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Designing a Model of Incentives of Public Service Motivation in Public Organizations (Ministry of Interior)

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Abstract

Objectives:This study aimed to design a model for incentives of public service motivation in government agencies to determine the indicators and test the accuracy of the designed model. Public Service Motivation Theory (PSM) as one of the key subjects of modern public management is based on the fact that the motivatiors of public sector employees and managers are very different from the private sector. Among the governmental organizations, the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology clearly have a special governmental function, due to their strategic role in scientific, political, security, economic, cultural, civil engineering, etc., that the motivation of service in these organizations should be considered. Method: In this study, through the mixed method, firstly, with the qualitative approach and content analysis method, the pattern of public service motivation incentives in government organizations was designed with a focus on provincial governments and public universities. For this purpose, by collecting theoretical literature and then gathering the opinions of top managers of some ministries and academic elites in the field of public administration (professors and managers of Tehran University, Shahed University and Qom University), the initial model was designed using interview tool. The number of interviews with the targeted sampling method was 18 to achieve theoretical saturation. In the quantitative part, using the method of structural equation analysis, through the questionnaire tool (which was designed based on the initial model) and its distribution among 80 managers of governmental organizations and universities (at the level of Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and Ministry of Interior and some provincial governments and Public universities) by random sampling method, the indicators and accuracy of the designed model were examined. Results: Qualitative and quantitative research results showed that individual factors with sub-themes (religious beliefs and value tendencies, individual moral tendencies, nationalist tendencies, collectivist tendencies, demographic variables, individual personality traits, positive organizational experiences) , Organizational factors with sub-themes (merit-centering in organization, servant leadership in the organization, humanistic job design, virtue-centering in organization, organizational goals, values and expectations, organizational socialism) and socio-cultural factors with sub-themes (growth and education in religious social environment, Social learning in the context of society and family culture) are incentives of public service motivation in public organizations. Conclusion: Individual, organizational, and socio-cultural incentives are effective in motivating public service, which is largely align with quantitative and qualitative results on the filed of research.
ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﯽﻣﻼﺳا هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد رد20/ لﺎﺳﻢﻬﻧهرﺎﻤﺷ ، 2/ نﺎﺘﺴﻣز و ﺰﯿﯾﺎﭘ1399 /332-309
Management in The Islamic University, 2021(Fall&Winter)20,Vol. 9, No.2, 309-332
و ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ
ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧادهﺮﻬﺑ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﮥﺘﺷر نﺎﮔﺮﺒﺧ ﺮﻈﻧ زا يﺮﯿﮔ
رﻮﺸﮐ يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ﯽﺘﻟود(ﻪﺘﺨﯿﻣآ شور)
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷ
1
؛يﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﻢﯾﺮﻣ
2
نﺎﺑﺮﻗ دﻮﻌﺴﻣ ﯽﻨﯿﺴﺣ
3
؛هدﺎﺳ نﺎﺴﺣا
4
هﺪﯿﮑﭼ
:فﺪ
ﻦﯾا فﺪﻫ ،ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ يﻮﮕﻟا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ رد يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ،ﯽﺘﻟود ﻦﯿﯿﻌﺗ ﺎﻬﺼﺧﺎﺷ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ و
ﺖﺤﺻ لﺪ ﯽﺣاﺮ هﺪ دﻮ. ور هﺮﻬﺑ ﺎﺑ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا رد ،نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ شور و ﯽﻔﯿﮐ دﺮﮑﯾور ﺎﺑ اﺪﺘﺑا ،ﻪﺘﺨﯿﻣآ شور زا يﺮﯿﮔ
يراﺪﻧﺎﺘﺳا ﺮﺑ ﺰﮐﺮﻤﺗ ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﻣزﺎرد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﻦﯾﺪﺑ .ﺪﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و ﺎﻫ
ﻊﻤﺟ ﺎﺑ ،رﻮﻈﻨﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ و يﺮﻈتﺎﯿﺑدا يروآﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو ﯽﺧﺮﺑ ﯽﻟﺎﻋ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ و ﺪﯿﺗﺎﺳا)ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﮥﺘﺷر رد ﯽﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد نﺎﮕﺒﺨﻧ و
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ داﺪﻌﺗ .ﺪﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃﯿﻟوا لﺪﻣ ،ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ راﺰﺑا زا هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﺎﺑ (ﻢﻗ و ﺪﻫﺎﺷ ،ناﺮﻬﺗ يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﻧﻮﻤﻧ شور ﺎﺑ ﺎﻫ يﺮﯿﮔ
،يﺮﻈﻧ عﺎﺒﺷا ﻪﺑ نﺪﯿﺳر ﺎﺗ ﺪﻨﻤﻓﺪﻫ ﯽﺑﺨﺘﻧا18 ﮐ ﺶﺨﺑ رد .دﻮﺑ درﻮﻣهﺮﻬﺑ ﺎﺑ ﯽﻤ ﯾﺮﻃ زا ،يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ شور زا يﺮﯿﮔ
ﻦﯿﺑ رد نآ ﻊﯾزﻮﺗ و (ﺪﺷﺣاﺮﻃﯿﻟوا لﺪﻣ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ)ﻪﻣﺎﻨﺸﺳﺮﭘ راﺰﺑا80 شور ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ زا ﺮﻔﻧ
ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ لﺪﺖﺤﺻ وﻬﺼﺧﺎﺷ ،ﯽﻓدﺎﺼﺗ يﺮﯿ .ﺪﺷ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ،هﺪﺷﻪﺘﻓﺎﯾ :ﺎﻫ ﺎﻀﻣ ﺎﺑ)يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮ و ﯽﻨﯾد يﺎﻫروﺎﺑ ﯽﻋﺮﻓﯿﻣ
تﻼﯾﺎﻤ ،ﯽﺷزرا يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ﯽﻗﻼﺧا ،دﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ﻠﻣ ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ رد ،دﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ﻊﻤﺟ ،ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮ يﺎﻫﺮﯿﻐﺘﻣ ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ ،ﯽﺳﺎﻨﺷ
ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﺎﺑ)ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ،(ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﮥﺑﺮﺠﺗ و دﺮﻓ ،نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يرﻮﺤ يﺮﺒﻫر ﻪﻧﺎﻣدﺎ رد
،نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ اﺮﻃﯽﺣ ﻞﻐﺷ نﺎﺴﻧا ،اﺮﮔ ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يرﻮﺤﻣ ، ﺎﻬﺷزرا ،فاﺪﻫا و تارﺎﻈﺘﻧا ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ و (نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﺪﺷر ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﺎﺑ)ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا و ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ رد ﯿﺤﻣ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ يﺮﯿﮔدﺎﯾ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا رد ﺘﺴﺑ ،ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ ،(ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ا .ﺪﻧﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ :يﺮﯿﮔ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ،يدﺮﻓ ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ و ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ - ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا رد
ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤ ﮐ ﺪﻧﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﺎﺗ دوﺪ يدﺎﯾز ﺎﺑ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﯽﻤ و ﻔﯿﮐ نﻮﻣاﺮﯿ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ،ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﻧاﻮﺨﻤ دراد.
نﺎﮔژاو يﺪﯿﻠﮐ: ﯽﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد نﺎﮕﺒﺨﻧ ،ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ،ﻮﮕﻟا.
:ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ ﺖﻓﺎﯾرد07/10/98 :ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ ﺐﯾﻮﺼﺗ ؛02/03/99 1 .يﻮﺠﺸﻧاد يﺮﺘﮐد ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ،ﯽﺘﻟود ﺸﻧادهﺎﮕ دازآ ﺪﺣاو ﯽﻣﻼﺳا .هوﺎﺳ ،هوﺎﺳ ناﺮﯾا.
2 .رﺎﯾدﺎﺘﺳا و ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ياﺮﺘﮐد هوﺮﮔ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ،ﯽﺘﻟود هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد دازآ ﺪﺣاو ﯽﻣﻼﺳا .هوﺎﺳ ،هوﺎﺳ )ناﺮﯾاﻮﻧهﺪﻨﺴ لﻮﺌﺴﻣ :ﯽﻧﺎﺸﻧ /(هوﺎﺳ؛ ﻬﺷ راﻮﻠﺑﯿ ﺘﺸﻬﺑ ،
ﻬﺷ راﻮﻠﺑﯿ ﻤﻬﻓﯿهﺪ،ﯿﺮﺘﻣﻮﻠ 4 ﻋرﻮﻧ هدﺎﺟ ﯿ، ﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد كﺮﻬﺷ ﻢﺗﺎﺧ ﺒﻧﻻاﯿ/ :ﺮﺑﺎﻤ 42433008-086 / Email: fa.ma1382@hotmail.com
3 .رﺎﯾدﺎﺘﺳا و ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ياﺮﺘﮐد هوﺮﮔ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ،ﯽﺘﻟود هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد دازآ ﺪﺣاو ﯽﻣﻼﺳا .هوﺎﺳ ،هوﺎﺳ ناﺮﯾا.
4 .رﺎﯾدﺎﺘﺳا و ﯽﺘﻌﻨﺻ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ياﺮﺘﮐد هوﺮﮔ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ،ﯽﺘﻟود هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد آداز ﺪﺣاو ﯽﻣﻼﺳا .هوﺎﺳ ،هوﺎﺳ ناﺮﯾا.
ﯽﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ
ﻞﯿﺻا
Original
Article
310 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
(ﻒﻟا ﻪﻣﺪﻘﻣ
ﺎﺴﻧا ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣﻢﻬﻣ ﯽﻧ ﯽﻣ رﺎﻤﺷ ﻪﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد هﮋﯾو ﻪﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ ﻦﯾﺮﺗ ﻦﺘﺨﯿﮕﻧاﺮﺑ و ندﺮﮐ هرادا عﻮﺿﻮﻣ .ﺪﻨﯾآ
،سﺎﺳا ﻦﯿﻤﻫ ﺮﺑ .ﺖﺳا ﯽﺗﺎﯿﺣ و ﻢﻬﻣ رﺎﯿﺴﺑ ناﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ ﺰﯿﻧ و ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ناﺪﻨﻤﺸﯾﺪﻧا ياﺮﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ نﺎﻣﺪﺨﺘﺴﻣ
ﻪﯾﺮﻈﻧ ياﺮﺑ ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺷﻼﺗ و ﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﺎﺳ رد هﺰﯿﮕﻧا ةرﺎﺑرد يزادﺮﭘﯽﻣ ترﻮﺻ ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣز دﺮﯿﮔ ،يزورﻮﻧ)1396( .ﻟﺎﺳ رديﺎﻬ
ﺧاﯿ،ﺮ ﮕﻧاﯿش ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ رد نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﺟﻮﺗﯿﺴﺑ ناﺮﮕرﺎي هدﺮﮐ ﺐﻠﺟ دﻮﺧ ﻪﺑ ارﺖﺳا؛ زاﺮ ﻫﺎﻣﯿ رد رﺎﮐ
ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ، ﯿزﺎ ﻧﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﻪﺑ ا اربﺎﺠ ﺪﻨﮐ ﻏﺪﻏد ﻪﮐ ا ﺎﺑ و ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ار مدﺮﻣ مﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ،فﺪﻫ
ﮕﻧاﯿشﺰ ﺪﻨﺑﺎ. ،ﯽﻧﺎﻫﺮﺑ و ﯽﻧﺎﺧﺮﯿﻣا)1395(
ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﮥﺘﺷر ﺦﯾرﺎﺗ رد ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا ﯽﻤﻬﻣ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ،ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ياﺮﺑ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﯽﻌﻗاو ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا
ﻪﯾﺮﻈﻧ زا ﯽﺧﺮﺑ .ﺖﺳا هدﻮﺑ ﻪﻟدﺎﺠﻣ و ﺚﺤﺑ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ هراﻮﻤﻫ ،ﯽﯾﻼﻘﻋ بﺎﺨﺘﻧا ﮥﯾﺮﻈﻧ ﺎﯾ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ بﺎﺨﺘﻧا ﮥﯾﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا ﺎﻫ
ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ار ﯽﺼﺨﺷ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ يزﺎﺳﺮﺜﮐاﺪﺣ ﯽﻣ نﺎﯿﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد داﺮﻓا يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﯽﻠﺻا حﺮﻄﻣ ار روﺎﺑ ﻦﯾا و ﺪ
ﯽﻣ ﺪﻧراﺪﻧ ﯽﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺶﺨﺑ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﺎﺑ ﯽﺗوﺎﻔﺗ ﭻﯿﻫ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﻪﮐ دزﺎ ،ﯽﻧاﻮﻟا)1378 :6( .ﺖﺧﺎﻨﺷ يﺎﻬﺗوﺎﻔﺗ
ﺳﺎﺳا ﯿ ﺘﻟود ﺶﺨﺑ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺻﻮﺼﺧ و زﻮﺣ ردة ﮕﻧاﯿﺷﺰ و ﻤﻬﻣ مﺎﮔ ،يرﺎﺘﻓر ﺴﻣ ردﯿ ﻣ كردﻣﻮﻬ ﺖﺳا
ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا مﻮﻬﻔﻣ يارو رد ﻪﮐ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ دراد دﻮﺟو ، نرﺎﮑﻤﻫ و نﺎﻧﺎﻘﻫد)13 94 :146( دﻮﺟو هﺪﯿﻘﻋ ﻦﯾا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ .
ﯽﻣ ﻪﺘﺨﯿﮕﻧاﺮﺑ ،مﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﺲﺣ ﮥﻠﯿﺳو ﻪﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ و ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﻪﮐ دراد و ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ رد ًﺎﻣاﺰﻟا ﻪﮐ ﯽﺴﺣ ؛ﺪﻧﻮﺷ
ﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ .دراﺪﻧ دﻮﺟو ﯽﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺶﺨﺑ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ و ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ةرﺎﺑرد ﯽﻧاﺮﮕﻧ ﺮﻃﺎﺧ ﻪﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺪﺳر
ﯽﻣ ﻪﺘﺨﯿﮕﻧاﺮﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻪﺑ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ ﺰﯿﻧ يﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﺖﯾﻮﻟوا رد ار ﯽﻧورد يﺎﻬﺷادﺎﭘ ،يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ لﺎﻤﺘﺣا ﺎﺑ و ﺪﻧﻮﺷ
ﯽﻣ راﺮﻗ ﯽﻧوﺮﯿﺑ يﺎﻬﺷادﺎﭘ زا .ﺪﻨﻫد ،ﯽﯾاﻮﻧ)1396(
ﺮﻈﻧ زا ﺎﻫي ﮕﻧاﯿﺷﺰ ود رد ﻪﮐ - د ﻪﺳﮥﻫ ﺧاﯿ ﻮﺘﻣ ردن ﺮﻈﻧي ﺪﻣ ﻟود ﻗاو ﻪﺟﻮﺗ درﻮ ﺪﺷه ،
ﻮﮕﻟاي ﮕﻧاﯿﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰ ﺖﺳا ِﭘ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ﻪﮐي)1990( ﺪﺷ حﺮﻄﻣه ا سﺎﺳا .ﺖﺳا ﺮﻈﻧ ا ﺮﺑ ﺖﺳا راﻮﺘﺳا ﻪﺘﮑﻧ
ﻪﮐ ﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐن ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶ، ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﮕﻧا دﺎﻌﺑاﯿﺷﺰ ﺗوﺎﻔﺘﻣ ﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ زان ﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺶ ﺪﻧراد. ،ﺰﯾاو و يﺮﭘ)1990(
ﻃ ﻪﺑﮐ رﻮ، ﺮﺟنﺎ ﻣز رد تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣﯿ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﻣﻮﻤﻋ رد مواﺪﺗ ﺖﻬﺟ ﻪﺳﺎﯾﻪﺘﻓ ﺖﺳا ،ﯽﯾاﻮﻧ)1396( .ﻪﺘﺳد يا
ﺮﺑ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ زا مﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﻫوﮋﭘ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺰﮐﺮﻤﺘﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يزادﺮﭘ يﺮﭘ)1996( ﻨﯿﻣز رد ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا دﺎﻌﺑا
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ، ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ﻂﺧ ﻪﺑ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ ﺸﻣ ﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يراﺬﮔ يرﺎﮐاﺪﻓ و رﺎﺜﯾا و يزﻮﺴﻟد ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ .ﺖﺳا
ﺋارا ﯾﺮﻈﻧ ﯽﻋﻮﻧ رد يﺪﻨﯾاﺮﻓ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺎﺑ ﻪﻄﺑار يﺮﭘ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ)2000( ﻪﮐ ﮐﺮﻤﺘﻣ ﺮﺑ ﺰﯽﺨﯾرﺎﺗ ﻂﯾاﺮﺷ
ﯽﺷﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺘﺴﺑ ،ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا)ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ(و ، ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ﺖﺳا يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫ ﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ و ﺮﺑ و رﻮﻦﻣﺪﻠﮔ)2000( و عاﻮﻧا بﺎﺑ رد
ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ، ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ،نارﺎﮐﻮﮑﯿﻧ ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ﻦﻃو ،نﺎﯾاﺮﮔ نﺎﺘﺳﺮﭘ و عﻮﻨﻤﻫ درﺎﻤﺷ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺘﺳد ﻦﯾا زا نﺎﺘﺳو
ﯽﻣ .ﺪﻧور زاﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﻨﯿﻣز ﻦﯾا رد ﯽﺧاد يﺎﯽﻣ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﺑ ناﻮ يدﺎﺑآدﻮﻤﺤﻣ و يﺪﻫاز)1391( ﻪﮐ دﺮﮐ هرﺎﺷا ﯽﻋﻮﻧ
ﯾﺮﻈﻧ هداد نﺎﯿﻨﺑ ارهداد ﻪﻌﺳﻮﺗ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻘﺗرا ﺎﺑ ﻪﻄﺑار رد .ﺪﻧا
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 311
ﯽﻫوﺮﮔ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﯿﭘ ﺮﺑ ﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ زا ﺮﮕﯾد هﺪﺷ ﺰﮐﺮﻤﺘﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ و ﻦﺳرﺪﻧا يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ .ﺪﻧا
نﺎﺳﺪﻠﮐ)2010( نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و گﺮﺒﻣﻮﻫ و)2015( ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺖﯾﺎﺿر ﺮﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻪﻨﯿﻣز رد، تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ
ﯽﻠﺑ)2013( ﺮﺑ ورﻮ)2011( ردصﻮﺼﺧ ﻄﺑار ﯽﻠﻐﺷ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا اﺮﺑ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ وﺖﯾ)2008( ﻨﯿﻣز رد
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ كﺮﺗ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا، ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ .ﺖﺳا عﻮﻧ ﻦﯾا زا ﯽﯾﺎﻫ
ﺘﺳد تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ مﻮﺳ، ﺰﮐﺮﻤﺗ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺮﺑﺮﮐهد ﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ .ﺪﻧا ﻦﺳرﺪﭘ و ﻦﺳرﺪﻧا)2012( رد
ﻪﻓﺮﺣ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻄﺑار يا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ نﺪﺷ، نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﻦﺳرﺪﻧا ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ)2011( ردﻮﺼﺧص و رﺎﮐ عﻮﻧ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ
ﺮﺑ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﻒﯾﺎﻇو ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا، ﺶﻫوﮋﭘﺮﮐ و فوم)1999( نﺎﯿﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا توﺎﻔﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻄﺑار رد
ﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ و نادﺮﻣ و نﺎﻧز يﺮﻠﯿﻣﺎﮐ)2006( ردر ةرﺎﺑﻄﺑاو ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا، ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ عﻮﻧ ﻦﯾا زا ﯽﯾﺎﻫ
يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ .ﺖﺳا ﯿﻧ ﯽﻠﺧاد دوﺪﻌﻣﻪﻨﯿﻣز ﻦﯾا رد ﺰ ا .ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ترﻮﺻﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﻠﻤﺟ ز و يﺮﻈﺘﻨﻣ
ﯽﻧﺎﺑﺮﻗ هداز)1391( ﻪﮐﻄﺑار ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺎﺑ ار يدﻮﻨﺸﺧ و ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ هدﺮﮐ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ .ﺪﻧا
رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ رد ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﻪﭼﺮﮔا ﻪﻠﺴﻠﺳ رد و ﯽﯾﺎﻓﻮﮑﺷدﻮﺧ هوﺮﮔ رد ﻮﻟزﺎﻣ يﺎﻫزﺎﯿﻧ ﺐﺗاﺮﻣﻈﻧﯾﺮ ود
ﮥﻘﺒﻃ رد گﺮﺑزﺮﻫ ﯽﻠﻣﺎﻋ هﺪﻨﻧاﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﻪﺘﺳد ،ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ يﺪﻨﺑ ﺎﻣا ﻦﯾا زا ﮏﯾ ﭻﯿﻫﻈﻧﯾﺮ ﯽﺸﻨﯿﺑ ﯽﯾاﻮﺘﺤﻣ يﺎﻫ ﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﻪﺑ
ﯽﻤﻧ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺢﻄﺳ ﺮﺑ ﺪﻧاﻮﺘﺑ نآ ﮥﻄﺳاو ﻪﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻫد ﻦﯾا ﯽﻧاﻮﺗﺎﻧ .ﺪﺷﺎﺑﻈﻧ رد ﺎﻫ
يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ نﺎﯿﻣ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا حﻮﻄﺳ ﺢﯾﺮﺸﺗ ﻣ ﯽﺘﯿﻌﻗﻮﻣ رد ﯽﺘﻟودﯽﻣ حﺮﻄ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ هزوﺮﻣا ﻪﮐ دﻮﺷ
تروﺮﺿ و نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﻮﺌﺴﻣ ﺮﺑ ﺼﺧﺎﺷ ﺖﯾﻮﻘﺗ يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ نﺎﯿﻣ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻬ
.ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺪﯿﮐﺄﺗ ،ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا ،نﺎﻧﺎﻘﻫد)1394 :722(
هﺮﻬﺑ ﺎﺑ ﺖﺳا نآ ﺮﺑ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ،ور ﻦﯾا زا زا ﯽﻌﻣﺎﺟ يﻮﮕﻟا ،ﯽﻤﮐ و ﯽﻔﯿﮐ شور ود ﺮﻫ ﺖﯿﻠﺑﺎﻗ زا يﺮﯿ
يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧارد ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳي ﯽﺘﻟود نﺎﮔﺮﺒﺧ و ﯽﻟﺎﻋ حﻮﻄﺳ رد ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا نﺎﮔﺮﺒﺧ ﺮﻈﻧ ﺮﺑ ﺪﯿﮐﺄﺗ ﺎﺑ ار
.دراﺬﮕﺑ نﻮﻣزآ ﮥﺗﻮﺑ ﻪﺑ و ﺪﻨﮐ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ رﻮﺸﮐ حﺮﻄﻣ يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد رد ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﮥﺘﺷر رد ﯽﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد
ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ يﺮﻈﻧ ﯽﻧﺎﺒﻣ (ب
ﻪﺟﻮﺗ درﻮﻣ ﺮﺑ لاد تﺎﯿﺑدا رد يﺪﻫﺎﺷ ﭻﯿﻫ ﻪﭼ ﺮﮔا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ندﻮﺑ
1
ﯽﻣﻮﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ ﯽﻠﻨﺳﺮﭘ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ رد
ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧراد دﻮﺧ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ياﺮﺑ ﯽﺘﺒﺜﻣ تﺪﻋﺎﺴﻣ ،هﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﻦﯾا ﺪﺟاو نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺖﺑﺎﺛ ﺎﻣا ،دراﺪﻧ دﻮﺟو
ﯽﻣ ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﺸﺨﺑﺮﺛا ﻪﺑ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ًﻻﺎﻤﺘﺣا ،ﯽﺷﻮﮑﺘﺨﺳ ﻪﺑ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ ،ﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ ﻦﺘﺷاد ﺐﺒﺳ ﻪﺑ ،سﺎﺳا ﻦﯾا ﺮﺑ .دﻮﺷ
.ﺪﻧراد ﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ و ﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺖﯾﺎﺿر ﻦﺘﺷاد ،موﺮﮐ و فﺎﻧ)19 99 :5(
ﻢﯿﮐ)2005( ،ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺖﯾﺎﺿر :ﺖﺳا هدﺮﮐ ﯽﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻦﯿﻨﭼ ار ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﺮﺑ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ياراد يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ رﺎﻬﭼ
،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗPSM يﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ رﺎﺘﻓر و- ﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ياراد ِﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻪﮐ ار عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻦﯾا وا .ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺎﺑ ﯽﻧﺎ
1. PSM
312 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
ﻦﯿﺑ ﻪﮐ دﺮﮐ ﺪﯿﯾﺄﺗ و ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ،ﺪﻧراد يﺮﺘﻬﺑ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ رﺎﻬﭼ ﻦﯾا رد ،ﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ حﻮﻄﺳPSM و ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺖﯾﺎﺿر وPSM و
يﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ يﺎﻫرﺎﺘﻓر- ﻪﮐ دﺮﮐ دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ ﻢﯿﮐ .ﺪﻧﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﺮﺑ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻦﯾا و دراد دﻮﺟو ﯽﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﺷﺮﮕﻧ ،ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺖﯾﺎﺿر ﻪﻧﻮﮕﭼ ﺪﻨﻧاﺪﺑ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ و ﺎﻬPSM يﺎﻘﺗرا ﻪﺑ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻨﻫد ﺶﯾﺰﻓا ار نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ
ﯽﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻪﭼ ﺮﮔا دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ ﻦﯾا .دﻮﺷ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﺮﺑ ،نآ ﺮﺑ هوﻼﻋ ﺎﻣا ،ﺪﺳرPSM زا ﯽﻤﻬﻣ ءﺰﺟ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ
ﯽﻣ ﺪﯿﮐﺄﺗ ،ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ .ﺪﻨﮐ ،ﻢﯿﮐ)2005 :732(
1ﯽﺘﻟود نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا .
ﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ نﺎﯿﻣ ردﯽﺘﯿﻤﮐﺎﺣ ةﮋﯾورﺎﮐ ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻧ ،رﻮﺸﮐ ﯽﺘ اهزﻮﺣ ﻣﺎﻤﺗ رد ﺪﯾﺎﺑ و ﺪﻧ يﺎﻫ
ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد ﺮﯾﺎيﻮﮕﻟا ،ناﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ ﺎﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ رد هﮋﯾو ﻪﺑ ،(...و ﯽﻧاﺮﻤﻋ ،يدﺎﺼﺘﻗا ،ﯽﺘﯿﻨﻣا ،ﯽﺳﺎﯿﺳ)ﯽﺘﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ
ﻧا ﻪﮑﻧآ زا ﺶﯿﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا ﯽﻧﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ و ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ يﺮﯿﮔرﺎﮐ ﻪﺑ ،ﺮﻣا ﻦﯾا تﺎﻣاﺰﻟا زا ﯽﮑﯾ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑهﺰﯿﮕ ﺖﻌﻔﻨﻣ يﺎﻫ يدﺮﻓ ﮥﻧﺎﺒﻠﻃ
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﮥﯿﺣور ﺎﺑ و يدﺮﻓ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﺮﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﺢﯿﺟﺮﺗ ﺮﺑ ﯽﻨﺘﺒﻣ ،ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﯾا اﺬﻟ .ﺪﻨﻨﮐ ﻞﻤﻋ ناﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﺳر
ناراﺬﮕﺘﺳﺎﯿﺳ و ﯽﻟﺎﻋ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ،ﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ دﺮﮑﯾور ﺎﺑ هﮋﯾو ﻪﺑ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا صﻮﺼﺧ رد ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ
ﮑﺷ ﻞﯾﻻد و ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ار رﻮﺸﮐ ﯽﻣ ردﺎﻗ ار نﺎﻧآ ،ﻪﺘﺧﺎﺳ هﺎﮔآ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺮﯿﮔ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ يﺎﻬﺼﺧﺎﺷ ﻪﮐ دزﺎﺳ
.ﺪﻨﻨﮐ ﺖﯾﻮﻘﺗ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ نﺎﯿﻣ رد ار ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ
2ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ةزﻮﺣ رد تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ . ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ
ﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘي مﺎﻈﻧ ﺪﻨﻣ، ﻪﺑ وهﮋ ﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘي ﺑﺮﺠﺗ وري ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺮﺑ سﺎﺳا اﻪﮑﻨ ﮕﻧاﯿة نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺶﺨﺑ
ﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺎﺑ ﺶﺨﺑ ﺘﻟود توﺎﻔﺘﻣ ﺖﺳا، ﺪﺷر و ﻪﻌﺳﻮﺗ ﻪﺘﻓﺎ ﺪﻧا. زا نﺎﻤﻫ اﺪﺘﺑا ﺨﺸﺗﯿ هداد ﺪﺷ ﻪﮐ ا ﺎﻬﺗوﺎﻔﺗ ﻪﺑ
ﻟدﯿ دﻮﺟو اﺮﺷ دﺮﻓي و ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺖﺳا . ترﺎﺒﻋ دﺮﮕ؛ رﺎﻈﺘﻧا ﯽﻣ دور ﺎﻤﺗتﻼ دﺮﻓي اﺮﺑي ﻪﺑ ﺖﺳد ندروآ مﺎﺠﻧا
رﺎﮐ و ﺎﺿر زا ،نآ رد ﺨﺑ ﺘﻟود ﺮﺑ سﺎﺳا ﺒﻨﺟ ﺎﻫي ﻤﺳر و ﯿ ﻤﺳر ﺤﻣﯿ رﺎﮐ و ﻨﭽﻤﻫﯿ وﮔﮋ يﺎﻫ
دﺮﻓي، توﺎﻔﺘﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ.)ﺪﻧﺎﭘي و ازﺎﺘﺴ ،2008 :101(
زا ﻢﻬﻣ ﻦﯾﺮﺗ ﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ رد ةزﻮﺣ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ راﺬﮔﺮﺛا ﺮﺑ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ يﺮﭘ)1997(، ﺪﻨﭼ لﺎﺳ ﺪﻌﺑ زا نﺎﯿﺑ
مﻮﻬﻔﻣ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ يو دﻮﺑ .وا ﻨﭘ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﺗﺮﻣﻂﺒ ﺎﺑ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ار ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ دﺮﮐ :
ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يزﺎﺳ ،ﻦﯾﺪﻟاو ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يزﺎﺳ ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﺖﯾﻮﻫ ﻪﻓﺮﺣ ،يا يژﻮﻟﻮﺋﺪﯾا ﯽﺳﺎﯿﺳ و ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﯽﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ
يدﺮﻓ) ، يﺮﭘ1997(ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ . يﺮﭘ)2000( ﮥﯾﺮﻈﻧ ﺪﻨﯾاﺮﻓ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ار ﻪﺋارا هداد ﻪﮐ زا مﻮﻬﻔﻣ اروﺪﻨﺑ)1986( زا
ﻂﺑاور ﯽّﻠﻋ ؛ﻪﯾﻮﺳود ﻌﯾﯽﻨ تاﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ،ﯽﻄﯿﺤﻣ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ و يﺎﻫرﻮﺘﮐﺎﻓ ﯽﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ ﺮﮕﯾد و ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ،رﺎﺘﻓر .ﺖﺳا
ﻣﺎﮐﯿﺮﻠي)2007( ﺮﺑ سﺎﺳا ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ راﺬﮔﺮﺛا ﺮﺑ ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﮐ رد تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﯿﯿ ﯿنﺎ هﺪﺷ ،ﺪﻧدﻮﺑ ﻄﺑار
ﯿ ﯿﺎﺸﻫﺪﻨي ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ و رﺎﻬﭼ ﺪﻌﺑ نآ ار ﺳرﺮﺑ ﺮﮐد .رد يو ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ،يا ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﺮﺑ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ار ﺞﻨﭘ ﺘﺳد ﯽﻣ ﺪﻧاد :ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ،ﯽﺼﺨﺷ ﺶﻘﻧ ،ﺎﻬﺘﻣﻮﮑﺣ كاردا نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ زا ،نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻂﺑاور
نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ- ﺮﺒﻫر و ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ.
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 313
زا ﻦﯾا ،ور ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ،ﯽﺼﺨﺷ ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ شزﻮﻣآ و ،شروﺮﭘ ﺖﯿﻌﺿو ﮥﺧﺮﭼ ﯽﮔﺪﻧز ،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ و ﮥﻘﺑﺎﺳ رﺎﮐ
ﻦﮑﻤﻣ ﺖﺳا ﻪﺑ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﮥﻨﯿﻣز ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا- ﯽﺨﯾرﺎﺗ ﻒﯾﺮﻌﺗ هﺪﺷ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ يﺮ)2000( هﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ هﺪﺷ ا .رد ﻪﮐ ﯽﻟﺎﺣ
،ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ ،ﻦﺳ قﻮﻘﺣ و دﺰﻤﺘﺳد و ﮥﺟرد رﺎﮐ ﻦﮑﻤﻣ ﺖﺳا ءﺰﺟ ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ يدﺮﻓ يﺮﭘ بﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ .هوﻼﻋ ﺮﺑ ،ﻦﯾا
ﺶﻘﻧ ،ﺎﻬﺘﻟود كاردا نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ زا ،نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻂﺑاور نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺮﺒﻫر و ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﻦﮑﻤﻣ ﺖﺳا ﻪﺑ ناﻮﻨﻋ زﮥﻨﯿ
ﯽﺷﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺮﭘ ﻪﻘﺒﻃ يﺪﻨﺑ دﻮﺷ.
ﮥﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ نﻮﺳﺪﻠﯾ و ﻦﺴﺑﻮﮐﺎﺟ)2013( نﺎﺸﻧ ﺪﻫد ﻪﮐ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا نﺪﺷ ﺮﺑ ﺢﻄﺳ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺮﺗاﺮﻓ زا
يﺎﻬﻟﺎﺳ ﻞﮑﺷ يﺮﯿﮔو زا ﯽﻣﺎﮕﻨﻫ ﻪﮐ داﺮﻓا ﺎﻬﺷزرا ار رد لﻮﻃ ﮔﺪﻧز ﻧورد ﯽﻣ ،ﺪﻨﻨﮐ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﯽﻣ دراﺬﮔ .،ﻦﯾا ﺮﺑﺎﻨﺑ
ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يزﺎﺳ ﻪﻧ ﺎﻬﻨﺗ رد رﻮﻬﻇ ﻟواﮥﯿ شزرا ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﻘﻧ ،دراد نﺎﻤﻫ رﻮﻃ ﻪﮐ يﺮﭘ)1997( نﺎﺸﻧ ؛داد
ﻪﮑﻠﺑ رد ﻆﻔﺣ ﯾا ﺎﻬﺷزرا ياﺮﺑ هرود يﺎﻫ ﻧﻻﻮﻃ ﺮﺗ ﻢﻫ ﻢﻬﻣ .ﺖﺳا) ،زور ﺪﻧآ2016(
زورﺪﻧآ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﺖﺳا وﮔﮋ يﺎ ﻮﭘي ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﮐ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﻪﺑ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻣزﯿﻪﻨ اي ﻐﺗﯿﯿ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻨﻨﮐ -
ﻞﻗاﺪﺣ ﻪﺑ زاﺪﻧاة وﮔﮋ ﺎﻫي اﺎﺘﺴي نآ وﮔﮋ يﺎﻫ دﺮﻓي ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺎﺑ فاﺪﻫا و ﺪﺻﺎﻘﻣ ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳي ﺘﻟود- ﻢﻬﻣ اﺪﻧ .ﺮﺑﺎﻨ
ا،ﻦ ﯽﻣ ناﻮﺗ ﻪﺑ ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﺎﻬﺷزراي ﺼﺨﺷ رد لﺎﺣ رﻮﻬﻇ زا ﺮﻓﯾاﺎﻫﺪﻨي ﻟواﮥﯿ
ﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا)،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ،ﺐﻫﺬﻣ شزﻮﻣآ و ،شروﺮﭘ ورﺎﻫداﺪي ﮔﺪﻧز(ﯽ و ﻪﺑ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﺷﺮﮕﻧ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧاﻮﺗ زا ﺮﻃ ﻣزﯿ
ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ شروﺮﭘ ﻌﻀﺗﯿ ،دﻮﺷ هﺎﮕﻧ .دﺮ)ﺎﻤﻫن :5(
وﯿﺰﻣﺎ ﺪﻟﻮﮔ ﯿﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﺖﺳا ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﺤﺗ ﯿ ود ﻪﺘﺳد زا ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ راﺮﻗ ﯽﻣ ﯿدﺮ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻨﺗرﺎﺒﻋ زا:
ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻞﺒﻗ زا دورو نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ و ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﺪﻌﺑ زا دورو ﻪﺑ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺎﺗ ﺪﺣ زدﺎي زا ﺪﻣناﺮ ﻣزﺎﺳنﺎ ﯿ
ﯽﻣ ﺬﭘدﺮ)وﯿﺰﻣﺎ ،ﺪﻟﻮﮔ 2016 :772(. وي رد ﻫوﮋﭘ دﻮ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ نورد ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺮﺛﺆﻣﺮﺑ ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ار ﻞﻣﺎﺷ
وﮔﮋ يﺎﻫ ﻠﻐﺷ، ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﻞﺤﻣ رﺎﮐ و ﻮﺸﻣﺎﻬﻗ، ﺳرﺮﺑ هدﺮ ﺖﺳا .ﺮﭘﺎﻣﺰ اﻮﮐ)2016( ﯿ ﯿنﺎ ﯽﻣ دراد رﺎﺘﻓر نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ
ﺘﻟود،ﯽ ﻌﺑﺎﺗ زا ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ و دﺮﮕ ﮕﻧاﯿهﺰ ﺎﻫي ﺼﺨﺷ وي ﺖﺳا ﻪﮐ ﺎﺗ ﺪﺣي ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ دﺮﻓي و
دﺎﻬﻧي حﻼﺻا هﺪﺷ ﺪﻧا)ﺮﭘﺎﻣﺰ ،اﻮﮐ 2016 :880(ﻦﯾا . تاﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا- ﯽﺨﯾرﺎﺗ رد ﻪﮐ ﺮﺳاﺮﺳ نارود ﯽﮐدﻮﮐ و
ﻞﯾاوا)ﯽﻧاﻮﺟ ﯽﮔﺪﻧز ﮏﯾ (دﺮﻓ خر ﯽﻣ ،ﺪﻫد :زا ﺪﻨﺗرﺎﺒﻋ دﺎﻬﻧ هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ)ذﻮﻔﻧ رﺪﭘ و ردﺎﻣ(، ﮕﺘﺴﺑاو ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﺖﯾﻮﻀﻋ
ﻓﺮﺣ يا و تﺎﺴﺳﺆﻣ .ﯽﺷزﻮﻣآ ﮥﻤﻫ ﺎﻬﻧآ ﻪﺑ ناﺰﯿﻣ ﻢﮐ ﺎﯾ دﺎﯾز ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ دﺮﻓ ار ياﺮﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻪﺑ مدﺮﻣ ﻞﺒﻗ زا عوﺮﺷ رﺎﮐ
ياﺮﺑ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺶﺨﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﺤﺗ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ راﺮﻗ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻨﻫد. ، زورﺪﻧآ)2016 :4(
ﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ترﻮﺻ رﻮﺸﮐ زا جرﺎﺧ و ﻞﺧاد رد ﯽﺗﺎﻘﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﮥﻨﯿﻣز رد ﻪﮑﻨﯾا ﺎﺑ ،ﺖ
ﯽﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ ،هﺪﻣآ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﺎﺑ ﺎﻣا هﺪﻣﺎﯿﻧ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻘﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﺘﻟود ﻞﻏﺎﺸﻣ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻦﯾا ةرﺎﺑرد ﺪﺳر
لوﺪﺟ رد .ﺖﺳا1مﺎﺠﻧا تﺎﻘﯿﻘﺤﺗ ، .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻪﺋارا ﯽﻟﺎﻤﺟا رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﮥﻨﯿﻣز رد هﺪﺷ
314 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
لوﺪﺟ1ﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﻪﻨﯿﻣز رد ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ترﻮﺻ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ :ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎ
ﻒﯾدر لﺎﺳ /ﺮﮕﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ
1
و يﺮﻈﺘﻨﻣ
ﯽﻧﺎﺑﺮﻗ )هداز1391(
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧ ا ﺎﺑ يدﻮﻨﺸﺧ و ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌ ﺗ ﮥﻄﺑار يدﻮﻨﺸﺧ و ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ
2 )نﺎﻧﺎﻘﻫد1394(
و يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ)ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﺤﻄﺳﺪﻨﭼ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ
(ﯽﻫوﺮﮔ
وﺮﮔ ،ﯽﻟﻮﺤﺗ يﺮﺒﻫرﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻮﺟ ،يرﺎﮐ ه
3 )ﯽﻧﺎﻫﺮﺑ و ﯽﻧﺎﺧﺮﯿﻣا1395( ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ﺮ ﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﮥﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ :ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ هﺎﻓر و ﻞﻐﺷ يﺎﻫ ﯽﮔﮋﯾو نﺎﻨﮐر ﺎﮐ هﺎﻓر و ﻞﻐﺷ يﺎﻫ
4 ﯽﻧﺎﻤﯾا )هاﻮﺧ1395( ﯽﺘﻟود ﺶﺨﺑ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤ ﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا و ﯽ ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ فﺪﻫ مﺎﻬﺑا ﯽ ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ فﺪﻫ مﺎﻬﺑا
5
يﺪﯿﻤﺣ و هداز
)نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ1395(
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮ ﺑ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ
ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ،هداﻮﻧ ﺎﺧ يﺮﯾﺬﭘ ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ يﺮﯾﺬﭘ
ﻪﻓﺮﺣ ﺖﯾﻮﻫ ﯽﮔﮋ ﯾو ،يا ﻪﻄﺑار ،ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ي ﺎ
ﺶﻘﻧ ﺖﯿﻌﺿو ، وﺮﯿﭘ و ﺮﺒﻫر
6 )ﯽﯾاﻮﻧ1396( ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣ ﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣز ﺎﺳ ﻞ ﻣاﻮﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻪﻔﯿﻇو يا - ﯽﺸﻧاد
7 ) ﻒﯿﻄﻟ ﯽﯾﺎﻤﻫ1397(
ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﯿﭘيﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ رد يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﺘﻟود ناﺮﯾا
ﻞﺑﺎﻘﺗ يﺎﻬﻟﺪﻣ ﺐﯿﻗر
ﮏﺒﺳ ،ﯽﮔﺪﻧز ﻣاﻮﻋ ﻂﯿﺤﻣ رﺎﮐ و ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ
ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ
8 )يﺮﻠﯿﻣﺎﮐ2 006( ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣ ﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا و ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ ﮥﻄﺑار ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ
9 ) نار ﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﻦﺳرﺪﻧا2011( ﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﻒﯾﺎﻇ و و رﺎﮐ عﻮﻧ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗﯽﻣﻮ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﻒﯾﺎﻇو ،ر ﺎﮐ عﻮﻧ
10 )نﻮ ﺳرﺪﭘ و ﻦﺳرﺪﻧا2012( ﻪﻓﺮﺣ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﯽﻣ ﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ نﺪﺷ يا ﻪﻓﺮﺣ نﺪﺷ يا
11 )ﯽﺑﺎﻧﺪﻧاو2014(
يﺎﻫزﺎﯿﻧ يﺪﻨﻤﺘﯾﺎﺿر و يﺮﺒﻫر ﺶﻘﻧ :ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣ ﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕ ﻧا ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ
ﯽﺳﺎﺳا
ﯽﺳﺎﺳا يﺎﻫزﺎﯿﻧ يﺪﻨﻤﺘﯾ ﺎﺿ ر ،يﺮﺒﻫر
12 )ﻮﯿﻟ2017( ﺖﻣ ﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا زا ﻊﻣﺎﺟ لﺪﻣ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﯿﭘ ﺖﯿﺼﺨﺷ راﺰﮕﺘﻣﺪﺧ يﺮﺒﻫر ،ﺶﻨﮐ
3ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ تﻻاﺆﺳ .
:ﯽﻠﺻا لاﺆﺳ ؟ﺪﻨﻣاﺪﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا
:ﯽﻋﺮﻓ تﻻاﺆﺳ
- ؟ﺪﻨﻣاﺪﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ياﺰﺟا و ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ - ؟دراد دﻮﺟو اﺰﺟا و ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻦﯾا نﺎﯿﻣ ﯽﻄﺑاور ﻪﭼ
شور (ج ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ
اﺪﺘﺑا .ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﺨﯿﻣآ ،شور ظﺎﺤﻟ ﻪﺑ و يدﺮﺑرﺎﮐ ،فﺪﻫ عﻮﻧ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﺎﺑ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ تﺎﯿﺑدا ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﻦﻤﺿ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ زا هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﺎﻫي ﺎﺑ ﯽﻓﺎﺸﺘﮐا ،ناﺮﻬﺗ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ﻪﻤﺟ زا ،حﺮﻄﻣ يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﮥﺘﺷر نﺎﮔﺮﺒﺧ
ﯾﺪﻣ زا يداﺪﻌﺗ و ﺪﻫﺎﺷ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و (ع)ﻦﯿﺴﺣ مﺎﻣا ﻊﻣﺎﺟ هﺎﮕﺸﻧادﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو ﺢﻄﺳ رد ﯽﻟﺎﻋ ناﺮ ترازو ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا ﺎﻫ
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 315
،رﻮﺸﮐ يﺎﻫﺪﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻠﺣﺮﻣ رد .ﺪﺷ ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷﺪﻌﺑ، هداد زا هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﺎﺑ ﺎﻫ
ﻠﺤﺗ ﮏﯿﻨﮑﺗﯿ ﻮﺘﺤﻣﺤﺗﯿ ﻢﺗ( ﺪﺷ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ .ﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﻦﯾا، ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﯽ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ .دﻮﺑ يﺮﯿﮔ رد ﻦﯾا ،ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﺑ ترﻮﺻ ﺪﻨﻤﻓﺪﻫ دﻮﺑ .ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ بﺎﺨﺘﻧا اﺬﻟ ﺖﻓﺎﯾ مواﺪﺗ ﯽﯾﺎﺟ ﺎﺗ ﺎﻫ
هداد عﺎﺒﺷا و ﺖﯾﺎﻔﮐ ﻪﮐ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﺪﺑﺎﯾرد ﻖﻘﺤﻣ و ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ترﻮﺻ ﺎﻫ يو رﺎﯿﺘﺧا رد يﺰﯾﺎﻤﺘﻣ تﺎﻋﻼﻃا يﺪﻌﺑ يﺎﻫ
ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ رد .ﺖﺷاﺬﮔ ﺪﻨﻫاﻮﺨﻧ ﺨﺘﻧا ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ يداﺮﻓا ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺖﻗد ،يﺮﯿﮔ ﮥﻘﺑﺎﺳ هرود ﮏﯾ ﻞﻗاﺪﺣ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ بﺎ
ﺎﺑ ﻖﻘﺤﻣ ،ﺖﯾﺎﻬﻧ رد .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﻪﺘﺷاد (ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا)ﻞﻏﺎﺸﻣ ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻧﺎﯿﻣ و ﯽﻟﺎﻋ ﺮﯾﺪﻣ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ،ﺖﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ
داﺪﻌﺗ18 لوﺪﺟ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﯿﺳر يﺮﻈﻧ عﺎﺒﺷا ﻪﺑ ،ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ2ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ، ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ يﺎﻫ ﮥﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ)يرﺎﻣآ ﯽﻣ ﺶﯾﺎﻤﻧ ار (نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﺪﻫد.
لوﺪﺟ2ﯽﮔﮋﯾو : ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ يﺎﻫ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ
ﺖﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﺖﯿﻌﺿو تﻼﯿﺼﺤﺗ عﻮﻧ تﻼﯿﺼﺤﺗ ﺢﻄﺳ ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ
ﯽﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد هﺮﺒﺧ(M) 8 ﯽﺘﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ 13 ﺪﺷرا ﯽﺳﺎﻨﺷرﺎﮐ 11 دﺮﻣ 17
ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا و ﯽﻤﻠﻋ هﺮﺒﺧ(S) 10 ﯽ ﺘﯾ ﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﺮﯿ 5 يﺮﺘﮐد 7 نز 1
ﯽﺘﻟود ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ داﺪﻌﺗ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ نآ زا ﺲﭘ ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ،ﺐﺨﺘﻨﻣ يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ
ﻞﻣﺎﺷ)ﯽﺘﻟود100 يراﺪﻧﺎﺘﺳا ﯽﺧﺮﺑ و رﻮﺸﮐ ترازو و مﻮﻠﻋ ترازو ﺢﻄﺳ رد ﺮﻔﻧ ،(ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و ﺎﻫ ﻖﺒﻃ
داﺪﻌﺗ نﺎﮔرﻮﻣ لوﺪﺟ80 ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﺮﻔﻧ زا جﺮﺨﺘﺴﻣ ﻪﯿﻟوا لﺪﻣ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﮥﻣﺎﻨﺸﺳﺮﭘ و ﺪﺷ مﺎﺠﻧا ﯽﻓدﺎﺼﺗ يﺮﯿﮔ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ و تﺎﯿﺑدا ﻃ ﺎﻫ.ﺪﺷ ﻊﯾزﻮﺗ داﺮﻓا ﻦﯾا ﻦﯿﺑ ،دﻮﺑ هﺪﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮ
1هداد ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ و ﻪﯾﺰﺠﺗ . ﺎﻫ
ﮏﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ مﺎﺠﻧا زا ﺲﭘ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﮏﺗ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ تﻮﺻ ،نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ هدﺎﯿﭘ و ﭗﯾﺎﺗ ﺎﻫ ﺎﻬﻧآ زا ﮏﯾ ﺮﻫ ﻪﺑ و ﺪﺷ يزﺎﺳ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ .ﺪﺷ هداد يدادراﺮﻗ ةرﺎﻤﺷ ﮏﯾ فﺮﺣ ﺎﺑ ﯽﻤﻠﻋ نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷM ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ و ﯽﻠﻤﻋ نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ- فﺮﺣ ﺎﺑ ﯽﯾاﺮﺟاS
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﻦﺘﻣ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ و ﻪﯾﺰﺠﺗ ياﺮﺑ .ﺪﺷ ﺺﺨﺸﻣ ،شور ﻦﯾا سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ .ﺪﺷ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ شور زا ،ﺎﻫ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ .ﺪﺷ ﺺﺨﺸﻣ ،ﺪﻧدﻮﺑ ﯽﻠﺻا لاﺆﺳ ﻪﺑ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﺖﻘﯿﻘﺣ رد ﻪﮐ ناﺮﮕﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻣ و ﺪﺷ هﺪﻧاﻮﺧ رﺮﮑﻣ ﺎﻫ
بﺎﺨﺘﻧا ﯽﻔﯿﮐ ةداد ناﺮﮕﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ﺲﭙﺳ هداد يراﺬﮔﺪﮐ .ﺪﻧدﺮﮐ يراﺬﮔﺪﮐ ار هﺪﺷ ،ﺎهرﺎﻤﺷ و ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﺐﺴﺣ ﺮﺑ يﺎﻫ
ﺶﯿﭘ يدادراﺮﻗ نآ زا ﺲﭘ و ﺪﺷ بﺎﺨﺘﻧا ﺐﺴﭼﺮﺑ ﮏﯾ ﺮﻫ ياﺮﺑ ،يراﺬﮔﺪﮐ ﮥﻠﺣﺮﻣ مﺎﻤﺗا زا ﺲﭘ .ﺖﻓﺮﮔ ترﻮﺻ ﻪﺘﻔﮔ
و ﯽﻧﺎﻌﻣ ﻖﻠﺧ ﻪﺑ و هداد راﺮﻗ ﻢﻫ رﺎﻨﮐ ،ﺪﻨﺘﺷاد ﻢﻫ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ار ﯽﻣﻮﻬﻔﻣ و ﯽﯾﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﺖﺑاﺮﻗ ﻦﯾﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﻪﮐ ار ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ
هژاو ﺖﻘﯿﻘﺣ رد .ﺪﺷ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ﺪﯾﺪﺟ يﺎﻫﻪﺘﺳد ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ؛ نﺎﻤﻫ ،ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ .ﺪﺷ يﺪﻨﺑ
ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ تﻻاﺆﺳ ﻪﺑ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ هداد زا ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧا هﺪﺷ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳا ﯽﻔﯿﮐ يﺎﻫ ﺪﻧا ، نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و يﺮﻔﻌﺟ يﺪﺑﺎﻋ)1390( ﺪﻨﯾاﺮﻓ زا ﯽﻠﮐ يﺎﻤﻧ .
