ArticlePDF Available

SYSTEMS THEORY OF SYSTEMS THINKING: GENERAL AND PARTICULAR WITHIN MODERN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

Authors:

Abstract

Following the concept of human as spiritual alive body, human thinking is spiritual activity of our brain – brainwork. Today we accept that thinking means processing of information what is important for management of human body life. Studying organization of human brainwork, people have discovered that all our thoughts and thinking activities are interconnected and form definite hierarchic structures. Humans reflect world as a set or network of diverse phenomena by building corresponding theories or models of observed phenomena. In other words, all phenomena in human world of thoughts are reflected as SYSTEMS, which are organizational units of Systems Thinking. Every system contains their interconnected parts and as a whole is a part of surrounding medium, made from other systems. Such hierarchic integral understanding and comprehension of human brainwork today has become the basic value of Systems Theory as theory of Systems Thinking.
408
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2016
ISSN 1648–3898
SYSTEMS THEORY OF SYSTEMS THINKING: GENERAL AND PARTICULAR WITHIN
MODERN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
Andris Broks
University of Latvia, Latvia
Following the concept of human as spiritual alive body, human thinking is spiritual activity of our brain –
brainwork. Today we accept that thinking means processing of information what is important for management of
human body life. Studying organization of human brainwork, people have discovered that all our thoughts and
thinking activities are interconnected and form denite hierarchic structures. Humans reect world as a set or
network of diverse phenomena by building corresponding theories or models of observed phenomena. In other
words, all phenomena in human world of thoughts are reected as SYSTEMS, which are organizational units of
Systems Thinking. Every system contains their interconnected parts and as a whole is a part of surrounding medium,
made from other systems. Such hierarchic integral understanding and comprehension of human brainwork today
has become the basic value of Systems Theory as theory of Systems Thinking.
Terms “system”, “systems approach” already are widely used in our professional practice and represent many
particular applied systems theories. At the same time, it has become clear that there is a fundamental set of some
general concepts and principles, forming core of all particular systems theories. Today it seems to be purposeful
to separate general and particular within systems theory and talk about compact and exhaustive general systems
theory and particular applied systems theories. To be shorter, we can introduce term “systemology”, what means
applied systems theory within denite branch of our life activities. For example, “Systemology of Education, “Sys-
temology of Decision Making”, “Systemology of Scientic Research” etc.
Following the core principle of overall interconnection within systems thinking, philosophical terms general
and “particular today we need closer connections with psychology of thinking. It is especially important for the
development of our Educational Systems, balancing general and particular/professional education as well as
scientic, artistic and pragmatic educational programs and corresponding particular subjects or courses. In other
words, when studying hierarchic structures of thoughts as well as thinking activities, it seems that now there is an
actual need for Systems Thinking as a general theory of Systems Thinking above applied system theories, what are
developed for concrete branches of practical systems thinking.
Today it is very important not to lose orientation within our practical life because of global explosion of infor-
mation. Professional training has to develop mastery of practitioners at much higher theoretical level of thinking
than before, because simple professions are becoming computerized and virtual robots are pushing out of employ-
ment corresponding people - bio robots. Today we do not need so many professional solders, clerks etc. like simple
servants, who are trained only to push buttons and ugly enjoy consumer’s life. 21-st century needs constructivist
approach based balanced general and professional education what means realization of optimal interconnections
between particular/applied and general Systems Thinking. Alarming development of unemployment within our
young people generation is partly connected with their pure general education by means of low level of Systems
Thinking. What education for what life – at rst we need to help our young people to develop their Systems Think-
ing for orientation in our modern life. Origin of human Systems Thinking is given to all of us by Mother Nature, but
during our life we need further development of this natural background. It is fundamental task of our educational
activities and let us notice that it is not enough to advocate only critical thinking.
409
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2016
ISSN 1648–3898
It is worth to note, that in practice we meet dierent Systems Thinking visualizations. Traditional basic coding
of thoughts by written words and word structures are supplemented with other corresponding signs, many of them
are well known from mathematics, engineering, trac organization etc. Similar to geographic maps what are used
for schematic description of interconnected objects in space, thought structures can be presented as so-called
mind maps. Such schematic presentation of thought structures is widely used in modern digital communication
technologies. Well-produced schemas with some comments provide rational, short and clear visualization of
interconnections without using long written texts.
