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The Archaeology of 'Underdog Sites' in the Douro Valley: From Prehistory to the Modern Age

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The Archaeology of ‘Underdog Sites’ in the Douro Valley brings together the best presentations from the eighth and ninth meetings of Archaeology of the Douro Valley, held in Ávila and Astorga (Spain), respectively in 2018 and 2019. However, instead of a simple collection of articles, the aim of this publication is to show the importance of projects that have been left in the background despite obtaining interesting archaeological data about the occupation of this valley and its evolution. Moreover, we must take into account that many of these projects support new activity in a rural territory that is increasingly neglected politically and economically. Hence the use of the term ‘underdog’, defined as a person or group of people with less power or money than the rest of society. Overall, the volume provides a general and interdisciplinary view of the different types of occupation in the territory of the Douro Valley. The chapters are divided into four sections, three of them chronological: Prehistory and Protohistory; Antiquity and Late Antiquity; and the medieval and modern ages. The last section is thematic and includes diachronic studies, museology, and the archaeology of mining. Therefore, the present volume is a medium to showcase the latest research carried out in this important territory and to contribute to knowledge of its history, updating the archaeological state of the art in the valley and presenting results that may be used in the most diverse types of comparative studies. Full PDF: https://www.archaeopress.com/ArchaeopressShop/Public/displayProductDetail.asp?id={E6EACE9A-9F1C-4B8B-A3FF-9516841E6E85}
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Access Archaeology
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The Archaeology of
‘Underdog Sites’ in the
Douro Valley
From Prehistory to the Modern Age
Edited by
Santiago Sánchez de la Parra-Pérez,
Sonia Díaz-Navarro, Javier Fernández-Lozano
and Javier Jiménez Gadea
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Access Archaeology
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The Archaeology of
‘Underdog Sites’ in the
Douro Valley
From Prehistory to the Modern Age
Edited by
Santiago Sánchez de la Parra-Pérez,
Sonia Díaz-Navarro, Javier Fernández-Lozano
and Javier Jiménez Gadea
Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Summertown Pavilion
18-24 Middle Way
Summertown
Oxford OX2 7LG
www.archaeopress.com
ISBN 978-1-78969-989-0
ISBN 978-1-78969-990-6 (e-Pdf)
© the individual authors and Archaeopress 2021
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the
copyright owners.
This book is available direct from Archaeopress or from our website www.archaeopress.com
Scientific Committee:
Sara Casamayor Mancisidor, Asociación Científico Cultural ZamoraProtohistórica.
Manuel Á. Rojo Guerra, Universidad de Valladolid.
Double Blind Peer Reviewers:
Manuel Abelleira Durán, Universidad de Granada.
Karen Álvaro Rueda, Universitat de Barcelona.
Héctor Arcusa Magallón, Instituto de Promoción Cultural Arcadia-FUNGE.
Xurxo M. Ayán Vila, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
Luis Caballero Zoreda, Museo Arqueológico Nacional.
María Josefa Castillo Pascual, Universidad de La Rioja.
Rui M.S. Centeno, Universidade do Porto.
Juan José Cepeda Ocampo, Universidad de Cantabria.
Enrique Cerrillo Cuenca, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Virgílio Hipólito Correia, Museu Monográfico de Conimbriga.
Maria João Correia Santos, Universidade de Lisboa.
Susana de Luis Mariño, Museo Arqueológico Nacional.
Pilar Diarte-Blasco, Universidad de Alcalá.
Julio Esteban Ortega, Universidad de Extremadura.
J. Francisco Fabián García, Arqueólogo Territorial de la Junta de Castilla y León (Ávila).
Marta Fernández Corral, Universidad del País Vasco.
Teresa Fernández-Crespo, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Mª. Isabel Fernández García, Universidad de Granada.
Agnese Fusaro, Universitat de Barcelona.
Guillermo García-Contreras Ruiz, Universidad de Granada.
Íñigo García Martínez de Lagrán, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia.
Carmen García Merino, Universidad de Valladolid.
Rafael Garrido Pena, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
Juan Antoni Gómez Barrera, Real Academia de Buenas Letras de Barcelona.