هداد ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ ﻞﮑﺷ رد ﺎﻫ1 .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ هداد نﺎﺸﻧ
316 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
ﻞﮑﺷ1ﻓ :هداد ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ ﺪﻨﯾاﺮ ﺎﻫ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ زا جﺮﺨﺘﺴﻣ ﻪﯿﻟوا يﺎﻫﺪﮐ راﺮﮑﺗ ﻪﮑﻨﯾا ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ رد ،ﺖﺳﺎﻬﻧآ ﺖﯿﻤﻫا ﺮﮕﻧﺎﯿﺑ يدﺎﯾز ﺪﺣﺎﺗ ﺎ
ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ رد .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ هداد نﺎﺸﻧ لوﺪﺟ رد ﺰﯿﻧ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻪﺋارا ﺎﻬﻧآ راﺮﮑﺗ ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ لوﺪﺟ
نﺎﻤﻫ ﯽﻣ هﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ ﻪﮐ ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﺎﺑ زا ﺲﭘ ،دﻮﺷ ،تﺎﺣﻼﺻا مﺎﺠﻧا و يﺮﮕﻧز16 ﻪﺳ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد ﻪﮐ ﺖﺷاد دﻮﺟو ﯽﻋﺮﻓ نﻮﻤﻀﻣ
ﻪﺘﺳد ﯽﻠﺻا نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻪﯾﻮﮔ ﻦﯾوﺪﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻣادا رد و ﺪﻧﺪﺷ يﺪﻨﺑ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد ﯽﻋﺮﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ و هﺪﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ لﺪﻣ يﺎﻫ
ﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو ﺢﻄﺳ رد ﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﻪﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﺧﺮﺑ ﺢﻄﺳ رد ﻪﻣﺎﻨﺸﺳﺮﭘ و رﻮﺸﮐ و مﻮﻠﻋ يﺎﻫ
ﺳايراﺪﻧﺎﺘ .ﺪﺷ ﻪﺋارا يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻣزآ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ و ﻊﯾزﻮﺗ ،ﺪﻧدﻮﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد و ﺎﻫ
ﻪﺘﻓﺎﯾ (د ﺎﻫ
ﯽﻣ هﺪﻣآ ﺖﺳد ﻪﺑ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ تاﺮﻈﻧ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺖﻓﺮﮔ ﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ ناﻮﺗ ،ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ16 نﻮﻤﻀﻣ
ﯽﻠﺻا نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻪﺳ ﻞﯾذ ﯽﻋﺮﻓﻧاﯿهﺰ ﺎﻫي دﺮﻓي، ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ و ﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا- دوﺪﺣ ﺎﺗ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳا ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ
ﻦﯾا ﺎﻬﻨﺗ ﻪﮐ ﺖﻔﮔ ناﻮﺘﻧ ﺖﯿﻌﻃﺎﻗ ﺎﺑ ﺪﯾﺎﺷ ﻪﺘﺒﻟا ؛ﺪﻧراد ﯽﻧاﻮﺨﻤﻫ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ نﻮﻣاﺮﯿﭘ ﯽﻔﯿﮐ و ﯽﻤﮐ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﺎﺑ يدﺎﯾز
ﯽﻣ بﺎﺴﺣ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳا ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﮥﯿﻠﮐ ،ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﮥﻣادا رد .ﺪﻨﯾآ ةﺪﺷ
ﺑ ﻪﮐ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗﯽﻣ ﺢﯾﺮﺸﺗ يﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪ .دﻮﺷ
لوﺪﺟ3ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ و ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ،ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ :
ﻒﯾدر ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ
1
هﺰﯿﮕﻧا يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫ
ﯽﺷزرا يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ و ﯽﻨﯾد يﺎﻫروﺎﺑ
ﻪﻟﻮﺤﻣ ﻒﯾﺎﻇو م ﺎﺠ ﻧا رد دﺮﻓ ﯽﺷزرا هﺎﮕﻧ
رﺎﮐ مﺎﺠﻧاﯽﻬﻟا يﺎﺿر ياﺮﺑ
هزﻮﻣآرد ﺖﻣ ﺪﺧ ﮥ ﯿﺣور دﻮﺟو ﯽﻨﯾ د يﺎﻫ
مﻼﺳا ﻦﯾد يﺎﻫ دﻮ ﻤﻨﻫ ر ﺮﺑ ﯽﻨﺘﺒﻣ ﯽﻟﺪﻤﻫ و نوﺎﻌﺗ ،دﺮﻓ ﻪﺑ دﺎﻘﺘﻋا
ﻢﺸﭼ ﻦ ﯿﻨﻣﺆﻤﻟاﺮﯿﻣا ةﺮﯿﺳ ﺮﺑ ﯽﻨﺘﺒﻣ مدﺮﻣ ﻊﻔﻧ ﻪﺑ دﻮﺧ قﻮﻘﺣ ز ا ﯽﺷﻮﭘ
ﻢﯿﻤﺼﺗ ﮥﻨﯿﻣز رد ﻢﯾﺮﮐ ن آﺮﻗ زا دﺮﻓ مﺎﻬﻟا
ﯽﯾارﻮﺷ يﺮﯿﮔ
د يوﺮﺧا ﺖﻌﻔﻨﻣ ﮥﻏﺪﻏددﺮﻓ ر
مدﺮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ رد يﻮ ﻨﻌﻣ تﺎﻘﻠﻌﺗ دﻮﺟو
2 دﺮﻓ ﯽﻗﻼﺧا يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻪﻏﺪﻏد ﯽ ﻧﺎﺴﻧا ﺖﻣاﺮﮐ ﻆﻔﺣ ياﺮﺑ دﺮﻓ يﺪﻨﻣ
ﻪﻏﺪﻏد ﻊﻓر ﻪﺑ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ مدﺮﻣ يﺎﻫ
دﺮﻓ رد ﻪﻧﺎﺘﺳو ﺪﻋﻮﻧ تﻼﯾﺎﻤﺗ دﻮﺟو
دﺮﻓ رد رﺎﺜﯾا و ﯽﮕﺘﺷ ﺬﮔدﻮﺧ زا ﮥﯿﺣور
دﺮﻓ رد ﯽﻫاﻮﺧﺮﯿﺧ ﮥﯿﺣور دﻮﺟو
ﻼﯾﺎﻤﺗ دﻮﺟود ﺮﻓ ر د ﻪﻧﺎﻫاﻮﺧﺮﮔد ت
ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ز ا دﺮﻓ ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺷﻮﺧ سﺎﺴﺣا
ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ
ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀ
ﯽﻋﺮﻓ
ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 317
ﻒﯾدر ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ
3 ﯽﻠﻣ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ دﺮﻓ رد ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻦﻃو ﮥﯿﺣور دﻮﺟو دﺮﻓ رد ﯽﺘﺳﺮﭘ
ﻪﻗﻼﻋ رﻮﺸﮐ ﺖﯿﻌﺿو دﻮﺒﻬﺑ ياﺮ ﺑ دﺮ ﻓ يﺪﻨﻣ
ﻪﻏﺪﻏد
رﻮﺸﮐ تﻼﮑﺸﻣ ﻞﺣ رد دﺮﻓ يﺪﻨﻣ
4 ﻊﻤﺟ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ دﺮﻓ ﮥﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ
ﯿﺗ يﺎﻫرﺎﮐ رد ﺖ ﮐﺮﺷ ﻪﺑ دﺮﻓ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗﯽﻤ
ﻊﻤﺟ ﻪﺑ ﻞﯿﻣ
ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻢﯿﻤﺼﺗ ﻪﺑ دﺮﻓ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ ﯽﻫوﺮﮔ يﺮﯿﮔ
5 ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ يﺎﻫﺮﯿﻐﺘﻣ ﯽﺳﺎﻨﺷ
ﻦﺳ
ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ
تﻼﯿﺼﺤﺗ
6 ﯽﮔﮋﯾو دﺮﻓ ﯽﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ يﺎﻫ
دﺮﻓ رد ﯽﻟﺮﺘﻨﮐدﻮﺧ دﻮﺟو
دﺮﻓ رد ﯽﻟﺪﻤﻫ ﮥﯿﺣور دﻮﺟو
نوﺮﺑ دﺮﻓ رد ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﯽﯾﺎﻓﻮﮑﺷدﻮﺧزﺎﯿﻧ ﺢﻄﺳ ﻪﺑ ﯽﺑﺎﯿﺘﺳد ياﺮﺑ يد ﺮﻓ ﮥﻏ ﺪﻏد
ناﺮﮕﯾد ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ يز ﻮﺴﻟد سﺎﺴﺣا
مدﺮﻣ ﺎﺑ دﺮﻓ يدرﺪﻤﻫ ﮥﯿﺣور
7 ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﮥﺑﺮﺠﺗ
ﻞﻐﺷ عﻮﻧ زا دﺮﻓ يﺪﻨﻤﺘﯾﺎﺿر
نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻪﺑ دﺮﻓ ﺮﻃﺎﺧ ﻖﻠﻌ ﺗ سﺎﺴ ﺣا
ﻞﻐﺷ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ دﺮﻓ نﺪﺷ ﻦ ﯿﺠﻋ و ﯽﮕﺘﺴﺑاو
نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺖﻟﺎﺳر و ف اﺪﻫا ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ دﺮﻓ ﻒﯿﻠﮑﺗ سﺎﺴﺣا
8
هﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﻧﺎﻣزﺎـــــﺳ يﺎﻫ
رﻮﺤﻣ ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷي نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
يرﻻﺎﺳ ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ ﺮﺑ ﯽ ﻨﺘﺒ ﻣ يرادا مﺎﻈﻧ دﻮﺟو
ﻦﯿﺸﻧﺎﺟ مﺰﯿﻧﺎﮑﻣ دﻮﺟو
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣز ﺎﺳ رد يروﺮﭘ
ﺖﯿﻓﺮﻇ دﻮﺟو ﯽ ﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد دﺮﻓ ﯽﮔﺪﻨﻟﺎﺑ ياﺮﺑ ﯽﻠﻐﺷ يﺎﻫ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﻦﺷور ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺖﻓﺮﺸﯿﭘ ﺮﯿﺴﻣ دﻮﺟو
9 نﺎﻣ زﺎﺳ رد ﻪﻧﺎﻣدﺎﺧ يﺮﺒﻫر
ﺳد ﺖﻟﻮﻬﺳ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ن اﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﺎﺑ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ طﺎﺒﺗرا و ﯽﺳﺮﺘ
نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ي ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ر وﺎﺑ و دﺎﻤﺘﻋا
ﯽﺑﺮﻣ ﺶﻘﻧ يﺎﻔﯾا
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ن اﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﻂ ﺳﻮﺗ يﺮﮔ
10 اﺮﮔ نﺎﺴﻧا ﻞﻐﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ر د ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﻒﯾﺎﻇو مﺎﺠﻧا رد لﻼﻘﺘﺳ ا
ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﻒﯾﺎﻇو رد عﻮﻨﺗ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬ
ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﺶﺧﺮﭼ دﻮﺟو
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻠﻐﺷ د ﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ زا درﻮﺧزﺎﺑ مﺰﯿﻧ ﺎﮑﻣ دﻮﺟو
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﻞﻏﺎﺷ و ﻞﻐ ﺷ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﺗ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ير اد ا ﻒﯾﺎﻇو مﺎﺠﻧا رد يرادا ﻞﻤﻋ يدازآ
11 ﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يرﻮﺤﻣ ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ ن
رﻮﺤﻣ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ فاﺪﻫ ا دﻮﺟو
ﻓر سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ يﺪ ﻨﻤ ﻧﻮﻧﺎﻗﻪﻣﺎﻋ هﺎ
ﻪﻓﺮﺣ قﻼﺧا شزﻮﻣآ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد يا
عﻮﺟر بﺎﺑرا ﻢ ﯾﺮﮑﺗ ﺮﺑ ﯽﻨﺘﺒﻣ ﻞﻐﺷ ﺖﯿﻫﺎﻣ
12 ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ تارﺎﻈﺘﻧا و ﺎﻬﺷزرا ،فاﺪﻫا
يدﺮﻓ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﺮﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﺖﯾﻮﻟوا و ﺞﯿﺟ ﺮﺗ
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ف اﺪﻫا ﺖﯿﻓﺎﻔﺷ دﻮﺟو
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ و يدﺮﻓ ت ارﺎﻈﺘﻧا ﻦﯿﺑ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﺲﻧ ﺎﺠ ﺗ مﺪﻋ
ﺗ دﻮﺟو مﺪﻋن ﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺎﺑ دﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺷزرا رد دﺎ
318 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
ﻒﯾدر ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ
13 ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻪﻣﺎﻋ ﺖﯾﺎﺿر ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود نﺎﻣ زﺎﺳ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﺗ
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﺗ ﻪﻣﺎﻋ ﺖﻌﻔﻨﻣ ﺎﺑ ﯽﺘﻟ ود نﺎﻣ زﺎﺳ ﯽﻧﺎﺳر
ﻪﻏﺪﻏد
ﯽﺘﻟود نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﻪﻣﺎﻋ ﺮﯿﺧ يﺪﻨ
نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻪﻧﺎﺒﻠﻃﺮﯿﺧ فاﺪﻫ ا دﻮﺟو
ﻪﻣﺎﻋ ﺖﻌﻔﻨﻣ ﺎﺑ ﯽ ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ فاﺪﻫا ﺐﺳﺎﻨﺗ
14
اهﺰﯿﮕﻧ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ يﺎﻫ
ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻂﯿﺤﻣ رد ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ و ﺪﺷر
هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ رد شروﺮﭘ و ﺪﺷر ﻦﯾد و ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ راﺪﻣ
ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﻢﺳاﺮﻣ رد ﺖﮐﺮﺷ
15 ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﺘﺴﺑ رد ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يﺮﯿﮔدﺎﯾ
دﺮﻓ ﯽﮔﺪﻧز لﻮﻃ رد يﺎﻫداﺪﯾور
يدﺮﻓ ﯽﮔﺪﻧز تﺎﯿﺑﺮﺠﺗ
ﺖﯿﻣدﺎﺧ ﻪﯿﺣور ﺎﺑ يﺎﻬ ﻧﺎﺴ ﻧا يراﺬﮔﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ
16 ﺮﻓﮔداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﮓﻨﻫ
هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﺮﺘﺴﺑ ر د ﻪﻧﺎﺘﺳوﺪﻋﻮﻧ يﺎﻬﺷزرا ندﻮﺑ ﻪﻨﯾ دﺎﻬﻧ
ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ و شزﻮﻣآ
مﺎﻬﻟا ه داﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﯽﺘﯿﺑﺮﺗ يﺎﻫﻮﮕﻟا ز ا دﺮﻓ يﺮﯿﮔ
ﻞﮑﺷ رد هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﯽﻋ ﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﺖﯿﺼﺨﺷ يﺮ ﯿ
هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﺮﺑ ﻢﮐﺎﺣ ي ﺮﮑﻓ يﺎﻫﻮﮕﻟا
ﺖﯿﻟﻮﺌﺴﻣ ﺲﺣ يﺎﻘﻟا هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ رد يﺮﯾﺬﭘ
ﻼﻋﻪﻗ مﺎﻋ رﻮﻣا مﺎﺠﻧا ﻪﺑ هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ي ﺪﻨﻣ ﻪﻌﻔﻨﻤﻟا
ﻞﮑﺷ2ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ زا ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔﺮﺑ)ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ لﺪﻣ : (ﯽﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد نﺎﮔﺮﺒﺧ ﺮﻈﻧ و ﺎ
يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫ هﺰﯿﮕﻧا
يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻊﻤﺟ
ﻪﻧاﺮﮔ
هﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ
ﯽﺘﯿﻤﮐﺎﺣ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﯽﻠﻣ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ
رد
دﺮﻓ
يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ
ﯽﻗﻼﺧا
اﺮﮔ نﺎﺴﻧا ﻞﻐﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ
ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ
يرﻮﺤﻣ
رد ﻪﻧﺎﻣدﺎﺧ يﺮﺒﻫر
ﺮﯿﮔدﺎﯾ
رد ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ي
ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﺘﺴﺑ
ﺪﺷر
و
ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ
رد
ﻂﯿﺤﻣ
ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا
ﻫﺬﻣ
ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫ هﺰﯿﮕﻧا
هﺰﯿﮕﻧا
ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ يﺎ
يرﻮﺤﻣ ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ
نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ
فاﺪﻫا ﺎﻬﺷزرا و تارﺎﻈﺘﻧا
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
يﺎﻫﺮﯿﻐﺘﻣ
ﯽﮔﮋﯾو
يﺎﻫ
ﯽﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ
ﻪﺑﺮﺠﺗ
ﺖﺒﺜﻣ
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﯽﻨﯾد يﺎﻫروﺎﺑ
و
تﻼﯾﺎﻤﺗ
ﯽﺷزرا
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 319
1يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ نﻮﻣزآ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد لﺪﻣ ﺖﺤﺻ و ﯽﻋﺮﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﺖﯿﺑﻮﻠﻄﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ .
ﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳا زا ﺲﭘﻪﻣﺎﻨﺸﺳﺮﭘ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﺎﺑ ،ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ لﺪﻣ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ﯽﻋﺮ لﺪﻣ و ﯽﻋﺮﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ،يا
ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﺪﻨﻤﻓﺪﻫ ﮥﻧﻮﻤﻧ بﺎﺨﺘﻧا ﺎﺑ هﺪﺷ 80 رد نآ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﮐ ﺪﺷ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ مﻮﻠﻋ ترازو و رﻮﺸﮐ ترازو ﺢﻄﺳ زا يﺮﻔﻧ
.ﺖﺳا ﻞﯾذ حﺮﺷ ﻪﺑ يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ نﻮﻣزآ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ
2ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ درﻮﻣ ﮥﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﯽﻔﯿﺻﻮﺗ رﺎﻣآ .
