a range of feeding rates to evaluate the relationship between inlet TSS concentration and TSS removal efficiency. There was a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) in mean TSS removal efficiency of the swirl separator and radial-flow settler, (±S.E.) 37.1 ± 3.3% and 77.9 ± 1.6%, respectively. Also, TSS removal efficiency of the radial-flow settler was less variable than removal efficiency of the swirl separator. The trend in TSS removal efficiency was consistent over a broad range of inlet TSS concentrations to the separator. A mass balance indicates that the swirl separator only removed approximately 23% of the total mass of TSS removed from this recirculating system. However, when the radial-flow settler was operated in the same recirculating system, it accounted for approximately 48% of the mass of TSS removed from the system daily. The mass balance calculations also indicate that the microscreen drum filter accounted for approximately 40–45% of the mass of TSS removed daily from the recirculating system when using either settling device. In either case, these results indicate that drum filter treatment of the entire recirculating flow played an important role in preventing elevated TSS concentrations from accumulating within a recirculating system.
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Cephalopods offer a unique model for studying animal nutrition due to the predominance of their amino acid metabolism. Since cephalopods grow at rapid rates for most of their life cycle (3–10% body weight d), the demands on protein synthesis are high. As a result, cephalopod body composition ranges between 75–85% protein on a dry weight basis and they are efficient at assimilating proteins (apparent protein digestibility >85%). Furthermore, the protein/energy ratio required for optimum growth (>50 g protein MJ energy) appears to be significantly greater than for other aquatic invertebrates or fishes (20–30 g protein MJ energy). This high protein/energy ratio indicates that protein should not be considered separately from energy in cephalopods. Attempts to supply high levels of protein (>35% of diet on a wet weight basis) to cuttlefishes with moist prepared diets (pellets and surimi) have been successful in terms of palatability (feeding rates ≈ 8% body weight d) but growth rates (0.7–1.0% body weight d) have been 25–33% of normal growth rates (3.2–4.0% body weight d). The identified limiting factors have been nutrient density and protein quality of the diets as well as poor ingestive conditioning of the cuttlefish. Current research focuses on amino acid composition of prepared diets and digestion of proteins and lipids. Finally, the uptake of dissolved organics for nutrition is proposed via the microvillar skin of cephalopods, especially soon after hatching when the surface‐area‐to‐volume ratio is high.
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General biology of cephalopods is described. First, all commercially important cephalopods are classified and the general morphology and distribution of all major families is described in detail. Mating and spawning characteristics of all major families are discussed in detail. This is followed by a discussion on early life history, growth and principal ecoological changes that occur during the growth period. Schooling and migration characteristics are also taken up in considerable detail. The paper closes with a brief discussion on the trophic relation. The author points out that cephalopods are extremely important to mankind due to their unique position in the food chain extending from the oceans to man.
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Hydraulic structures, such as stepped cascades and weirs, involve air entrainment (aeration) and oxygen transfer. Therefore, they can increase dissolved oxygen levels. Weir aeration occurs in rivers, fish hatcheries, and wastewater treatment plants. A stepped cascade aerator is another type of aeration structure. A stepped cascade consists of a series of steps or drops, built into the face of the chute. Often, the hydraulic head is naturally available and incurs no operating cost. For the preaeration process, weir and stepped cascade structures can be previously designed for clarifiers where weirs can be used as an aid to aeration process of treatment plants. Therefore, this paper aims to review the design considerations of circular clarifiers with combined weir and stepped cascade structures as a new approach and alternative preaeration system without energy requirement before aeration tank units. The detailed example for preaeration in circular clarifiers with combined weir and stepped cascade structures is presented. Thus, the circular clarifiers with weir and stepped cascade structures as effluent and preaeration strucures can be effectively redesigned with given new design considerations.