Eduardo González Gómez de Agüero, Universidad de León.
Francisco J. González de la Fuente, arqueólogo profesional.
Josep María Gurt Esparraguera, Universitat de Barcelona.
María Haber Uriarte, Universidad de Murcia.
Eneko Iriarte Avilés, Universidad de Burgos.
Jesús Ignacio Jiménez Chaparro, Universidad de Cantabria.
Daniel Justo-Sánchez, Universidad de Salamanca.
Juan Antonio López Padilla, MARQ Museo Arqueológico de Alicante.
Ana Mª. Mansilla Castaño, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Alberto Martín Esquivel, Universidad de Salamanca.
Ignacio Martín Lerma, Universidad de Murcia.
Luis Felipe Mazadiego Martínez, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
Elena Moreno Pulido, Universidad de Cádiz.
Mª. Almudena Orejas Saco del Valle, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
César Parcero-Oubiña, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
Yolanda Peña Cervantes, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia.
Izaro Quevedo Semperena, Universidad de Valladolid.
Raquel Revilla Hita, Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza.
Esther Rodrigo Requena, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
María Isabel Rodríguez López, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Fernando Romero Carnicero, Universidad de Valladolid.
José Ignacio Royo Guillén, Dirección General de Cultura y Patrimonio (Gobierno de Aragón).
Lucía Ruano Posada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
Alejandra Sánchez Polo, Universidad de Salamanca.
Carlos Sanz Mínguez, Universidad de Valladolid.
Cristina Tejedor Rodríguez, Universidad de Valladolid.
Catarina Tente, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
Jesús Francisco Torres-Martínez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Esther Travé Allepuz, Universitat de Barcelona.
Alfonso Vigil Escalera, Universidad de Salamanca.
i
Contents
Foreword from the meeting at Ávila
JAVIER JIMÉNEZ GADEA ........................................................................................................................................... iv
Foreword from the meeting at Astorga
JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ-LOZANO.................................................................................................................................. vii
Ten years of giving voice to research in the Douro Valley
SONIA DÍAZ-NAVARRO AND SANTIAGO SÁNCHEZ DE LA PARRA-PÉREZ ............................................................ viii
Prehistory and Protohistory
Un enterramiento colectivo del Neolítico Final / Calcolítico en el Monte de La Candamia (León)
JULIO M. VIDAL ENCINAS, MARÍA NATIVIDAD FUERTES PRIETO, DIEGO HERRERO ALONSO AND MARÍA ENCINA
PRADA MARCOS ......................................................................................................................................................... 1
An integrated approach for the study of the Casa la Peña schematic rock-art (Castrocontrigo, León)
JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ-LOZANO, PABLO HIGUERAS, JOSÉ MARÍA ESBRÍ, ROSA MARÍ A CARRASCO, JAVIER
PEDRAZA AND JESÚS CELIS SÁNCHEZ .................................................................................................................... 22
Nuevos testimonios funerarios en cueva del Bronce Proto-Cogotas: el complejo espacio sepulcral de
Cueva Corazón (Mave, Palencia)
ANGÉLICA SANTA CRUZ DEL BARRIO, ANDREA DE LUCAS ALONSO, HÉCTOR FONSECA DE LA TORRE AND
POLICARPO SÁNCHEZ YUSTOS ................................................................................................................................ 41
The potential economy in Iron Age settlements. Los Montes de León (north-western Spain) as Case
Study
ÓSCAR RODRÍGUEZ-MONTERRUBIO ....................................................................................................................... 59
Castrum Zoelarum, la Edad del Hierro en el valle del río Aliste. El castro de la Encarnación, Mellanes
(Rabanales de Aliste, Zamora)
ÓSCAR RODRÍGUEZ-MONTERRUBIO, FRANCISCO JAVIER GONZÁLEZ DE LA FUENTE, SOFÍA ROJAS MIGUEL,
MANUEL VÁZQUEZ FADÓN, GONZALO GARCÍA QUEIPO, PATRICIA FUENTES MELGAR, JOSÉ CARLOS SASTRE
BLANCO, PATRICIA DE INÉS SUTIL AND JAIME DE LA VEGA RAMOS .................................................................... 79
Antiquity and Late Antiquity