لوﺪﺟ4ﺗ رﺎﻣآ :ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﮥﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﯽﻔﯿﺻﻮ
ﻒﯾدر
تﻼﯿﺼﺤﺗ
ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻪﻘﺑﺎﺳ
ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺖﺴﭘ
ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ
ﻦﺳ
ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ
ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ
ﯽﻧاواﺮﻓ
1 ﻢﻠﭙﯾد قﻮﻓ و ﻢﻠﭙﯾد 3 ﺮﯾز5لﺎﺳ 6 ﺪﺷرا ﺮﯾﺪﻣ 1 زا ﺮﺘﻤﮐ30 لﺎﺳ 6
دﺮﻣ 74 2 ﺲﻧﺎﺴﯿﻟ 2 7 ﻦﯿﺑ5 ﺎﺗ15لﺎﺳ 31 ﯽﻧﺎﯿﻣ ﺮﯾﺪﻣ 9 ﻦﯿﺑ30 ﺎﺗ40 لﺎﺳ 40
3 ﺲﻧ ﺎﺴﯿﻟ قﻮﻓ 43 ﻦﯿﺑ15 ﺎﺗ25لﺎﺳ 3 2 ﻪﯾﺎﭘ ﺮﯾﺪﻣ 18 ﻦﯿﺑ40 ﺎﺗ50 لﺎﺳ 2 9
نز 6 4 يﺮﺘﮐد 7 زا ﺮ ﺗﻻ ﺎﺑ25لﺎﺳ 10 ﺪ ﺷرا س ﺎﻨﺷرﺎﮐ 5 1 زا ﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ50 لﺎﺳ 5
يرﺎﻣآ ﮥﻧﻮﻤﻧ عﻮﻤﺠﻣ80 ﺮﻔﻧ
3نادﺮﮔدﻮﺧ نﻮﻣزآ . و ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻦﯿﺑ يرادﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ياﺮﺑ (ﮓﻨﯿﭘاﺮﺘﺳا تﻮﺑ)يزﺎﺳ
ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ
دﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ياﺮﺑمﺮﻧ رد يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ نﻮﻣزآ زا ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻦﯿﺑ يرا ترﺎﻤﺳا راﺰﻓا
.سا.لا.ﯽﭘ3 نﺎﻤﻫ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﻪﻔﻟﺆﻣ ﺐﯾاﺮﺿ يرادﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ياﺮﺑ ،ﺪﺷ ﺮﮐذ ﻪﮐ رﻮ نﻮﻣزآ زا (ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ)ﺎﻫ
نادﺮﮔدﻮﺧ )يزﺎﺳﻨﯿﭘاﺮﺘﺳا تﻮﺑﮏﺟ شﺮﺑ ﺎﯾ ( - ﻞﮑﺷ رد نآ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﮐ هﺪﺷ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﻒﯾﺎﻧ3 .ﺖﺳا هﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ ﻞﺑﺎﻗ
ﻞﮑﺷ3مﺮﻧ ﯽﺟوﺮﺧ : لﺪﻣ) سا.لا.ﯽﭘ راﺰا نادﺮﮔدﻮﺧ (ﺮﯿﺴﻣ ﯽﺑﺎﯾ )يزﺎﺳﮓﻨﯿﭘاﺮﺘﺳا تﻮﺑ(
نﺎﻤﻫ ﮑﺷ رد ﻪﮐ رﻮﻃ3 ﺸﻣﯽﻣ هﺪﻫﺎ يﻻﺎﺑ ﯽﺗ ةرﺎﻣآ ﺮﯾدﺎﻘﻣ ،دﻮﺷ1,96 زا ﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ؛ﯽﺗرﺎﺒﻋ ﻪﺑ ﺎﯾ0,05 ﻪﺑ .ﺖﺳا
؛ﯽﺗرﺎﺒﻋ ﻪﺑ .ﺪﻧراد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺎﺑ يرادﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﻂﺑاورﻠﺻا و ﯽﻋﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﯽﻣﺎﻤﺗ رﻮﻈﻨﻣ ﻦﯿﻤﻫ
ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﺪﯿﯾﺄﺗ زا ﯽﮐﺎﺣ نﻮﻣزآ ﻦﯾا ﮥﺠﯿﺘﻧ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ رد هﺪﺷ.ﺖﺳا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا
320 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
4ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ نﺎﯿﻣ ﻂﺑاور ﺖﻬﺟ و ترﺪﻗ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ياﺮﺑ دراﺪﻧﺎﺘﺳا ﻦﯿﻤﺨﺗ نﻮﻣزآ .
ﻞﮑﺷ4ﯽﻋﺮﻓ و ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ دراﺪﻧﺎﺘﺳا ﻦﯿﻤﺨﺗ ﺮﯿﺴﻣ طﻮﻄﺧ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ :مﺮﻧ ﯽﺟوﺮﺧ) (راﺰﻓا
يﻻﺎﺑ ﺐﯾاﺮﺿ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ رﻮﮐﺬﻣ نﻮﻣزآ ﻖﺒﻃ0,3 ﯿﺑ ﻂﺑاور ترﺪﻗ ،ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﯽﻠﻣﺎﻋ رﺎﺑ ناﺰﯿﻣ ﻪﭼﺮﻫ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ .ﺖﺳا ﺮﺘﺸ
نﺎﻤﻫ ﻞﮑﺷ رد ﻪﮐ رﻮﻃ4 ﯽﻣ هﺪﯾد يﻻﺎﺑ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﻣﺎﻤﺗ ،دﻮﺷ0,3 حﺮﻄﻣ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ .ﺖﺳا زا ﻪﮐ ﺖﻔﮔ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ هﺪﺷ
ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻢﯿﻈﻨﺗ يﺎﻫﺪﮐ نﺎﮔﺪﻨﻫد ﻪﯾﻮﮔ)هﺪﺷ و ﯽﻠﺻا نﻮﻤﻀﻣ رد ﯽﻋﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ و ﯽﻋﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ رد (ﺎﻫ
ﯿﺛﺄﺗ و ﺖﯿﻤﻫا ياراد ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ ةرﺎﻣآ ﺎﺑ يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣﻮﻋ ﯽﻠﮐ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ .ﺖﺳا ﺮ12,315
ةرﺎﻣآ ﺎﺑ ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ و ﯽﻠﺻا نﻮﻤﻀﻣ لوا ﺖﯾﻮﻟوا رد5,529 ةرﺎﻣآ ﺎﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ و مود ﺖﯾﻮﻟوا رد3,711 رد
.ﺪﻧراد راﺮﻗ ﯽﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ مﻮﺳ ﺖﯾﻮﻟوا
5ﺖﯿﻔﯿﮐ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ياﺮﺑ يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ لﺪﻣ شزاﺮﺑ نﻮﻣزآ . لﺪﻣ
ﺗرا يرادﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ زا ﺲﭘ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد هﺪﺷ ﻦﯾوﺪﺗ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧ يﻮﮕﻟا ﺎﯾ لﺪﻣ ﺖﯿﻔﯿﮐ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﻪﺑ ،تﺎﻃﺎﺒﺗرا تﺪﺷ و تﺎﻃﺎﺒ
مﺮﻧ ﺎﺑ يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ لﺪﻣ ﻞﮑﺷ).ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻪﺘﺧادﺮﭘ سا.لا.ﯽﭘ ترﺎﻤﺳا راﺰﻓا5(
ﻞﮑﺷ5لﺪﻣ ﺖﯿﻔﯿﮐ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ :مﺮﻧ ﯽﺟوﺮﺧ) (راﺰﻓا
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 321
ﻞﮑﺷ رد5، دﺪﻋ ﻦﯾا ؛ﺖﺳا ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ردﺎﮐ ﻞﺧاد رﺎﺒﺘﻋا ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﺺﺧﺎﺷ ار دﺪﻋ
ﯽﮕﻧوﺰﻓا ﺎﯾ ﻮﺸﺣ
1
ﯽﻣ ﯽﻣ نﺎﺸﻧ ار يرﺎﺘﺧﺎﺳ لﺪﻣ ﺖﯿﻔﯿﮐ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻨﯾﻮﮔ نﺎﻤﻫ .ﺪﻫد ﻞﮑﺷ رد ﻪﮐ رﻮﻃ5 ﯽﻣ هﺪﯾد رد ﺎﺑ ،دﻮﺷ
ﻪﻔﻟﺆﻣ ﮥﯿﻠﮐ ﻦﺘﻓﺮﮔ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺘﺳد ؛ﯽﺗرﺎﺒﻋ ﻪ.ﺖﺳا ﺖﺒﺜﻣ لﺪﻣ ﻞﺧاد دﺪﻋ ﺎﻫ ﻪﯾﻮيﺪﻨﺑ و ﯽﻋﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد ﺎﻫ
ﻠﺻا يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ رد ﯽﻋﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻤﻀﻣ زا ﻪﺘﺴﻧاﻮﺗ ﻖﻘﺤﻣ و ﺖﺳا رﺎﺒﺘﻋا ياراد ﻖﻘﺤﻣ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﺖﯾﺎﻬﻧ رد و ﯽ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﻦﯿﺑ يﺎﻫ مﺎﺠﻧا ﻪﻔﻟﺆﻣ ﺐﻟﺎﻗ رد ار ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ،هﺪﺷ ﻪﺘﺳد ﺎﯾ يراﺬﮔﺪﮐ ﯽﺤﯿﺤﺻ يﺎﻫ .ﺪﻨﮐ يﺪﻨﺑ
ﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ و ﺚﺤﺑ (ـﻫ يﺮﯿﮔ
ﺷ مﺎﺠﻧا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ فﺪﻫ ﺎﺑ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا يروآدﺮﮔ شور .ﺪ
هداد ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ مﺎﺠﻧا ،ﺎﻫ هداد ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ شور و ﻖﯿﻤﻋ يﺎﻫ ياﺮﺑ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ؛ﻊﻗاو رد .ﺖﺳا هدﻮﺑ نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ ،ﺎ
ﻪﮐ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﻠﺻا لاﺆ ﻪﺑ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ»ﺪﻨﻣاﺪﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ « .ﺪﺷ ﺖﯾاﺪﻫ
ﻪﺘﻓﺎﯾ ﯽﻣ نﺎﺸﻧ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ يﺎﻫ زﺎﺳ ،يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺪﻫدﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ و ﯽﻧﺎﻣ - .ﺪﻧﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا
ﯽﻣ هﺪﻣآ ﺖﺳد ﻪﺑ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺖﻓﺮﮔ ﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ ناﻮﺗ ،ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ16 نﻮﻤﻀﻣ
دوﺪﺣ ﺎﺗ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳا ،ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا و ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ،يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﻨﻌﯾ ؛ﯽﻠﺻا نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻪﺳ ﮥﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣﺮﯾز رد ﯽﻋﺮﻓ
ﻧ ﺎﺑ يدﺎﯾز.دراد ﯽﻧاﻮﺨﻤﻫ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ نﻮﻣاﺮﯿﭘ ﯽﻔﯿﮐ و ﯽﻤﮐ ﺞﯾﺎﺘ
1تﻼﯾﺎﻤﺗ و ﯽﻨﯾد روﺎﺑ . ﯽﺷزرا
ﯽﻣ بﻮﺴﺤﻣ يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ﻪﮐ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻦﯿﻟوا روﺎﺑ ،دﻮﺷ ﯽﻨﯾد و تﻼﯾﺎﻤﺗ ﯽﺷزرا دﺮﻓ
ﻨﯾد تﺎﯿﺑﺮﺠﺗ ضﺮﻌرد دﺮﻓ ﻦﺘﻓﺮﮔ راﺮﻗ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﻢﻬﻣ تاﺮﺛا زاﮑﯾ .ﺖﺳا و ﻼﺑ تﺮﺑار .ﺖﺳا ﯽ
ﺖﺳﺎﮑﯾﺮﻣآ ﮥﻌﻣﺎﺟ رد ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ و ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﯽﮔﺪﻧز رد نﺪﺷ ﺮﯿﮔرد ﻢﻬﻣ هار ﻦﯾﺪﻨﭼ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﻦﯾد ﺪﻧﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﺶﻧارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﻼﺑ)
،نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ1985 :219(ﯽﻣ ﻪﻌﺳﻮﺗ ،ناﺮﮕﯾد ﻪﺑ دﻮﺧ تاﺪﻬﻌﺗ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ار نﺎﺸﯾﺎﻫروﺎﺑ داﺮﻓا نآ رد ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا يدﺎﻬﻧ ﻦﯾد . و ﺪﻨﻫد
ﺪﯾﺎﻘﻋ ﻦﯾا ﮥﺋارا ياﺮﺑ ﯽﺘﺻﺮﻓ ﺎﺑ صﺎﺧ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا زا ﻪﺒﻨﺟ ﺪﻨﭼ ﺎﺑ ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ يدﺎﯿﻨﺑ يﺎﻫروﺎﺑ .ﺪﻧراد
ﺖﺳا ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺖﻘﻔﺷ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﮥﻔﯿﻇو ﻪﺑ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ ،يﺮﭘ)1997 :184( طﺎﺒﺗرا اﺪﺧ ﻪﺑ (بّﺮﻘﺗ)ﯽﮑﯾدﺰﻧ ﺎﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا .
.دراد ﻢﯿﻘﺘﺴﻣ
2تﻼﯾﺎﻤﺗ . ﯽﻗﻼﺧا دﺮﻓ
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ،ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ رد ﯽﻗﻼﺧا زا ﮏﭻﯿﻫ رد .ﺖﺳا دﺮﻓ
يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﯽﻗﻼﺧا هرﺎﺷا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ دﺮﻓ ،ﺖﻘﻔﺷ ﺪﭼ ﺮﻫ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ يا
نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﯽﺘﻤﻌﻧ ﮥﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ رد ﯽﮕﺘﺷﺬﮔدﻮﺧ زا و يرﺎﮐاﺪﻓ)1395( ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ رد ﯽﮕﺘﺷﺬﮔدﻮﺧ زا و يزﻮﺴﻟد ،
ﻞﯿﺑاﺪﻧاو)2009(، نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﮓﻧﺎﯿﺟ ﮥﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ رد يرﺎﮐاﺪﻓ و يزﻮﺴﻟد و ﺖﻘﻔﺷ)2009( ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ رد يرﺎﮐاﺪﻓ و يزﻮﺴﻟد و
ﺰﺘﯾر و ﯽﺴﮐوﺮﺘﭘ)2014( .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ حﺮﻄﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا دﺎﻌﺑا ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ
1. CV- Redundancy
322 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
3يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ . ﯽﻠﻣ ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ رد دﺮﻓ
يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﺮﺛﺆﻣ يدﺮ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ﺮﮕﯾد ﯽﮑ ﯽﻠﻣ ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮ رد تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ زا ﮏﯾ ﭻﯿﻫ رد .ﺖﺳا دﺮﻓ
يﺎﻬﺸاﺮﮔ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﻠﻣ ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮ رد هرﺎﺷا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ،دﺮﻓ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ يا
4يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ . ﻊﻤﺟ ﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻊﻤﺟ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ،يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ءﺰﺟ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺮﮕﯾد زا ﮐ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ .ﺖﺳا ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ ﻪﺑ يﺎﻫﺪ
ﻪﺘﻔﮔ رد هﺪﻣآ ﺖﺳد ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ يﺎﻫ ﯽﻣ ﻢﺸﭼ ﻪﺑ نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ زا ﮏﯾ ﭻﯿﻫ رد .درﻮﺧ
يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ﻊﻤﺟ هرﺎﺷا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ يا
ﯽﮑﯾ زا دﺎﻌﺑا ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﮥﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ،ﺪﺘﺴﻓﺎﻫ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔدﺮﻓ و ﻊﻤﺟ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ ﺖﺳا .ﺰﮐﺮﻤﺗ ﻦﯾا ﺪﻌﺑ يور ﻦﯾا ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﺖﺳا ﻪﮐ ﺎﯾآ
مدﺮﻣ ﺢﯿﺟﺮﺗ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻨﻫد ﻪﺑ لﺎﺣ دﻮﺧ ﺎﻫر ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﺎﯾ ِنورد ﻪﮑﺒﺷ يا ﺎﺑ تﺎﻃﺎﺒﺗرا ﮏﯾدﺰﻧ راﺮﻗ ﻧﺮﯿﮕﺑ .يﺎﻬﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﻊﻤﺟ اﺮﮔ ﺎﺑ
ﻦﯿﻨﭼ ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ﯽﯾﺎﻫ ﻪﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ : كاﺮﺘﺷا يراﺬﮔ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ و ﯽﮔدﺎﻣآ ياﺮﺑ رﺎﻨﮐ ﻦﺘﺷاﺬﮔ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﯽﺼﺨﺷ ياﺮﺑ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ
،ﯽﻌﻤﺟ عﺎﻓد زا ﯽﺧﺮﺑ ﺎﻬﻫوﺮﮔ)ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻧ نﺎﺘﺳود و هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ (و ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﻪﺑ يﺎﻬﻌﻤﺟ هدﺮﺘﺴﮔ ﺮﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﻪﺑ يﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﯿﭘ ﯽﻟﺎﻤﺣا .ﻪﺑ
ﯽﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﺪﺳر يﺎﻬﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﻊﻤﺟ اﺮﮔ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﻪﺑ يﺎﻬﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ اﺮﮔدﺮﻓ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ .ﺲﭘ
ﯽﻣ ناﻮﺗ يﺎﻬﺷزرا ﻪﺑ ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ رد ﻦﯾا ﻪﻨﯿﻣز ﻪﺟﻮﺗ يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ دﺮﮐ .،ﻊﻄﻗ رﻮﻪﺑ ﺎﻣزﺎﺳﺎﻬﻧ ﯽﯾﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻧ ﺪﻧا ﻪﮐ رد ﺮﺘﺴ ﻂﯿﺤﻣ ﺪﺷر
ﯽﻣ ﺪﻨﻨﮐ و يﺎﻬﺷزرا ﻧﺎﻣزﺎ ﺎﺗ ﺪﺣ يدﺎﯾز بﺎﺗزﺎﺑ يﺎﻬﺷزرا ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ نآ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺪﻧا.
5يﺎﻫﺮﯿﻐﺘﻣ . ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ ﯽﺳﺎﻨﺷ
ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﻣ بﺎﺴﺣ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ﺰﯿﻧ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ،ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ :زا ﺪﻨﺗرﺎﺒﻋ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻨﯾآ
.ﻦﺳ و تﻼﯿﺼﺤﺗرﺎﻬﭼ ﺮﯿﻐﺘﻣ ﺖﯿﻌﻤ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ،ﻞﯿﺼﺤﺗ ،ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ شزﻮﻣآ و ﺪﻣآرد رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ ﻢﯿﻘﺘﺴﻣ ﺎﺑ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ؛ﺪﻧا رد صﻮﺼﺧ ،ﻦ ﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ يا ﯿﭘ ﯽﻨﯿﺑ ﺪﺸﻧ) ،يﺮﭘ1997( ؛رد ﻪﮐ ﯽﻟﺎﺣ ،ﺖﯿﺴﻨﺟ ،ﻦﺳ قﻮﻘﺣ و
دﺰﻤﺘﺳد و ﮥﺟرد رﺎﮐ ﮑﻤﻣ ﺳا ءﺰﺟ ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ يدﺮﻓ يﺮﭘ بﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ،يﺮﭘ)2000( .ﯽﻣ ﻪﻨﯿﻣز ﻦﯾا رد ﻪﺑ ناﻮ
تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﺪﺘﺴﻓﺎﻫ ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ دﺮﮐ هرﺎﺷا ﻪﮐ رد يﺎﻫرﻮﺸﮐ ﺎﺑ ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ نز ،رﻻﺎﺳ ﻪﺑ ،يرﺎﮑﻤﻫ ﻮﺟ ﻪﻧﺎﺘﺳود و ﻢﯿﻤﺼﺗ يﺮﯿﮔ
ﯽﻫوﺮﮔ ﺎﻬﺑ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻨﻫد.
