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High school teacher perceptions of implementation of evidence-based practices for classroom management

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Abstract

Evidence-based practices for classroom management are well established and predominantly preventative in nature. However, use of reactive practices by teachers has been widely reported internationally, particularly in middle and high school settings. Teachers (N = 587) throughout government high schools in Queensland, Australia responded to a survey about their experiences and confidence with classroom management and their use of 14 evidence-based classroom management practices. Participating teachers reported being confident classroom managers and frequently using the majority of the presented practices. Practices related to teaching and reinforcing expected behaviours were reported to be more intermittently used. Contextual factors which help account for these findings are discussed.

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The purpose of this paper is to share descriptive data about Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) in a sample of 112 high schools that used the School-wide Information System (SWIS) database to collect discipline data during the 2005-2006 academic year. The findings were that tardies, defiance/disrespect and skip/truancy were the most common types of ODRs generated at the high school level. Those in the freshman class were the most likely of all students to receive an ODR, and the majority of those students who generated multiple referrals requiring intensive behavior supports (e.g., 6 or more ODRs), did so by mid-winter of the academic year.
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Student behavior problems contribute to poor academic achievement and poor teacher retention. This study investigated preservice teachers’ dispositions to implement positive and proactive strategies for managing behavior in the general education elementary urban classroom. The author interviewed 19 preservice teachers in a large urban school system in the Southeast. Qualitative methods were used to analyze data from interviews and preservice teacher supervisors’ observation reports. Findings indicate that participants planned and used rules and routines for general classroom management but relied on reactive strategies for problem behavior. They did not demonstrate a disposition to alter classroom management strategies to prevent behavior problems. Reliance on reactive or negative strategies for behavior management can increase problem behavior and decrease academic achievement. Positive and proactive strategies are suggested.
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With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), the Council for Exceptional Children's Content Standards for Beginning Special Education Teachers (2002), and the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004), the research to practice gap in special education has garnered increased attention. The author utilizes collective case studies to explore this phenomenon through the eyes of 10 novice special educators. Specifically, the author seeks to determine the teachers' perceptions of research in general as well as their use of six broad practices that are supported by research for students with high-incidence disabilities. The use of interviews, observations, and self-report measures resulted in findings that indicate low rates of implementation and a lack of alignment between the beginning teachers' words and actions. The author identifies barriers and facilitating factors, discusses implications for preservice preparation, and presents recommendations for further research.
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The 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act made major changes to the education of children with disabilities who exhibit challenging behavior. The law emphasized the use of positive behavior supports (PBS) and functional behavioral assessments (FBA) as a strategy to address challenging behavior. Since then, evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of PBS in reducing challenging behavior among school students has been widely disseminated in the research literature. In spite of the emergence of literature on the use of PBS practices, questions remain concerning the functional utility of PBS within schools and widespread adoption among school personnel. There are several factors that may be inhibiting the adoption of this relatively new evidence-based technology in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine difficulties that school teachers face in the implementation of PBS in their classrooms and schools.
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In the past four decades much research has gone into the use of rewards in education yet little attention has been given to the use of rewards from the perspective of teachers. This mixed method study examined how elementary school teachers define and use rewards in their classrooms and how various motivational constructs such as goal orientation, self-efficacy, and autonomy relate to teachers' use of rewards. Results revealed that all teachers in our sample use some form of rewards in their classrooms and the majority use some form of tangible rewards. Rewards were most frequently given for behaviour management, but there was a significant relationship between the use of rewards for behaviour and those given for academic achievement. Performance goal orientations for teaching were positively related to the use of tangible rewards and a higher degree of classroom control and negatively related to teacher self-efficacy. When asked to report on the appropriateness of using rewards in the classroom only one-third of the teachers reported that they should be used conditionally.
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In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with kindergarten and first-grade general education teachers to determine their perceptions of student behavior. This study describes the teachers’ perspectives of and approaches to behavior management and intervention strategies (e.g., use of praise, rewards, implementation of classroom management, and knowledge about PBIS and RTI). A unique contribution of this study is the in-depth data that provide specific descriptions of the teachers’ perceptions. Findings indicated that the teachers in this study tended to concentrate more on individual student behavior when describing behavior management strategies than on group or schoolwide behavior. In addition, the teachers were unfamiliar with RTI and PBIS despite training occurring in the system on these initiatives during the study. Lastly, the teachers perceived themselves as strong influences on student behavior development and described the use of positive strategies. Meeting teachers’ training needs for implementation of schoolwide PBIS and topics for future research are discussed.
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:Classrooms are complex social systems in which teachers and students interact in a variety of ways across contexts. Of issue is both the nature and frequency of teachers' use of what typically are considered effective instructional practice and the typical manner in which students respond to different teacher behaviors. This study expands upon earlier research using direction observation and coding systems to take a snapshot of how classrooms typically operate and to analyze how teacher behaviors predict student success rates. Over 1000 observations of elementary and high school classrooms were conducted during instructional contexts and the data for both teacher and student behavior summarized for analysis. Descriptive data on specific frequency and duration outcomes are presented for teachers and students and possible interactions are discussed.
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Describes techniques for managing the classroom as an effective environment for teaching and learning. Focuses on establishing an effective management system, maintaining attention and task engagement, and pursuing broader student socialization goals. (KH)
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School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is designed to promote positive teaching and learning climates supporting positive social behavior and academic achievement. As a proactive school-wide approach, all students and all staff across all settings are considered. This approach has been implemented in more than 5,000 schools across the United States to date, primarily in elementary and middle schools. High schools are complex organizations with multiple administrators, large numbers of staff and students, and varied expectations related to academic achievement and successful diploma completion. Although key features of SWPBS are similar across schools, specific implementation strategies often are different in high schools. In this article, the authors first delineate the critical features of SWPBS and then present results from a survey of sample high schools implementing SWPBS. They use survey results as a foundation from which to provide guidelines to school teams attempting to implement SWPBS in high schools. (Contains 2 tables.)