Un enterramiento infantil en contexto doméstico durante el altoimperio: la villa romana de Matabuey
(Nava de la Asunción, Segovia)
RAÚL MARTÍN VELA, LIDIA FERNÁNDEZ DÍAZ, FRANCISCO GONZALO VIEJO, RAÚL SÁNCHEZ MUÑOZ, SANDRA
ACEVES SANZ AND INÉS MARÍA CENTENO-CEA .................................................................................................... 98
Aproximación al estudio de los materiales óseos en el yacimiento vacceo-romano de 'La Ciudad'
(Paredes de Nava, Palencia)
NOELIA HOYOS GUTIÉRREZ, JAIME GUTIÉRREZ PÉREZ, FRANCISCO JAVIER PÉREZ RODRÍGUEZ AND SANDRA
PASTOR PAREDES ................................................................................................................................................... 114
Un grafito nominal procedente del yacimiento de 'La Ciudad' (Paredes de Nava, Palencia)
JUAN JOSÉ NERVIÓN CHAMORRO, FRANCISCO JAVIER PÉREZ RODRÍGUEZ, JAIME GUTIÉRREZ PÉREZ,
FRANCISCO JAVIER ABARQUERO MORAS, NOELIA HOYOS GUTIÉRREZ AND SANDRA PASTOR PAREDES ......... 132
ii
Fases de ocupación de 'La Ciudad' (Paredes de Nava, Palencia) en época romana a través del estudio
tipocronológico de la terra sigillata
SANDRA PASTOR PAREDES, JAIME GUTIÉRREZ PÉREZ, FRANCISCO JAVIER PÉREZ RODRÍGUEZ AND NOELIA
HOYOS GUTIÉRREZ ................................................................................................................................................ 144
A Durio Lusitania incipit: Roman settlement in the coastal region between the Douro and Mondego
rivers
GIL VILARINHO ...................................................................................................................................................... 156
Alterações urbanísticas no quadrante sudeste da cidade de Bracara Augusta do século I ao IV
LARA RITA OLIVEIRA VIEIRA FERNANDES AND MARIA MANUELA DOS REIS MARTINS ................................... 174
O tesouro baixo-imperial da domus de Santiago: contribuição para o conhecimento da circulação
monetária em Bracara Augusta
DIEGO MACHADO, MANUELA MARTINS, NATÁLIA BOTICA AND FERNANDA MAGALHÃES .............................. 187
El Castru de La Cuesta (Trueitas, León): un asentamiento entre los siglos IV y V d.C. en la montaña
leonesa
ANDRÉS MENÉNDEZ BLANCO, VALENTÍN ÁLVAREZ MARTÍNEZ, DAVID GONZÁLEZ-ÁLVAREZ, IRENE ORDÓÑEZ
BELLÓN AND AITOR MERINO VÁZQUEZ ............................................................................................................... 199
New perspectives on hand-built potteries on the western Cantabrian coast (Lugo, Spain)
HUGO LOZANO HERMIDA, EDUARDO RAMIL REGO AND SARA BARBAZÁN DOMÍNGUEZ .................................. 207
Transformaciones en el modelo de poblamiento en las comarcas del Tormes-Corneja-Almar (Ávila)
durante la Antigüedad Tardía
JOSÉ MIGUEL HERNÁNDEZ SOUSA ........................................................................................................................ 217
Medieval and Modern Ages
…Et pertransit ipsam Cluniam: Rastreando la Clunia altomedieval
GUSTAVO CAMACHO VÉLEZ .................................................................................................................................. 230
Primeros resultados de excavación de la Ermita y necrópolis de San Nicolás (La Sequera de Haza,
Burgos)
FRANCISCO REYES TÉLLEZ, LUIS ALBERTO POLO ROMERO, DIANA MORALES MANZANARES, MARTA MERINO
PÉREZ AND JULIO VILLALMANZO SANTAMARÍA ................................................................................................. 242
La iglesia prerrománica de Santa Lucía (Andaluz, Soria). Resultados de las excavaciones arqueológicas
DIANA VEGA ALMAZÁN ........................................................................................................................................ 254
Excavación arqueológica de un horno cerámico de época moderna en la C/ Menéndez Pelayo n. 10 de
Valladolid
MANUEL CRESPO DÍEZ ........................................................................................................................................... 272
Um quintal com muita história. Resultados da intervenção arqueológica no Solar dos Póvoas (Guarda)
TIAGO RAMOS AND VITOR PEREIRA ..................................................................................................................... 287
Varia
Las peñas resbaladeras de la provincia de Ávila