6ﯽﮔﮋﯾو . يﺎﻫ ﯽﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ دﺮﻓ
ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﯽﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ ﯽﻣ بﺎﺴﺣ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ﺮﮕﯾد زا دﺮﻓ ﺞﻨﭘ يﺮﭘ .ﺪﻨﯾآ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺎﺑ
ﯿﮕﻧاةﺰ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ار ﻞﯾذ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ دﺮﮐ :ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يزﺎﺳ ،ﻦﯾﺪﻟاو ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يزﺎﺳ ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﺖﯾﻮﻫ ﻪﻓﺮﺣ ،يا
يژﻮﻟﻮﺋﺪﯾا ﯽﺳﺎﯿ و ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﺘﯿﺼﺨﺷ يدﺮﻓ ،يﺮﭘ)1997( .رﺎﻈﺘﻧا ﯽﻣ دور ﺎﻤﺗتﻼ دﺮﻓي اﺮﺑي ﻪﺑ ﺖﺳد ندروآ مﺎﺠﻧا
رﺎﮐ و ﺎﺿر زا ،نآ رد ﺨﺑ ﺘﻟود ﺮﺑ سﺎﺳا ﺒﻨﺟ ﺎﻫي ﻤﺳر و ﯿ ﻤﺳر ﯿ رﺎﮐ و ﻨﭽﻤﻫﯿ وﮔﮋ يﺎﻫ
دﺮﻓي، توﺎﻔﺘﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ.)ﺪﻧﺎﭘي و ازﺎﺘﺴ ،2008 :10 1(
7ﮥﺑﺮﺠﺗ . ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﮥﺑﺮﺠﺗ ،يدﺮﻓ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺮﮕﯾد زا ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﺮﺛا .ﺖﺳا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ و دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ داﺮﻓا رد يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺘﻟود رد ﺪﻨﭼ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ هﺪﺷ ﺖﺳا .زا ﮥﻠﻤﺟ ﺎﻬﻧآ ﯽﻣ ناﻮﺗ ﻪﺑ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 323
نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود)نﻮﺳرﺪﻧا و ،ﻮﻟﺰﺘﯾﺮﯿﺳ 2012؛ ﺲﯾﻮﻟ و ،ﻮﺴﻧﻻآ 2001؛ فﺎﻧ و ،موﺮﮐ 1999؛ ،ﻞﺑﺎﻧﺪﻧو 2009( و ﺮﺑ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ)رﻮﯾﺮﺑ و ،نﺪﻠﺳ
2000؛ ،ﻢﯿﮐ 2005(، ﺪﻬﻌﺗ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ)،نﺎﺳوﺮﮐ 1997؛ ﮏﻨﯿﺴﯿﻟ و ،ﻦﺠﯿﺘﺳا 2009(، ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﺖﯾﺎﺿر و ﺶﻫﺎﮐ كﺮﺗ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ)فﺎﻧ و ،موﺮﮐ
1999؛ ،ﻦﺠﯿﺘﺳا 2008( هرﺎﺷا دﺮﮐ .يﺮﭘ نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و)2010( نﺎﯿﺑ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻧراد ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺮﺑ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ داﺮﻓا
درﻮﻣ رﺎﻈﺘﻧا ؛ﺖﺳا اﺮﯾز »داﺮﻓا ﺎﺑ ﺢﻄﺳ يﻻﺎﺑ ﻦﯾا ،هﺰﯿﮕﻧا كرد ﯽﺑﻮﺧ زا رﺎﮐ دﻮﺧ ﺪﻧراد و شﺮﮕﻧ نﺎﻧآ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ
نﺎﺷرﺎﮐ رادﺎﻨﻌﻣ دﻮﺑن نﺎﺷرﺎﮐ ﺖﺳا)يﺮﭘ و ،نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ 2010: 684(
8ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ . نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يرﻮﺤﻣ
ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ يرﻮﺤﻣ ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ زا ﮏﯾ ﭻﯿﻫ رد .ﺖﺳا نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ يرﻮﺤﻣ هرﺎﺷا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ يا
9يﺮﺒﻫر . دﺎﺧﻪﻧﺎﻣ رد نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
يﺮﺒﻫر ،يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ءﺰﺟ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺮﮕﯾد زا ﻪﻧﺎﻣدﺎﺧ هزوﺮﻣا .ﺖﺳا ﺨﺑ ﻞﺑﺎﻗ
ﯽﻬﺟﻮﺗ زا ناﺮﮑﻔﺘﻣ ﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ هﺪﯿﻘﻋ ﺪﻧراد ﺖﯿﻘﻓﻮﻣ ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﮥﺠﯿﺘﻧ ﻢﯿﻘﺘﺴﻣ يﺮﺒﻫر ﺖﺳا .ﺶﻟﺎﭼ ناﺮﺒﻫر ﻦﯾا ﺖﺳا ﻪﮐ
ﺪﻨﻧاﻮﺘﺑ داﺮﻓا ار ياﺮﺑ مﺎﺠﻧا يﺎﻫرﺎﮐ قﻮﻓ هدﺎﻌﻟا در نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺞﯿﺴﺑ ﺪﻨﻨﮐ .رد ﻂﺑاور نﺎﯿﻣ ﺮﺒﻫر-،ﺪﻨﻣرﺎﮐ ﺮﮔا ناﺮﺒﻫر
ﺪﻨﻫاﻮﺨﺑ ﻪﺑ ﺢﻄﺳ ﯽﯾﻻﺎﺑ ﯽﯾارﺎﮐ زا هاﺮﻤﻫ ﺎﺑ دﺎﻤﺘﻋا و يرﺎﮑﻤﻫ ﺖﺳد ،ﺪﻨﺑﺎﯾ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ ﻞﺒﻗ زا ﻪﮑﻨﯾا ﻪﺑ دﺎﻤﺘﻋا ناﺮﮕﯾد زﺎﯿﻧ
ﻪﺘﺷاد ،ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ دﺎﻤﺘﻋا دﻮﺧ ار ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﻪﺑ ناﺮﮕﯾد نﺎﺸﻧ ﺪﻨﻫد .ﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ نﺎﺸﻧ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻫد ﻪﻄﺑار يا ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﻦﯿﺑ دﺎﻌﺑا ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ و ﮥﻄﺑار ﺮﺒﻫر- ﺪﻨﻣرﺎﮐ دﻮﺟو دراد ﻪﮐ ﺎﺑ ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﻦﯾا ،ﻪﻄﺑار ﺪﻫﺎﺷ ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا رد ﮥﻤﻫ دﺎﻌﺑا ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ
ﻢﯿﻫاﻮﺧ دﻮﺑ) ،يﺮﻠﯿﻣﺎﮐ2007(. تﺎﺴﺳﺆﻣ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا زا يﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﮥﺟرد ﻪﺑ ار نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ،ﻪﻧاراﺰﮕﺘﻣﺪﺧ يﺮﺒﻫر
ﯽﻣ ﻖﯾﻮﺸﺗ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﮐ ﯽﻟﺎﺣ رد ؛ﺪﻨﮐﯽﻣ ﻖﯾﺮﻃ ﻦﯾا زا ﻪ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ار دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ زا يﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﻄﺳ ﺪﻨﻧاﻮﺗ ،ﯽﺑوذ و ﻦﯿﻠﭘ)2020 :2(
10ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ . ﻞﻐﺷ نﺎﺴﻧا اﺮﮔ
ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﻞﻐﺷ نﺎﺴﻧا ﺮﺑ .ﺖﺳاﺮﮔ سﺎﺳا ﺮﻈﻧ ﻦﻤﮐﺎﻫ و
مﺎﻫﺪﻟوا)1974(، ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﻞﻐﺷ زا نآ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﮐ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ادﺎﭘش ﯽﻧورد و ﺖﯾﺎﺿر ﯽﻠﻐﺷ ﯽﻣ ،ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﺚﻋﺎﺑ دﺎﺠﯾا
ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ يﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ .يﺮﻠﯿﻣﺎﮐ ﺰﯿﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻦﯾا ﻪﺠﯿﺘ هﺪﯿﺳر ﺖﺳا ﻪﮐ ﯽﻋﻮﻧ ﯽﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﻦﯿ دﺎﻌﺑا ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ و ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎﻫ ﻞﻐﺷ دﻮﺟو دراد و ﺎﺑ ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﯽﮔﮋﯾو يﺎ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ،ﻞﻐﺷ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺰﯿﻧ
ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﯽﻣ .ﺪﺑﺎﯾ)ﺮﻠﯿﻣﺎﮐ،ي 2007(
11ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ . رﻮﺤﻣ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ي
ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ﺮﮕﯾد ﯽﮑﯾ رﻮﺤﻣ ي ﻪﺘﻔﮔ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫ
ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ حﺮﻄﻣ يﺎﻫﺪﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ،نﺎﮔﺪﻧﻮﺷ ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ زا ﮏﯾ ﭻﯿﻫ رد .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ ﻪﺑ يرﻮﺤﻣ
ﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳهرﺎﺷا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ يا
324 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
12ﺎﻬﺷزرا ،فاﺪﻫا . و تارﺎﻈﺘﻧا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
و ﺎﻬﺷزرا و فاﺪﻫا ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺮﮕﯾد زا تارﺎﻈﺘﻧا .ﺖﺳا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ مﺪﻋ ﺎﯾ يرﺎﮔزﺎﺳﺎﻧ
ﺠﯿﺘﻧ زا يﺪﻣﺎﯿﭘ ﺖﺳا ﻦﮑﻤﻣ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﺗ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ دﺎﻀﺗ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ عاﻮﻧا؛ و ﺎﻬﺷزرا ﻦﯿﺑ دﺎﻀﺗ ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ دراﺪﻧﺎﺘﺳايﺎﻫ ﺎﺑ ﺺﺨﺷ
ﻒﯾﺮﻌﺗ يﺎﻫرﺎﺘﻓر ﺪﺷة ،نﺎﻣز نﺎﯿﻣ دﺎﻀﺗ ﺎﯾ ،ﺶﻘﻧ ﺑﺎﻨﻣ و ﻒﯾﺮﻌﺗ ﯽﻤﺳر يﺎﻫرﺎﺘﻓر ﺎﺑ ﺺﺨﺷ يﺪﻨﻤﻧاﻮﺗ ﺪﺷة مﺎﻬﺑا .ﺶﻘﻧ
ﺶﻘﻧ، ﺖﺳا ﺖﯿﻌﻗﻮﻣ ﺎﯾ ﻞﻐﺷ ﮏﯾ زا رﺎﻈﺘﻧا درﻮﻣ يﺎرﺎﺘﻓر حﻮﺿو مﺪﻋ يﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﻪﺑ)نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و وﺰﯾر ،1970( ﻪﮐ ﯽﻣﺎﮕﻨﻫ .
ﺺﺨﺸﻣﺎﻧ و ﻢﻬﺒﻣ يدﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ فاﺪﻫا ،ﺪﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾاﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ و هﺪﺸﻧ ﻒﯾﺮﻌﺗ ﯽﺑﻮﺧ ﻪﺑ يرﺎﮐ ﺮﯿﻏ و هﺪﯿﭽﯿﭘ ﻞﻐﺷ
فﺎﻔﺷ ﻧا، ﯽﻣ ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﺶﻘﻧ مﺎﻬﺑا .ﺪﺑﺎﯾ نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و سﻮﮐﺎﺑﺎﺑ)1996( ﯽﻃﺎﺒﺗرا ،ﺶﻘﻧ رد دﺎﻀﺗ ﻢﻫ و مﺎﻬﺑا ﻢﻫ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻨﺘﻓﺎﯾرد
ﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺎﺑ ﯽﻔﻨﻣة ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ .ﺪﻧراد ﯽﻧورد رﺎﻌﺗ و مﺎﻬﺑا ﻪﮐ داد نﺎﺸﻧ يﺮﮕﯾدض ﺶﻘﻧ رد، ﺮﺑ ﯽﻔﻨﻣ ﺮﺛا ﮕﻧا دﺎﻌﺑا ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿ
ﺪﻧراد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ.)،يﺮﻠﯿﻣﺎﮐ 2007(
ﯽﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻦﯾا ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﺪﯿﯾﺄﺗ رد نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﺎﻤﮐوﺮﺑ ﻖﯿﻘﺤﺗ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﺑ ناﻮﺗ)2019( .دﺮﮐ هرﺎﺷا
ﯽﺟوﺮﺧ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ يﺎﻫ ﻪﮐ دﻮﺑ ﻦﯾا ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا يﺎﻫ»اﺮﺑي ﻢﻨﮐ ﮏﻤﮐ كﺮﺘﺸﻣ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻢﻧاﻮﺘﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا ﻦﻣ
ﻈﻧﯾﺮ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﺖﯾﻮﻫﯽﻣ ﺎﻋدا نﺎﺷدﻮﺧ ،ﺪﻧراد ﻖﻠﻌﺗ صﺎﺧ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا هوﺮﮔ ﮏﯾ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻨﻨﮐ سﺎﺴﺣا داﺮﻓا ﺮﮔا ﺪﻨﮐ
هوﺮﮔ ﻦﯾا رد ار نﺎﺸﻔﯾﺮﻌﺗﻣ راﺮﻗ .ﺪﻨﻫد ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ دﻮﺧ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺎﺑ تﺪﺷ ﻪﺑ ﻪﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود ﺶﺨﺑ ﺪﻨﻣرﺎﮐ ﮏﯾ ،ور ﻦﯾا زا
ﯽﻣ ،دﻮﺷ دزﺎﺳ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ شدﻮﺧ ﺎﯾ دﻮﺧ مﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﺎﺑ ار دﻮﺧ هوﺮﮔ ﺖﯾﻮﻀﻋ ﻪﮐ دراد يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ لﺎﻤﺘﺣا. ﺖﺳا ﻦﮑﻤﻣ ﺪﻧﻮﯿﭘ ﻦﯾا
ﺑ)ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷياﺮ لﺎﺜﻣ، نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻬﺷزرا و فاﺪﻫادﻮﺷ نﺎﺷدﻮﺧ شزرا و فاﺪﻫا ، ﯽﻨﻌﯾ)ﯽﺳﺎﺴﺣا ،(ﻪﺑ ﻪﮑﻨﯾا زا ناﻮﻨﻋ
نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ زا يﻮﻀﻋ ﺪﻨﻨﮐ زاﺮﺑا ار نﺎﺷروﺮﻏ ،ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ود ﺮﻫ ﺎﯾ (.ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ،هوﻼﻋ ﻪﺑ»ناور مﺎﻏدا نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ و دﻮﺧ زا ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ « ﻪﺑ
ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﯽﻣ قﺎﻔﺗا يا اﺮﻓا ﻪﮐ ﺪﺘﻓاﯽﻣ ﻪﺟﻮﺘﻣ د هداد ﻖﯿﺒﻄﺗ دﻮﺧ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺖﺷﻮﻧﺮﺳ ﺎﺑ ار دﻮﺧ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﺪﻧا. ، نارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و ﻮﯿﻣ)2018(
13ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ . نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ زا ﮏﯾ ﭻﯿﻫ رد .ﺖﺳا نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ هرﺎﺷا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ .ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ يا
14ﺪﺷر . و ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ رد ﻂﯿﺤﻣ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ
ﺪﺷر ،ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﺢﻄﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد راﺬﮔﺮﺛا ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ زا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﻦﯿﻟوا و ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ رد ﻂﯿﺤﻣ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا
يﺮﭘ .ﺖﺳا ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ)1997( ﮥﻄﺑار ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ار ﺎﺑ ﺞﻨﭘ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ يﺮﯾﺬﭘ ،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ يﺮﯾﺬﭘ ﻫﺬﻣ،ﯽﺒ
ﺖﯾﻮﻫ ﻪﻓﺮﺣ ،يا يژﻮﻟﻮﺋﺪﯾا ﯽﺳﺎﯿﺳ و تﺎﯿﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ ﯽﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ،ﯽﺼﺨﺷ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ هدﺮﮐ .ﺖﺳا
ﺪﻨﯾاﺮﻓ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗ ﺎﺑ ناﺮﮕﯾد و ﻪﻬﺟاﻮﻣ ﺎﺑ بادآ و مﻮﺳر يﺎﻬﺘّﻨﺳ و ﻨﯾد و ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ ﺖﮐرﺎﺸﻣ رد يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﻪﻧ
ﺎﻬﻨﺗ داﺮﻓا ار رد يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻌﻗﻮﻣ ﯽﻨﯾد و ﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﺤﺗ راﺮﻗ ﺮﯿﺛ ﯽﻣ ؛ﺪﻫد ﻪﮑﻠﺑ نﺎﻣﺰﻤﻫ اﺮﺛ دﻮﺧ ار رد ﺮﯾﺎﺳ يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ
ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺰﯿﻧ ﺮﺑ رﺎﺘﻓر دﺮﻓ نﺎﺸﻧ ﯽﻣ .ﺪﻫد)نورﺎﺑ ،يﺮﮔ و 1991(
15يﺮﯿﮔدﺎﯾ . ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا رد ﺮﺘﺴﺑ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ
ﯽﻣ بﺎﺴﺣ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا ﻪﮐ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا رد راﺬﮔﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﺮﮕﯾد ﯽﮑﯾ .ﺪﯾآزورﺪﻧآ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ
ﺖﺳا و يﺎﻫ ﻮﭘي ﮕﻧاﯿة ﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﮐ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﻪﺑ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﻣزﯿﻪﻨ اي ﻐﺗﯿﯿ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻨﻨ- ﻞﻗاﺪﺣ ﻪﺑ زاﺪﻧاة
وﮔﮋ ﺎﻫي اﺎﺘﺴي نآ وﮔﮋ يﺎﻫ دﺮﻓي ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ ﺎﺑ فاﺪﻫا و ﺪﺻﺎﻘﻣ ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳي ﺘﻟود- ﻢﻬﻣ ﺪﻧا .ﺮﺑﺎﻨﺑ ا،ﻦ ﯽﻣ ﻧاﻮﺗﯿ ﻪﺑ
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 325
ﮕﻧاﯿة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﺎﻬﺷزراي ﺼﺨﺷ رد لﺎﺣ رﻮﻬﻇ زا ﺮﻓﯾاﺎﻫﺪﻨي ﻟواﮥﯿ ﺟاﻋﺎﻤﺘ)،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ
،ﺐﻫﺬﻣ شزﻮﻣآ و ،شروﺮﭘ ورﺎﻫداﺪي ﮔﺪﻧز(ﯽ و ﻪﺑ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﺷﺮﮕﻧ ﻪﮐ ﯽﻣ ﺪﻧاﻮﺗ زا ﺮﻃ ﻣزﯿ ﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ شروﺮﭘ
ﻌﻀﺗﯿ ،دﻮﺷ هﺎﮕﻧ ﻨﮐﯿ.)،زورﺪﻧآ 2016 :5(
ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ شﺮﮕﻧ .ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺎﯾ ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ،شزﻮﻣآ زا ﺲﭘ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ تﺎﻣﺪﺧ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﺪﯾﺪﺟ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ شﺮﮕﻧ
ﻤﻋ تﺎﻣﺪﺧ رﺎﮐ ﻪﺑﯽﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﻪﺑ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ﯽﻣ ﯽﻣ كرد ﺪﯾﺪﺟ ناﺪﻨﻣرﺎﮐ ﯽﺘﻗو و دﻮﺷ ﻦﯾا ﺪﻨﻨ
ناﺪﻨﻣرﺎﮐ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ﻪﮐ ﯽﻨﻌﻣ ﻦﯾﺪﺑ ؛ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺎﯾ دﻮﺒﻬﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ،ﺖﺳا ﺪﯿﻔﻣ شزﻮﻣآ
ﻄﻣ ﺪﻨﻧاﻮﺘﺑ نﯿﺑﺮﻣ ﻪﮐ ﯽﻧﺎﻣز (ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةزﻮﺣ رد رﺎﮐ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ شﺮﮕﻧ ﺎﺑ هاﺮﻤﻫ)ﺪﯾﺪﺟ دﻮﺒﻬﺑ ار ﯽﺷزﻮﻣآ ﺐﻟﺎ
كرد دﻮﺳ و هﺪﯿﺸﺨﺑ ﯽﻣ ﺶﯾاﺰﻓا ،ﺪﻨﻫد ﺎﺗرا ار نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ةﺪﺷ ﺪﻨﻤﻓﺪﻫ شزﻮﻣآ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﻖﯾﺮﻃ زا ﺎﻬﻨﺗ ﺮﻣا ﻦﯾا .ﺪﺑﺎﯾ
ﯽﻣ ﻞﺻﺎﺣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ و ﯽﺑﺎﯾزرا ،ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ ياﺮﺑ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ نازﻮﻣآرﺎﮐ و ﯽﺗﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ و نﺎﯿﺑﺮﻣ ،لﺎﺜﻣ ياﺮﺑ .دﻮﺷ
راﺮﻗﺮﺑ طﺎﺒﺗرا ﯽﺷزﻮﻣآ يﺎﻫزﺎﯿﻧيذ ﮥﯿﻠﮐ ﻪﺑ ار ﺮﻈﻧ ﺪﻣ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ نﺎﯿﺑﺮﻣ ،فاﺪﻫا ﻦﯿﯿﻌﺗ زا ﺲﭘ .ﺪﻨﻨﮐ و ﺪﻨﻫد لﺎﻘﺘﻧا نﺎﻌﻔﻧ
.ﺪﻨﻨﮐ اﺮﺟا و ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﺖﻗد ﺎﺑ ار ﯽﺷزﻮﻣآ ﮥﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑنآ) يو ،ﻦﭼ ﯿ و نﻮ ﻦﭼ ،2019(
16ﻫﺮﻓ . ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎﺧ
ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﻦﯾﺮﺧآ ﻨﯾدﺎﻬﻧ .ﺖﺳا ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎ ندﻮﺑ ﺷزرايﺎﻬ ﻪﻧﺎﺘﺳوﺪﻋﻮﻧ رد
ﺮﺘﺴﺑ شزﻮﻣآ ،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ و ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ مﺎﻬﻟا ،ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎﺧ يﺮﯿﮔدﺮﻓ زا يﺎﻫﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺘﯿﺑﺮﺗ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ رد
ﻞﮑﺷ يﺮﯿﮔ ﺖﯿﺼﺨﺷ يﺎﻫﻮﮕﻟا ،ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا يﺮﮑﻓ ﻢﮐﺎﺣ ﺮﺑ لﺎﻐﺘﺷا ،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﯽﮑﯾ زا يﺎﻀﻋا هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ رد يﺎﻬﺘﺴﭘ
يﺎﻘﻟا ،ﯽﺘﯿﻤﮐﺎﺣ ﺖﯿﻟﻮﺌﺴﻣ يﺮﯾﺬﭘ رد ﻼﻋ و هداﻮﻧﺎﺧﻪﻗ يﺪﻨﻣ هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﻪﺑ مﺎﺠﻧا رﻮﻣا مﺎﻋ نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻢﯿﻫﺎﻔﻣ ،ﻪﻌﻔﻨﻤﻟا
ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎﺧ يرﻼﮐ و ﺮﻠﯿﻣ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ نﺎﻬﻧزور تﺎﻘﯿﻘﺤﺗ .ﺪﻧا)1986( و ﻦﯾﺪﻟاو يزﺎﺴﻟﺪﻣ ﺮﺛا ﺰﯿﻧ ﺎﻬﻧآ .ﺪﺷ راﺮﮑﺗ
ﻤﯿﻤﺻ و مﺮﮔ ﻂﺑاور ﻪﮐ يداﺮﻓا داد نﺎﺸﻧ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ؛ﺪﻧدﺮﮐ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ راﺪﯾﺎﭘ ﯽﺘﺳوﺪﻋﻮﻧ رﺎﺘﻓر ﺮﺑ ار نﺎﮐدﻮﮐ شروﺮﭘ ﺎﺑ ﯽ
ﯽﻣ ﻞﻤﻋ ﺮﺘﻬﺑ ،ﻪﻧﺎﺒﻠﻃواد تاﺪﻬﻌﺗ ﻆﻔﺣ رد يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ لﺎﻤﺘﺣا ﺎﺑ ،ﺪﻧراد دﻮﺧ ﻦﯾﺪﻟاو ﯽﻣ رﺎﻈﺘﻧا ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ .ﺪﻨﻨ ﺑاور دور
.ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ داﺮﻓا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﻦﯾﺪﻟاو ﺎﺑ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ،يﺮﭘ)1997 :1 83(
ﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو ﺢﻄﺳ رد ﯽﻧاﺪﯿﻣ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻣادا رد ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ ترازو و رﻮﺸﮐ ترازو)ﺎﻫ يﻮﮕﻟا و ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ،(مﻮﻠﻋ
ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ﺪﯿﯾﺄﺗ زا نﺎﺸﻧ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ .ﺪﺷ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ هﺪﺷ ﻪﺋارا لﺪﻣ ﺖﺤﺻ و هﺪﺷ ﻦﯾا رد ﻦﯿﻨﭽﻤﻫ .دﻮﺑ هﺪﺷ
ﯽﻣ ﻪﺋارا ﺰﯿﻧ ﯽﯾﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ ﺎﻬﻧآ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ هﺪﻣآ ﺖﺳد ﻪﺑ ﺰﯿﻧ يﺮﮕﯾد ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ :دﻮﺷ 1ﯽﻣ نﺎﺸﻧ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ . ﺪﻫدﺎﻣزﺎﺳ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ زا ﻪﺘﺳد نآﺎﻬﻧﺶﯿﭘ ياراد ﻪﮐ ﯽﺘﻟود ي ﻪﻨﯿﻣز ﯽﮔداﻮﻧﺎﺧ يﺎﻫ
ﻢﮑﺤﺘﺴﻣ يﺮﺗ .ﺪﻧراد ناﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ تﺎﻣﺪﺧ ﮥﺋارا رد يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺐﺗاﺮﻣ ﻪﺑ ،ﺪﻧا 2ﯽﻣ نﺎﺸﻧ ﻪﯿﺿﺮﻓ ﻦﯾا ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ . هزﻮﻣآ زا رادرﻮﺧﺮﺑ داﺮﻓا ﺪﻫد ﮏﻤﮐ ﺖﻤﺳ ﻪﺑ يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﺶﯾاﺮﮔ ،ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ و ﯽﻨﯾد يﺎﻫ
ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ،ﺖﺷﺬﮔ و رﺎﺜﯾا ،عﻮﻨﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ .ﺪﻧراد نآ ﺮﯾﺎﻈﻧ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ 3 ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﯽﮔﺪﻧز ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ يﺎﻫوﺮﻤﻠﻗ رد يرﺎﮑﻧا ﻞﺑﺎﻗ ﺮﯿﻏ يراﺬﮔﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ،ﯽﺳﺎﯿﺳ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻦﯾﺮﺗﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﮥﺑﺎﺜﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻟود .
ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﻫ رد ﺎﻬﺘﻟود .دراد ﻢﻬﻣ يا ﯽﻣ رﺎﻤﺷ ﻪﺑ دﺎﻬﻧ ﻦﯾﺮﺗ ،هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ :نﻮﭽﻤﻫ ﺮﮕﯾد يﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻧ ﮥﻌﺳﻮﺗ و ﺪﺷر اﺮﯾز ؛ﺪﻨﯾآ
ﻪﺘﺴﺑاو ،دﺎﺼﺘﻗاو ﺐﻫﺬﻣ ،شزﻮﻣآ ﻪﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ و دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣ ﻦﯾوﺪﺗ ﺖﻟود ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا ﯽﯾﺎﻫ و ﻒﯾﺎﻇو ﺖﻟود .ﺪﻨﮐ
326 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
ﯽﻣ ﻖﻘﺤﺗ ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ار دﻮﺧ يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﻮﺌﺴﻣ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻦﯿﻨﭼ ﺖﺳا يروﺮﺿ ور ﻦﯾا زا ؛ﺪﺸﺨﺑ
ﺮﺿ ﮏﯾ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﺎﻫرﻮﺸﮐ مﺎﻤﺗ ياﺮﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود تﺎﺴﺳﺆﻣ ﺖﯿﻌﺿو دﻮﺒﻬﺑ هزوﺮﻣا ﻞﯿﻟد ﻦﯿﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﯽﺒﺳﺎﻨﻣ ترو
.ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻪﺘﻓﺮﯾﺬﭘ 4ﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو ندﻮﺑ ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﻞﯿﻟد ﻪﺑ . و مدﺮﻣ ﻦﯿﺑ ﯽﻘﯿﻤﻋ ذﻮﻔﻧ زا ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ و ﯽﻨﯾد يﺎﻫروﺎﺑ ،هﺪﺷ بﺎﺨﺘﻧا يﺎﻫ
ﯽﻣ رﺎﻈﺘﻧا ور ﻦﯾا زا .ﺖﺳا رادرﻮﺧﺮﺑ ﯽﺘﻟود ناراﺰﮔرﺎﮐ يدﺮﻓ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ زا ﺖﺷﺬﮔ ،مدﺮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﺷزرا دور
دﺎﺳ ،عﻮﻨﻤ ﻪﺑ ﮏﻤﮐ ،مدﺮﻣ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ يﺎﺘﺳار رده ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ﺎﺑ داﺮﻓا ﯽﻣﺎﻤﺗ نﺎﯿﻣ هﺮﯿﻏ و ﯽﺘﺴﯾز و ﯽﻠﯿﺼﺤﺗ ،ﯽﻨﺳ يﺎﻫ
.ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﻪﻋﺎﺷا ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ ﯽﺘﯿﺴﻨﺟ 5 ار ﺎﻬﺷزرا ﻦﯾا ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا يداﺮﻓا بﺎﺨﺘﻧا ،ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ يﺎﻬﺷزرا يﺎﻘﺗرا ياﺮﺑ مﺎﮔ ﻦﯿﻟوا .
ﺎﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﺼﺧﺎﺷ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻦﯿﻨﭼ ﺖﺳا ﺮﺘﻬﺑ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻮﮕﺨﺳﺎﭘ ﺎﻬﻧآ ﻪﺑ ﺎﯾ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﻞﯿﻣ ،ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا تﺎﻣﺪﺧ ﻪﺑ دﺮﻓ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ ﺪﻨﻧ
و ﯽﻗﻼﺧا يﺎﻫروﺎﺑ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﺘﮐرﺎﺸﻣ ،يدﺮﻓ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻪﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ نداد ﺖﯾﻮﻟوا ،ناﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷ ﻪﺑ ﮏﻤﮐ
ﯽﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﺼﺧﺎﺷ ﻦﯿﻨﭼ .ﺪﻨﻫد ﺖﻟﺎﺧد دﻮﯽﺑﺎﯾزرا يﺎﻫرﺎﮐوزﺎﺳ رد ار نآ ﺮﯾﺎﻈﻧ و ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﯽﯾﺎﻫرﺎﯿﻌﻣ ﮥﻟﺰﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻧاﻮﺗ
ا ﺎﯾ بﺎﺼﺘﻧا ياﺮﺑ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻣهﺰﯿﮕﻧا و تﺎﯿﺣور ياراد ﻪﮐ ﯽﻧاﺮﯾﺪﻣ .ﺪﻧور رﺎﮐ ﻪﺑ ﺰﯿﻧ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ يﺎﻘﺗر و يروآدﻮﺳ يﺎﻫ
ﺖﻌﻔﻨﻣ ﯽﻤﻧ ًﺎﻌﻄﻗ ،ﺪﻧراد ﯽﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺶﺨﺑ ﻪﺑ يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﺶﯾاﺮﮔ و هدﻮﺑ ﯽﺒﻠﻃ ار ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣرآ و فاﺪﻫا ﺪﻨﻧاﻮﺗ
.ﺪﻧزﺎﺳ ﻖﻘﺤﻣ 6 يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ .،ﯽﺘﻟود ﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو هﮋﯾو ﻪﺑ ﯽﻣ ،رﻮﺸﮐ ترازو ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ يا ﺪﻨﻧاﻮﺗ ،نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد دﻮﺟﻮﻣ ﻞﻏﺎﺸﻣ ﮥﯿﻠﮐ ياﺮﺑ
يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ مﺎﺠﻧا رد نﺎﻧآ ﺎﺗ ﻪﺘﺷاﺬﮔ رﺎﯿﺘﺧا رد بﻮﺘﮑﻣ ترﻮﺻ ﻪﺑ ار تارﺮﻘﻣ و ﻦﯿﻧاﻮﻗ و ﺎﻬﻠﻤﻌﻟارﻮﺘﺳد ،ﺎﻬﺘﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ ،ﻒﯾﺎﻇو
ﻞﻏﺎﺷ و ﻞﻐﺷ ﻦﯿﺑ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﺗ ﻪﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﺴﻧا ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﺪﯾﺎﺑ ﺰﯿﻧ ﺶﻘﻧ رد دﺎﻀﺗ زا يﺮﯿﮔﻮﻠﺟ ياﺮﺑ .ﺪﻧﻮﺸﻧ مﺎﻬﺑا رﺎﭼد دﻮﺧ
.ﺪﻨﻨﮐ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ 7ﻊﻤﺟ و ﯽﯾاﺮﮔدﺮﻓ ،ﺪﺘﺴﻓﺎﻫ ﮥﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ دﺎﻌﺑا زا ﯽﮑﯾ . ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﻦﯾا يور ﺪﻌﺑ ﻦﯾا ﺰﮐﺮﻤﺗ .ﺖﺳا ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﯽﻣ ﺢﯿﺟﺮﺗ مدﺮﻣ ﺎﯾآ ﻪﮑﺒﺷ ِنورد ﺎﯾ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ﺎﻫر دﻮﺧ لﺎﺣ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻨﻫد يﺎﻬﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ .ﺪﻧﺮﯿﮕﺑ راﺮﻗ ﮏﯾدﺰﻧ تﺎﻃﺎﺒﺗرا ﺎﺑ يا
ﻊﻤﺟ ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ﻦﯿﻨﭼ ﺎاﺮﮔ ﯽﻣ ﻪﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﯽﯾﺎﻫ :دﻮﺷ كاﺮﺘﺷا ﻨﻣ يراﺬﮔ ﯽﺼﺨﺷ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﻦﺘﺷاﺬﮔ رﺎﻨﮐ ياﺮﺑ ﯽﮔدﺎﻣآ و ﻊﺑﺎ
هدﺮﺘﺴﮔ يﺎﻬﻌﻤﺟ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ و (هداﻮﻧﺎﺧ و نﺎﺘﺳود ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ)ﺎﻬﻫوﺮﮔ ﯽﺧﺮﺑ زا عﺎﻓد ،ﯽﻌﻤﺟ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ياﺮﺑ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ ﺮﺗ يﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﯿﭘ
ﯽﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ .ﯽﻟﺎﻤﺘﺣا ﻊﻤﺟ يﺎﻬﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﺪﺳر ﻪﺘﺷاد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﻪﺑ يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﻞﯾﺎﻤﺗ اﺮﮔدﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ اﺮﮔ
ﺷﺎﺑﯽﻣ ﺲﭘ .ﺪﻨ ﯽﯾﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻧ ﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ،ﻊﻄﻗ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ .دﺮيﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﻪﻨﯿﻣز ﻦﯾا رد ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺷزرا ﻪﺑ ناﻮﺗ ﺮﺘﺴﺑ رد ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧا
ﯽﻣ ﺪﺷر ﻂﯿﺤﻣ .ﺖﺳا ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ نآ ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﺷزرا بﺎﺗزﺎﺑ يدﺎﯾز ﺪﺣ ﺎﺗ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻬﺷزرا و ﺪﻨﻨﮐ
ﯽﺗﺎﻘﯿﻘﺤﺗ ةزﻮﺣ ﻦﯾا ياﺮﺑ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا يﺮﻈﻧ ﮥﻌﺳﻮﺗ و دروﺎﺘﺳد ،ﯽﻠﮐ رﻮ ﻪﺑ رﺎﺑ ﻦﯿﻟوا ياﺮﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا نآ ،
ﯽﻠﻣ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ،دﺮﻓ ﯽﻗﻼﺧا يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ﻞﯿﺒﻗ زا يدﺮﻓ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﻊﻤﺟ يﺎﻬﺸﯾاﺮﮔ ،دﺮﻓ رد ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ ؛ﻪﻧﺎﯾاﺮﮔ
ﻪﺘﺴﯾﺎﺷ ﻞﯿﺒﻗ زا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ ﺖﻠﯿﻀﻓ ،نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يرﻮﺤﻣ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يرﻮﺤﻣ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ، يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ و نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﯾاﺮﮔ
ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا- يﺮﯿﮔدﺎﯾ ﻞﯿﺒﻗ زا ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ.ﺪﺷ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ و ﯽﯾﺎﺳﺎﻨﺷ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ،ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﺘﺴﺑ رد ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا
يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 327
و ﻦﯾدﺎﯿﻨهﺎﮕﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻪﮐ ﯽﯾﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ داﺪﻌﺗ ندﻮﺑ دوﺪﺤﻣ و ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ةزﻮﺣ ﯽﮔدﺮﺘﺴﮔ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ
ﻪﻌﺳﻮﺗ زا ﮏﯾ ﺮﻫ ِﺮﯾز رد .دراد تروﺮﺿ عﻮﻨﺘﻣ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ياﺮﺟا و ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ،ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ مﺎﺠﻧا ﻪﺻﺮﻋ ﻦﯾا رد يا
ﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣﻪﺋارا ﯽﻠﺻا ﻦ ﮥﺋارا و ﯽﻣﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﻦﯿﯿﺒﺗ ﻦﻤﻀﺘﻣ ﻪﮐ يدﺮﮐرﺎﮐ و ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا هﺎﮕﻧ ﺎﺑ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ مﺎﺠﻧا ،ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻦﯾا رد هﺪﺷ
ﯽﻣ بﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﻪﺻﺮﻋ ﻦﯾا ﯽﺸﻫوﮋﭘ دﺎﻌﺑا ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا ،ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﯽﺗﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ و ﯽﯾاﺮﺟا يﺎﻫرﺎﮑﻫار ﺮﮕﯾد ﺺﺨﺸﻣ يﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ .دﻮﺷ
رد ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ مﺎﺠﻧا ﺎﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ ،ﻪﮑﻨﯾاﻪﻧﺎﺨﺗرازو ﺎﻫي و رﻮﺸﮐمﻮﻠﻋ ﻪﮐ ﺼﺨﺸﻣ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ ارادي ورﺎﮐة ﻤﮐﺎﺣﯿ
ﻪﺻﺮﻋ رد و هدﻮﺑ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺮﮕﯾد نﺎﻘﻘﺤﻣ ،ﺪﻧراد ﺖﯿﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﯽﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ،ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ،ﯽﺳﺎﯿﺳ يﺎﻫ
ﻪﺑ ﻖﻘﺤﻣ ﻪﮑﻨﯾا ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﺗ ﺎ.ﺪﻧزادﺮﭙﺑ نﺎﻣرد و ﺖﺷاﺪﻬﺑ ةزﻮﺣ ﺎﯾ ﺖﻌﻨﺻ و دﺎﺼﺘﻗا ﮥﻨﯿﻣز رد لﺎﻌﻓ ﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
ﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘﯽﻣ دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ ،ﻪﺘﺧادﺮﭘ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕ رد مﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﻦﯾا يﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﯿﭘ ﻪﺑ ،يﺪﻌﺑ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ رد نﺎﻘﻘﺤﻣ دﻮﺷ
.ﺪﻨﻨﮐ ماﺪﻗا ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﻪﮑﻨﯾا ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ دﺮﻓ رد يﮕﻧاﯿة ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ،ﯽ ﻞﻣﺎﻋد روﺎﺑ ﺎﻤﺗ وتﻼ ﺷزرا ﻪﺑ ،ﺖﺳا
ﯽﻣ دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ و نﺎﯾﺮﺠﻣ ﺌﺷ ﮥﻤﻫ رد دﻮﺷ ياراد ؛ﻊﻗاو رد و ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ﺮﻈﻧ رد ار ﺪﻧواﺪﺧ ،ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ يﺎﻬﺘﯿﻌﻗﻮﻣ و تﺎﻧ
ﻖﺣ رﻮﻀﺣ سﺎﺴﺣا ﺎﺑ و دﺮﮕﻨﺑ ﺖﻧﺎﻣا ﺪﯾد ﻪﺑ دﻮﺧ ﯽﺘﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ هﺎﮕﯾﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ ﺮﯾﺪﻣ ؛ﯽﺗرﺎﺒﻋ ﻪﺑ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﯽﯾﻻﺎﺑ يﻮﻨﻌﻣ شﻮﻫ
.درادﺮﺑ مﺎﮔ مدﺮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﺖﻬﺟ رد رﻮﻣا رد ﯽﻟﺎﻌﺗ
ﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﻪﮐ ﻖﻘﺤﻣ ﺞﯾﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﻪﮐﺠﻧآ زا و ﺖﺳا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰ
ﯽﻣ دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ نﺎﯾﺮﺠﻣ ﻪﺑ ؛ﺖﺳا ﻪﻧﺎﻣدﺎﺧ يﺮﺒﻫر ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ ،نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ رد ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺐﯿﻏﺮﺗ ياﺮﺑ دﻮﺷ
ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ياﺮﺑ شﻼﺗ هﮋﯾو ﻪﺑ و ﯽﻗﻼﺧا يﺎﻬﺷزرا ﺞﯾوﺮﺗ ،ﺖﯿﻤﯿﻤﺻ و دﺎﻤﺘﻋا زا ﻮﻠﻤﻣ يﻮﺟ دﺎﺠﯾا ﺮﺑ ،ﻞﻨﺳﺮﭘ ﻪﺑﻧﺎﺳر
ﺮﻈﻧ سﺎﺳا.ﺪﻨﻨﮐ اﺪﯿﭘ مدﺮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ياﺮﺑ يﺮﺘﺸﯿﺑ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺰﯿﻧ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ ،ﻪﺠﯿﺘﻧ رد ﻪﮐ ﺪﻨﻨﮐ ماﺪﻗا ﻪﻧوراو مﺮﻫ ﮥﯾ
ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ ،ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ زا ﯽﮑﯾ ﻪﮐ ﺎﺠﻧآ زا ﻞﻐﺷ نﺎﺴﻧا دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ نﺎﯾﺮﺠﻣ ﻪﺑ ؛ﺖﺳاﺮﮔ
ﯽﻣ ﻖﯾﺮﻃ زا ﻞﻐﺷ ﯽﻧورد شادﺎﭘ و ﺖﯾﺎﺿر ﻪﺑ ،ﻞﻐﺷ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ رد دﻮﺷﺗﺎﻣاﺪﻗا نﻮﭽﻤ؛ ﻠﻐﺷ ﺶﺧﺮﭼ، ﻨﻏ زﺎﺳي
ﻠﻐﺷ،ﯽ تﺬﻟ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ رﺎﮐ ندﺮﮐ ﺶﺨﺑ ﺎﺑ ومﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﻪﻨﯿﻣز و ﻞﻐﺷ ندﻮﺑ .ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺷاد ﻪﺟﻮﺗ نﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رد ﺎﻘﺗرا يﺎﻫ
دﺮﮕ ﯽﻋﺮﻓ ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ زاﮕﻧاﯿة ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا ﻪﮐ يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﯽﻣ بﺎﺴﺣ ﻪﺑ آ ،
ﮔدﺎﯿي ﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﺘﺴﺑ رد ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ .ﺖﺳا ﯽﻣ دﺎﻬﻨﺸﯿﭘ ناراﺬﮕﺘﺳﺎﯿﺳ هﮋﯾو ﻪﺑ و نﺎﯾﺮﺠﻣ ﻪﺑ ،ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻦﯾا دﻮﺷ
ﯽﺷزﻮﻣآ يﺎﻫﺮﺘﺴﺑ رد مدﺮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﮥﻟﻮﻘﻣ زا ﯽﺒﻫﺬﻣ يﺎﻫدﺎﻬﻧ و ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ،ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ يﺎﻬﻧﻮﻧﺎﮐ ،سراﺪﻣ :نﻮﭽﻤﻫ يا
.دﻮﺷ هداد شزﻮﻣآ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻣ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ ،ﺪﺟﺎﺴﻣ ﻪﻠﻤﺟ
328 ﺎﻬﻫﺎﮕﺘﺳد رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻫﺪﻨﯾﺎﺸﯿﭘ يﻮﮕﻟا ﯽﺣاﺮﻃ و ...
ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ
- ﻪﺒﯿﻃ ،ﯽﻧﺎﺧﺮﯿﻣا و )ﯽﻧﺎﻫﺮﺑ ﻪﻨﯿﻤﻬﺗ1395 .(»رﺎﮐ شﺰﯿﮕﻧاﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ :ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ نﺎﻨﮐ ﯽﮔﮋﯾو ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐ هﺎﻓر و ﻞﻐ ﺷ يﺎﻫ« .
ناﺮﯾا ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ مﻮﻠﻋ ﻦﻤﺠﻧا
رود ،ة ﻢﻫدزﺎﯾ، ش 41 :90-76. - يﺪﯿﻤﺣ ﯽﻠﻋ ،هداز؛ ﯽﺒﺳﻤﻬﻃ ﺎﺿر و )ﯽﯾازﺮﯿﻣ فﺮﺷا1395 .(»ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﺳرﺮﺑ« .
ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ
ﯽﺘﻟود يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ
رود ،مرﺎﻬﭼ ةش ، 2: 66-51. - ﯾﺎﻧاد ﻦﺴﺣ ،دﺮﻓ و )يﺮﻔﻈﻣ ﺐﻨﯾز1387(. »ﺎﻘﺗراي يﮋﺗاﺮﺘﺳا ﺮﺑ ﯽﻠﻣﺄﺗ :ﯽﺘﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﯽﻔﯿﮐ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ رد ﯽﯾﺎﯾﺎﭘ و ﯽﯾاور يﺎﻫ
ﯽﺸﻫوﮋﭘ يﺰﯿﻤﻣ«.
ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ
ش ،لوا لﺎﺳ ، 1 :162-131. - )ﺪﻣﺎﺣ ،نﺎﻧﺎﻘﻫد1394 .(»ﻣ ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ﯽﺤﻄﺳﺪﻨﭼ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺶﺨﺑ رد ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﺮﺛ«.
ﯽﺘﻟود ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ
رود ،ﺘﻔﻫ ة ،
ش 4 :742-721. - ﺪﻣﺎﺣ ،نﺎﻧﺎﻘﻫد؛ ﺤﺻ ﺪﯿﻌﺳ و)نﺎﯿﺗادﺎﻢﯿﻫاﺮﺑا ﺪﯿﺳ1394 .(»ﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻣ ﯽﻘﯿﺒﻄﺗﻪﻔﻟ رد ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﺮﺛﺆﻣ يﺎﻫ
ﯽﺘﻟود و ﯽﺻﻮﺼﺧ ﺶﺨﺑ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﺘﺳرﺎﻤﯿﺑ« .
(لﻮﺤﺗ و دﻮﺒﻬﺑ)ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ
و ﺖﺴﯿﺑ لﺎﺳ ، مرﺎﻬﭼ ،ش 79: 172 -145. - ﺲﻤﺷ ،يﺪﻫاز اﺮﻈﺘﻨﻣ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ و تادﺎﺴ) يدﺎﺑآدﻮﻤﺤﻣ ي1391 .(»اراﮥﺋ ﺮﺑ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ شﺰﯿﮕﻧا يﺎﻘﺗرا يﻮﮕﻟا
مﻮﻬﻔﻣ دﺮﺒﻫار يﺎﻨﺒﻣ يزﺎﺳ هداد دﺎﯿﻨﺑ« .
ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ رﺎﺘﻓر تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ
ش ،لوا لﺎﺳ ، 1: 22-10. - ﯽﻬﯿﻘﻓ ﻦﺴﺤﻟاﻮﺑا ،ﯽﻤﯿﻠﺴﺗ ﺪﯿﻌﺳ ؛ﻦﺴﺣ ،يﺮﻔﻌﺟ يﺪﺑﺎﻋ و ﺦﯿﺷ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ )هداز1390(. »ﮑﺒﺷ و نﻮﻤﻀﻣ ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ :ﻦﯿﻣﺎﻀﻣ
هدﺎﺳ ﯽﺷور رﺎﮐ واهداد رد دﻮﺟﻮﻣ يﺎﻫﻮﮕﻟا ﻦﯿﯿﺒﺗ ياﺮﺑ ﺪﻣ ﯽﻔﯿﮐ يﺎﻫ«.
ﺸﯾﺪﻧا
يدﺮﺒﻫار ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ
ش ،2: 198 -151. - ﻪﺟو و دﻮﻤﺤﻣ ،يﺮﻈﺘﻨﻣ ﯽﻧﺎﺑﺮﻗ ...ا )هداز1391 .(»ﻄﺑار ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﯽﻠﻣﺎﻌﺗ، و يدﻮﻨﺸﺧ ناﺮﯾﺪﻣ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﺪﻬﻌﺗ
ﯽﺘﻟود« .
ﯾﺎﻣﺮﺳ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ
ﯽﻧﺎﺴﻧا
،لوا لﺎﺳ ،ش 2 :79-61. - ،ﯽﺘﻤﻌﻧ ﻪﯿﻤﺳ؛ ﯽﯾﺎﻧاد ﻦﺴﺣ ،ﯽﻬﻟا ﻒﺋﺎﺧ ﯽﻠﻋﺪﻤﺣا دﺮﻓ و )رذآ لدﺎﻋ1395 .(»ﺰﯿﮕﻧا مﺎﻈﻧ ﯽﺣاﺮﻃة ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﯽﻧﺎﺳر
هﺮﺒﺧ دﺮﮑﯾور ﺎﺑ ناﺮﯾا ﯽﺘﻟود ﺶﺨﺑ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺮﯿﺴﻔﺗ رﻮﺤﻣ« .
ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ يﺎﻬﺸﻫوﮋﭘ
رود ،ﻢﻬﻧ ةش ، 32: 25-5. - اﻮﻧ)ﺮﻓﻮﻠﯿﻧ ،ﯽ1396 .(ﺳ رد ﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ةﺰﯿﮕﻧا ﺮﺑ ﯽﻧﺎﻣزﺎﺳ ﻞﻣ اﻮﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗﯽﻣﻮﻤﻋ يﺎﻬﻧﺎﻣزﺎنﺎﯾﺎﭘ . ،ﺪﺷرا ﯽﺳﺎﻨﺷرﺎﮐ ﻪﻣﺎﻧ
يراﺪﺑﺎﺴﺣ و ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ هﺪﮑﺸﻧاد. :ناﺮﻬﺗﯾﺎﺒﻃﺎﺒﻃ ﻪﻣﻼﻋ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد. - يزورﻮﻧ ،يﺪﻬﻣ)1396 .(ﮕﻧا ﺶﻘﻧ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣﯿهﺰ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺖﻣﺪﺧ ﻠﻐﺷ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ ءﺎﻘﺗرا رد ﻣ ﺶﻘﻧ ﺎﺑ نﺎﻨﮐرﺎﮐﯿﺠﻧﺎ ﺮﮔي رﺎﺘﻓر
ﺪﻧوﺮﻬﺷينﺎﯾﺎﭘ . و ﺖﯾﺮﯾﺪﻣ هﺪﮑﺸﻧاد ،ﺪﺷرا ﯽﺳﺎﻨﺷرﺎﮐ ﻪﻣﺎﻧا.دﺎﺼﺘﻗ :ناﺮﻬﺗ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد.سرﺪﻣ ﺖﯿﺑﺮﺗ - ﻧاﻮـﻟا، ـﺳﯿ ) .يﺪـﻬﻣ1378 .(ﺮﻈﻧﻪـ ﻣﻮـﻤﻋ بﺎـﺨﺘﻧا. ﺪـﻣ تﺎـﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠـﺼﻓ،ﺖ ﺪﻣ هﺪﮑﺸﻧاد و
راﺪﺑﺎﺴﺣي ﺋﺎﺒﻃﺎﺒﻃ هرﺎﻤﺷ ، ﻪﻣﻼﻋ23 و24 ﺺﺻ :19 -5.
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‘public service jobs”. Paper presented at the 32nd EGPA conference in
Toulouse, 8-10 September 2010.
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Public Service Motivation among Physiotherapists in the Private and Public
Sectors in Denmark". Review of Public Personnel Administration, 31(1): 10- 27.
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يﺪﺣا ﺪﯿﺠﻣ ﺪﯿﺳ رﺎﻌﺷنارﺎﮑﻤﻫ و 329
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Public service motivation and performance: a critical perspective, Evidence-based HRM
Public Administration Review, Vol. 70, No. 5, pp:681-690. -Petrovsky, Nicolai & Adrian Ritz (2014). "Public service motivation and performance: a critical perspective, Evidence-based HRM". A Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, Vol. 2, No. 1: 57-79. -Prysmakova, P. (2016). "From Compliance to Commitment". International Journal of Manpower, 37(5): 878-899.