Systems Theory as general theory of Systems Thinking is just a great tool for solving many problems of 21-st
century – century of fascinating development of modern Information Technologies. Perpetual changes all around
us and within us, sustainable development of our individual / personal and collective / societal life needs purpose-
ful systemic management, high quality Systems Thinking at least for our life leaders.
Finally, there are just few fundamental verities of Systems Theory.
Human is reecting world phenomena in human’s world of thoughts as systems.
System is a totality of systems interconnected parts and as a whole, each system is a part of its sur-
rounding medium, made from other systems.
People are interested to study and use systems properties to satisfy their corresponding needs of life.
Human cognizes world by parts, comparing these parts and joining them together. Analysis, comparing
and synthesis are three fundamental operations of systems thinking.
Cause of everything (of diverse phenomena - bodies, changes of bodies, properties of bodies and its
changes) is interconnection of everything.
410
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2016
ISSN 1648–3898
Good luck to all of you who are solving modern problems of sustainable development at global as well as
also at local levels. General and particular, global and local solutions are systemic – they are interconnected and
Systems Theory of Systems Thinking can help to get general understanding and comprehension of these intercon-
nections and avoid many possible failures.
Our JBSE always is ready to accept and disseminate your systemic scientic research ndings! Systems think-
ing will help you to reach high quality standards of your work and publications!
Received: July 15, 2016 Accepted: August 25, 2016
Andris Broks PhD., Professor Emeritus, University of Latvia, 19 Raina
Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia.
E-mail: andris.broks@lu.lv
Website: https://blogi.lu.lv/broks/
... Objects, characteristics, inner associations, and system environments are all critical elements of GST (von Bertalanffy, 1968). According to Broks (2016), a system is a series of items that intertwine to achieve a specific goal and possibly alter information to attain a specified outcome. Proponents of GST continue to solidify both values and assumptions of the theory. ...
... Proponents of GST continue to solidify both values and assumptions of the theory. Even though newer theories shorten the title to systems theory, pivotal points revolve around world phenomena as collected systems, interrelated parts, and continuous change between systems and the interconnected parts that encompass the entire structure (Broks, 2016). ...
... According to Broks (2001) systemology is applied philosophy and psychology, general theory about putting the world in order. Broks treats education as the spiritual and physical arrangement of a man (Broks, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Systemology of education is the field of general systemology. On the other hand, systemology of education can reasonably be considered a structural part of contemporary education. There are many different arguments to substantiate such a position. For example, during the last two decades, educational (pedagogical) terminology has changed extremely rapidly. Education science has become more diverse than ever. Such branches as cooperation pedagogy, nonviolence pedagogy, pedagogy of the oppressed, peace pedagogy, success pedagogy, career pedagogy, theatre pedagogy and many others have appeared in educational scientific literature, not to mention the level of education. On the one hand, we do not deny the existence of these branches, on the other hand, the question arises about the scientific system in education in general (Lamanauskas, 2012). It is obvious that the development of education is characterised by two opposite trends – differentiation and integration. In such an abundance of currents, branches, directions, etc., it is not only easy to get lost, but it is even easier to lose the ability to identify mutual relations and define the place of each of them in the common stem of education science.
... Systems Theory is comparable to the function of education production. According to Yurtseven and Buchanan, (2016), education has a high-priority function in the production of human resources, and that the production function is a relationship between the amount of input and intervening factors to produce a certain good, with consideration to its quality (Broks, 2016). An education production function therefore represents a functional relationship between school and students inputs to an associated measure of school outputs ...