MARTÍN ALMAGRO GORBEA AND JESÚS CABALLERO ARRIBAS .......................................................................... 302
iii
La Ruta Romana de Astorga: del yacimiento arqueológico a la creación de un recurso turístico y
cultural de la ciudad. Evolución de los visitantes 2015 2019
ALICIA GARCÍA IGLESIAS AND CLARA CHAO MARTÍNEZ ..................................................................................... 316
Documentación de explotaciones mineras romanas y caracterización geológica de los placeres
auríferos del piedemonte de Justel (Zamora)
RODRIGO ANDRÉS-BERCIANOS, JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ-LOZANO AND GASPAR ALONSO-GAVILÁN ..................... 329
Caracterización geológica e identificación de nuevas labores de minería aurífera antigua en los
sectores de cabecera de los depósitos tipo raña en el valle del río Negro (Zamora)
RODRIGO ANDRÉS-BERCIANOS, JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ-LOZANO AND GASPAR ALONSO-GAVILÁN ..................... 345
Forgotten heritage from NW Iberia: the lime kilns of the Teleno Mountains (León Province), a
geoarchaeological approach
JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ-LOZANO, ANTONIO BERNARDO SÁNCHEZ, ROSA M. CARRASCO AND JAVIER PEDRAZA . 359
iv
Foreword from the meeting at Ávila
Javier Jiménez Gadea1
Hosting a scientific meeting is always an occasion both for satisfaction and for reflection. Satisfaction
for contributing towards its organisation, and therefore towards the expression of ideas and knowledge
and their debate, and reflection because it enables an assessment of their reach and the state of the
question. When the host feels part of the meeting, of the expression of ideas and debate, these two
actions redouble their intensity.
Ávila Museum is a historical museum with a provincial range. Its view of History is broad and
integrating as its focus of attention is material culture, as an agent and consequence of history, formed
by all kinds of objects, among which those susceptible to being studied with archaeological
methodology make up a large part of its collection and raison d’être. The ‘provincial’ facet is no more
than an administrative constraint, which is ridiculous and absurd in the case of describing, studying
and conserving objects from cultures and periods that emerged out of different political and social
realities to the present ones. Therefore, the ‘provincial’ aspect only affects the museum as regards the
entry of objects, but not in its goal of attention, research and discussion.
Consequently hosting the VIII Meeting of the Archaeology of the Douro Valley has not only been an act
of courtesy but also an obligation, as the museum shares the interests and objectives of its organisers:
Ávila Museum feels and forms part of the archaeological community in the Douro Valley.
However, at the same time, it was also an occasion to vindicate the important role that museums play
in research, how they support and act as agents of it. The definition of museums established by ICOM is
well known, although indeed it is now in the process of being changed, with certain risk of paradoxically
losing definition. It considers that museums are institutions that “acquire, conserve, research,
communicate and exhibit” the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity. This has been the basis of
all the definitions of museums included in Spanish and international legislation.
Despite this, apart from a declaration of principles, the fact is that both museums and their staff often
encounter difficulties in obtaining grants for research or the direction and participation in R+D projects,
because a declaration and express recognition of museums as research centres is still lacking.
The current Spanish Law 14/2001 of 1st June, on Science, Technology and Innovation has partly palliated
this situation because it establishes that all museums belonging to and managed by the state are “agents
of the execution” of the Law (and therefore research centres). Yet, what about the others? Does this
mean they are not research centres simply because they are not managed by the state, even though
they have the same functions? Are different regulations necessary? Again another administrative
constraint, in this case of legal competences, hinders one of a museum’s most important functions.
Thus, hosting these or other scientific meetings in museums also acquires a connotation of vindication.
Many of the researchers who took part in this VIII Meeting have often visited our exhibitions, consulted
our library and studied our collections to create knowledge and do science. They have also contributed
to the enlargement of our collections by depositing remains from archaeological excavations carried
out under their direction, and which in turn have been or will be studied either by the museum or by
1 Director of Museo def Ávila. Co-organiser of the VIII Jornadas de Arqueología del Valle del Duero’ (Ávila, 22-24
November 2018).
v
other researchers, thereby building a chain of research in which all the links: generation of data,
conservation of the remains, analysis, display, etc. must necessarily be interlocked.
During the three days of the Meeting, the archaeological heritage of the Douro Valley was addressed in
its totality, the parts in both Castilla y León and Portugal. It showed that those administrative
constraints mentioned before lack meaning in scientific research. Through lectures and posters, it
covered from the most remote prehistory to the contemporary age, demonstrating that archaeology
also reaches the most recent manifestations of our culture, connecting with that broad and integrating
gaze of the Museum over material culture.
The guided visit to the Ávila Museum’s Open Storage, which took place as an evening continuation of
one of the sessions, complemented the thematic content of this scientific meeting, as it focused on one
of the most singular aspects of medieval archaeology in Ávila and therefore in the Douro valley: Islamic
funerary steles and Arabic inscriptions, dated between the 12th and 15th centuries. In this way, the
Meeting also included the archaeology of minorities in the Douro Valley.
vi
Foreword from the meeting at Astorga
Javier Fernández-Lozano2
The IX Jornadas de Arqueología en el Valle del Duerotook place in the city of Astorga on 28th, 29th
and 30th November 2019. It brought together researchers who focus their scientific work on the study
of archaeological sites in Castilla y León, and Portugal. The conferences included 25 oral
communications and 5 posters divided into several sessions ranging from Prehistory to the
Contemporaneous history of a wide variety of sites in the Douro Basin and surroundings. The
conferences were interspersed with different intraconference activities programmed to provide an
overview of the city's historical and archaeological heritage and a visit to the Roman gold mines of the
Duerna Valley.
The conference shed light on past problems and present questions in the Douro Valley's archaeological
research, contributing to the development of future knowledge of different sites, whose study has
raised scientific and social interest. The meeting allowed researchers from Spain and Portugal to
establish a dialogue forum and knowledge exchange through debate and promotion, providing a more
precise overview of the archaeology of the Douro Valley. Besides, the meeting contributed to the
sharing of new methodologies and cutting-edge research techniques that facilitate the approach to
unresolved archaeological problems.
The past two decades have given archaeology a vital boost in the knowledge, preservation, and
dissemination of movable and immovable archaeological heritage. The possibility of digitising complete
sites at resolutions never achieved (scales ranging from mm to cm) has revolutionised the musealization
of environments that, due to Augmented Reality (AR), provides whole interaction worldwide. Access to
technological tools such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and airborne laser scanning (ALS) or LiDAR makes
it possible to obtain precise measurements and carry out morphometric analyses. Moreover, its use in
landscape archaeology has been allowing in recent years for the discovery and reconstruction of spaces
of occupation, such as hillforts and other settlements that outstand over the territory of the Douro
Valley. Likewise, incorporating more advanced photogrammetric techniques, such as Structure from
Motion (SfM), has facilitated the reconstruction of 3D spaces from terrestrial and aerial photography.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, have played an essential role in this progress.
Their use for the generation of orthomosaics and high-resolution digital models improves the study
and recognition of archaeological sites.