Book
Full-text available
Global Dynamics in Africa Editors: Maurice N. Amutabi and Dr. Linnet Hamasi Published by CEDRED Publications, Nairobi, Kenya ISBN 978-9966-116-53-6 Table of Contents Dedication ii Copyright iii Acknowledgement iv Introduction Maurice Nyamanga Amutabi 1 Chapter 1 The Medical Male Circumcision Practice as a Global Health Strategy for HIV and AIDS prevention in Uganda By Bernard Omukunyi 8 Chapter 2 Overview of Innovative Crop Production Strategies for Sustainable Food Security in Kenya By Alice Kosgei & Jones Agwata 22 Chapter 3 Role of Private Academies in Provision of Basic Education in Kenya: A Case of Kwanza Sub-County of Trans Nzoia County, Kenya By Aggrey Asitiba Okutu 38 Chapter 4 Gender Differentials in Borrowing of Loans and Effects of the Loans on Households’ Livelihood Improvements in Kenya By Jane Wanjiku Wanjihia, Lawrence Njoroge & Leah Wanjama 52 Chapter 5 Competency Based Curriculum: Launching and Perception of Primary Teachers on its Implementation: A Case study of Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya By David Wafula Wakoli 63 Chapter 6 Influence of Competitive Aggressiveness on the Performance of Youth-led Micro and Small Enterprise in Lake Basin Region, Kenya By Evelyn Bosire, Gregory Namusonge & Samson Nyang’au Paul 74 Chapter 7 Influence of Buyer-Supplier Collaboration on Organizational Performance in Food and Beverage Manufacturing Companies in Kenya By Bartoo Dorothy Chebichii, Gregory Namusonge & Elizabeth Nambuswa 86 Chapter 8 The Role of Learning Resource Project in Teacher Education in Kenya By Ezekiel Nyambega Omwenga & Omosa Elijah Mochama 106 Chapter 9 Use of information and Communication Technology tools for Capturing Indigenous Farming Knowledge for Sustainable Development By Anderson Kahindi Chai & Zipporah W. Gichuhi 122 Chapter 10 Towards Reducing Gender-Based-Violence within Higher Learning Institutions: The Case of St John’s University of Tanzania By Milka Otieno, Elizabeth Msoka & Sheila Mziray 132 Chapter 11 Public Procurement Ethics and Procurement Performance: The Case of Kakamega County Government, Kenya By Jackline Akoth Odero and Kelvin Mogere Machuki 152 Chapter 12 The Effect of Initiation Rituals on Secondary School Students’ Academic achievements in Chemba District, Tanzania By Munjori, Mwanahamisi, O & Elizabeth M. Msoka 170 Chapter 13 Influence of Flexible Workload Strategies on Performance of Nurses in Regional Hospitals in Tanzania By Elisifa Ezekiel Nnko, Samson Nyang’au & Romanus Odhiambo 189 Chapter 14 Two Ways of Understanding the Climate: Economy Link and Designing Climate Change Policies By Firimoni Rweere Banugire 206 Chapter 15 The Analysis of Value Chain for Irrigated Horticultural Crops around Sand Dams and Water Ditches in Dodoma and Bahi District, Dodoma, Tanzania By David Kasian Msola, Elizabeth M. Msoka & Clarence Hugo Nyoni 224 Chapter 16 Trends in Livestock Grazing in the Protected Forests at Mount Kenya Region: Evidence from year 2013 to 2018 using Time Series Analysis By Paul Mwari Maina & Daniel M Nzengya 242 Chapter 17 Strategic Marketing, a Technical Approach for Company Performance in the Telecommunications Industry in Rwanda By Kirabo Joyce, Gregory Namusonge & Mike A Iravo 256 Chapter 18 Voice, Agency and Silences: Traditional African Women’s Tools for Accessing Centers of Power Shaping the Development Agenda By Godard Busingye 270 Chapter 19 Gendered Finance for Peace, Solidarity and Social Injustice in Southern Africa By Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo 281 Chapter 20 Analysis of Mechanisms Used to Handle Conflicts in Public Primary Schools in Geita District, Tanzania By Newton M. Kyando & Sarah M. Ulimboka 299 Chapter 21 Strategic Leadership for Effective Resource Mobilization: A Case of Public Universities in Kenya By Ezekiel Wechuli Wanyama 317 Chapter 22 The Polemics of Policies and Institutions Governing Unreserved Forests: Forest Sustainability Practice in Tanzania By Fadhili Bwagalilo 328 Chapter 23 Influence of Globalization on Pre-school Teacher Pupil Ratio in Relation to Education for Sustainable Development in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya By Everlyne Chebet, Justina Ndaita & Esther Bitok 342 Chapter 24 From Ngaka Cooperative Society to Mlango Mmoja Cooperative: The Case of Coffee Production and Marketing in the Matengo Highlands, Tanzania By Osmund M. Kapinga 351
... Therefore, following the concept of human as spiritual alive body, human thinking is spiritual activity of our brain -brainwork. Today we accept that thinking means processing of information what is important for management of human body life [20]. ...