The analysis obtained from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was emphasised during the
conference. These applications, widely used in the past, have updated their techniques, improved their
results, and are now used regularly in archaeological research. Besides, GIS allow the data collected
during surveying and excavation campaigns for being illustrated and treated statistically. This
facilitates the analysis and evaluation of the obtained results and enables the information to be
disseminated in a quick and orderly way, which contributes to the correct cataloguing and
geopositioning of the archaeological findings and sites. Thanks to these systems, recently integrated
into mobile devices, surveying work has been simplified, facilitating the geolocation of features and
structures by using high-resolution aerial images and the possibility of combining this information with
sophisticated remote sensing and image processing techniques. It is important to emphasise that the
scale of resolution offered by these technologies also makes them useful for the morphometric analysis
2 Dpto. Tecnología Minera, Topografía y de Estructuras. ESTI Minas. Universidad de León. Co-organiser of the IX
Jornadas de Arqueología del Valle del Duero (Astorga, 28-30 November 2019).
vii
of objects such as material culture-lithic and bone industry, ceramics, epigraphy and numismatic
assemblages, rock-art, etc. All in all, this means a step forward towards the digital future and the
musealisation of all these elements of heritage, which in the past ended up sleeping in boxes at the
museum basements and research centres, which today can be displayed through digital tools and
websites, contributing to the democratisation of archaeological knowledge.
All these techniques have been included in one way or another in the presented communications at the
conference, which were divided into different periods: From the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age (9
communications); Romanisation and Late Antiquity (9 communications); another session dedicated to
the Middle Ages, Modern and Contemporary Periods (4 communications), and a new section devoted to
Mining Archaeology (3 communications). The latter was due to the importance of ancient mining in
this western sector of the Douro Basin, mainly derived from the extraction of gold in Roman times.
The implementation of analysis techniques linked to Geology and Earth Sciences has facilitated the
study of the territory and promoted new practices in analysing landscape archaeology based on
geomorphological knowledge. These data provided suggestive information in the archaeomining field
and especially in the study of Roman gold mining in the Douro Basin. Promoting multidisciplinary
research offers new areas of knowledge and outstanding results in archaeological research, as it has
been pointed out throughout the conference.
During the scheduled intra-conference visits carried out in collaboration with the Roman Museum and
Astorga City Council, participants had the opportunity to visit the remains of Roman occupation, such
as the Roman baths, the ancient city walls promoting the different resources offered for scientific
tourism in the city. But there were also visits to contemporary architecture, such as the Gaudí Palace, a
neo-Gothic building designed by the modernist architect Antonio Gaudí and built at the end of the 19th
century. The commitment made by the municipalities in the valleys surrounding Astorga to enhance
the value of the extensive Roman heritage is helping to revitalise rural areas. However, much remains
to be done, and the revaluation of the cultural heritage involves developing sustainable tourism that
promotes the use of local resources, such as the Roman gold mining infrastructure, as stated during the
field trip conducted by researchers from the University of Salamanca and the School of Mines
(University of León).
In light of all stated above, the main objectives of the IX Jornadaswere to provide visibility to historical
and archaeological heritage from the Douro area. The current economic crisis and Covid-19 pandemic
situation, far from being an impediment, are a unique opportunity to promote access to cultural
heritage. The virtualisation tools are now within everyone's reach and can help to enhance the value of
archaeological sites. Investment in archaeology is a fundamental element in modern society, which
demands knowledge through scientific tourism. The so-called scientific tourism has become
fashionable in recent years through guided tours, QR codes, and mobile applications that enable public
access to sites any time and anywhere from a smartphone application, thanks to the implementation of
virtual tours. Now it is the time to commit to this type of heritage revaluation, contributing to
democratising historical and archaeological knowledge, improving the scientific experience, and
making culture accessible to everyone, in a moment when the rural environment needs new tools that
contribute to fixing its population, due to the demographic loss occurred in the past years, and already
known as the Empty Spain. It is, therefore, an excellent opportunity to provide rural economies with
new tools based on the implementation and structuring of resources as a focus for sustainable rural
development based on quality tourism that demands scientific information.
viii
Ten years of giving voice to research in the Douro Valley
Sonia Díaz-Navarro3 and Santiago Sánchez de la Parra-Pérez4
The Douro Valley is located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula and forms a large sedimentary
basin drained by the River Douro and its tributaries. This territory is clearly delimited by some of the
main mountain ranges in the peninsula: to the south by the Central System, to the east by part of the
Iberian System and to the north by the Cantabrian Mountains and the Mountains of León (Figure 1).
These ‘natural frontiers’ differ from the current administrative boundaries: in Spain the region of
Castilla y León formed by the provinces of León, Palencia, Burgos, Valladolid, Zamora, Soria, Salamanca,
Ávila and Segovia; and in Portugal the districts of Porto, Aveiro, Viseu, Guarda, Vila Real and Bragança.
This vast terrain means that it is very heterogeneous, with a great wealth of natural resources because
of the climate diversity of its geographic zones: valley, hills, moors and mountains, forming different
ecosystems. A result of this has been its unbroken occupation from prehistory to the present.
Figure 1: Map of the Iberian peninsula with the Douro valley highlighted in yellow and
the sites studied in this monograph marked in pink.
These geographic, geological and climate variations have led to different types of settlements and
multiple forms of exploiting the territory throughout history. The Douro Valley in this way is an area
3 Predoctoral Fellow financed by Junta de Castilla y León and European Social Fund (Order EDU/574/2018).
Departamento de Prehistoria, Arqueología, Antropología Social y Ciencias y Técnicas Historiográficas.
Universidad de Valladolid. sonia.diaz@uva.es
4 Predoctoral Fellow financed by Junta de Castilla y León and European Social Fund (Order EDU/556/2019).
Departamento de Prehistoria, Historia Antigua y Arqueología. Universidad de Salamanca. Grupo de Investigación
HESPERIA. yago987@usal.es
ix
of great interest for archaeological studies comparing coetaneous sites in different areas or the
diachronic analysis of the occupation of a single area.
The Douro Valley has been one of the main areas of scientific interest since the very beginnings of the
discipline of archaeology in the late 19th century. Numerous archaeological projects are still providing
data about its anthropisation over the course of history through multiple methodological approaches.
For ten years, the ZamoraProtohistórica Scientific-Cultural Association has aimed to create spaces for
debate and discussion, and each year it holds the Meetings of the Archaeology of the Douro Valley, in
which different research teams explain their work and offer different perspectives of study. In this way,
archaeological projects with more modest funding and which generally receive less attention in the
mass media are able to find the ideal setting for the dissemination of their results. Thanks to the
collaboration of over 50 associated members, ZamoraProtohistórica carries out intense scientific activity,
through the organisation of such events as Monographic International Conferences, and outreach by
means of archaeological film festivals, educational workshops, competitions, exhibitions and tourist
routes.
The present monograph brings together the best presentations in two of those meetings, the VIII and
IX Meetings of Archaeology of the Douro Valley, held in Ávila and Astorga, respectively in 2018 and
2019. However, instead of a simple collection of articles, the aim of this publication is to show the
importance of projects that have been left in the background despite obtaining interesting
archaeological data about the occupation of this valley and its evolution. Moreover, we must take into
account that many of these projects support new activity in a rural territory that is increasingly
neglected politically and economically. For this reason, the title of this monograph includes the term
‘underdog’, defined in dictionaries as a person or group of people with less power or money than the
rest of society.
Over all, this volume provides a general and inter-disciplinary view of the different types of occupation
in the territory of the Douro Valley. The chapters are divided into four sections, three of them
chronological: Prehistory and Protohistory; Antiquity and Late Antiquity; and the medieval and modern
ages. The last section is thematic: Varia, and includes diachronic studies, museology, and archaeology
of mining. Across these pages, multiple lines of research are applied to different disciplines at over 200
sites (Figure 1). The reader will find new results from recent excavations and the study of specific
remains in material culture: pottery, numismatics, epigraphic studies, osteoarchaeology, lithic
research, etc. New technologies are also included in the methodology used in some of the studies,
supporting their arguments and conclusions, and optimising the research process. Thus lasers, LiDAR,
aerial photography, geographical information systems and 3D documentation by digital
photogrammetry are all used.
Therefore, in addition to being a medium to showcase the latest research carried out in this important
territory, we believe that ‘The Archaeology of the “underdog sites” in the Douro Valley: from Prehistory
to the Modern Age’ contributes to knowledge of the history of this region, updating the archaeological
state of the art in the valley and presenting results that may be used in the most diverse types of
comparative studies.
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