... Kiekviena sistema turi vidiniais ryšiais susietas dalis ir kaip visuma yra dalis išorinės medijos, sudarytos iš kitų sistemų. Toks hierarchinis integralus žmogaus proto supratimas ir įsisavinimas šiandien tampa pagrindine Sistemų teorijos, kaip Sisteminio mąstymo teorijos verte (Broks, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The basis of each subject is a system of interrelated scientific concepts, from which the quality of the students' knowledge and understanding of the subject matter depends. It is not possible to achieve a level of understanding in natural science education if learning was not systematic. The content of many natural science concepts is so complex that it is impossible to disclose it in one lesson or even in one topic. The content of the concept is disclosed gradually, in parts, by establishing relationships with other concepts, linking them to a system of scientific concepts. Such concepts are being developed throughout the learning period. In this way, a holistic concept of the world is formed. In order to form a system of natural science concepts, it is necessary to make appropriate usage of internal and interdisciplinary integration, to analyse common points of interaction. The principles of systematization and integration of knowledge must be applied. For this purpose, it is appropriate to apply the graph-tree method. This article deals with a systematic integration of the content of "movement" concept as one of the approaches to comprehensive natural science education. The graph-tree method is used to reveal the integrity of “movement” concept in basic education. The concept of movement is chosen as one of the most important concepts of science, differently known and understood by all students. Movement in biological, chemical or physical processes at different levels and in different aspects is analysed by learners at all stages of general education.
Conference Paper
This work is formed as a set of thematic mind maps for presentation during authors’ speech and further discussion during symposium BalticSTE2019. Selected mind maps are large-scale philosophy and psychology- based maps for general orientation within the complex situations when we are searching for definite solutions of concrete particular problems. All mind maps present visualization of definite thoughts’ arrangement within corresponding structures, what are well-known products of systemic organization of humans’ thinking. Keywords: general science education, philosophy of Science, systems theory.
Article
Full-text available
Development of Human personal as well as social Life means continuing physical and spiritual (mental) changes all around them and within them. Corresponding changes traditionally reflected by humans as evolution (reformational) or revolution (transformational) processes, that are realizing corresponding quantitative or qualitative steps within the development of people’s Life Activities. First 20 years of 21-st Century presented a real start of serious qualitative changes as a process of implementation up to date achievements of modern Science and Technologies. These are transformational changes not only within physical background of our traditional Life, but fast developing of corresponding changes also within our spiritual (or mental) Life (Broks, 2016). The central phenomenon within the mentioned processes above today is the development of overall computerization of physical as well as mental Life Activities of Humans. Global, regional, local explosion of information as an artefact of revolution within Computer Science and Information Technology marks the above mentioned beginning of the 21-st century. So, our life today is becoming more and more complex by means of increasing diversity and speed of corresponding changes. Virus COVID-19 attack has just only accelerated these changes. Global turnover of Biological as well as Computer viruses is part of modern Life today for tomorrow.
Article
Full-text available
The article examines the importance of selected pedagogical factors, which influence the motivation of Czech vocational secondary school students to study accounting. This is a highly topical issue both at national and international level. It examines teacher and student motivation for various fields of study and levels of education. Determining the key factors influencing motivation is fundamental to gradually improving the learning and teaching process. For the purposes of the research, the criteria selected were teacher communication and presentation skills, teacher ability to explain the curriculum, teacher ability to develop thinking in students and teacher expertise. The 2018 data was analysed by year group and the results were further discussed together with empirical national and international studies. Some 187 students participated in the research that involved completing a questionnaire survey. The data was analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the modified Tukey method for multiple comparisons at a significance level of 5%. The results are surprising. Pedagogical competencies do not influence student motivation to study accounting compared to other research studies. The different results can be primarily attributed to the structure of the research sample and to the more varied types of secondary vocational schools represented in the study. It will be necessary to carry out further research, expand the sample and examine other factors that may influence motivation, such as intellectual level, academic success, individual ambition, etc.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The education of today more and more encounters the teaching and learning problems of young adults therefore it is topical to find out how to make the teaching/learning of the Millennium generation meaningful. This issue is especially important in STEM education. The survey involved Grade 10-12 students of Latvia, in total 256 students. Spearman’s correlations and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in the data analysis. The obtained results showed that students- millennials as regards the learning of STEM subjects can be described as real-life oriented, digitally educated who want to participate actively in the teaching/learning process and who want to receive the feedback.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.