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Reliability Evaluation of Testing Systems and Their Connection to NDE 4.0

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Abstract

This chapter mainly focuses on the major aspects of the reliability of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques. From the safety point of view, evaluation of NDT techniques is vital for many risk-involved industries such as in aero-industry, railways, nuclear, oil and gas, etc. In addition, successful implementation of the damage tolerance concept highly relies on the reliability of NDT techniques. In other words, due to the aims of NDE 4.0, the qualitative evaluation of NDT is becoming vital. The first part of this chapter deals with the importance of NDT reliability with regard to the economical, jurisdictional, and safety-critical requirements. Upon highlighting the importance of NDT, the second part of the chapter provides an overview of the understanding on the reliability of NDT. The third and last subsection of this chapter focuses on the topic of the reliability evaluation under NDE 4.0 along with discussion on the need and possibilities of the reliability evaluation.

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... Hence, it can be noted that these POD studies can be brought to realistic scenarios only when all these different influences are considered. As shown by the modular system, the major sources of various influences can be broadly classified as (a) the intrinsic capability, (b) the application parameters, (c) the Human Factors in the organisation context as well as (d) the influence of algorithms under the context of NDE 4.0 [26]. ...
... Hence, it can be noted that these POD studies can be brought to realistic scenarios only when all these different influences are considered. As shown by the modular system, the major sources of various influences can be broadly classified as (a) the intrinsic capability, (b) the application parameters, (c) the Human Factors in the organisation context as well as (d) the influence of algorithms under the context of NDE 4.0 [26]. NDE 4.0 is the confluence of the emerging technologies from the environment of Industry 4.0 with the physical inspection methods of nondestructive testing & evaluation as well as nondestructive sensors [27]. ...
Article
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Usage of non-destructive testing or evaluation (NDT/E) techniques is widely accepted across various industries all over the world in order to maintain certain safety and quality standards. However, not many countries really perform the reliability evaluation of their NDT techniques. In this context, this article discusses the importance of reliability evaluations and state of reliability programs performed in India versus the reliability activities performed in the western countries. In addition, brief results from one of the POD programs carried out at DMRL are also presented for understanding the challenges involved in pursuing reliability programs in India. Moreover, remarks on the possible direction of POD especially under the context of transforming the industry towards NDE 4.0 were made.
... Real-Time: The ability of assets to generate datasets that may be Figure 5: A conceptual Model for the interaction of NDE Systems within NDE processes and how these interactions contribute with reliability. Adapted by Fernandez, et al at [6] based in Kanzler and Rentala at [12]. Roadmaps: By Industry and By geography. ...
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... Real-Time: The ability of assets to generate datasets that may be Figure 5: A conceptual Model for the interaction of NDE Systems within NDE processes and how these interactions contribute with reliability. Adapted by Fernandez, et al at [6] based in Kanzler and Rentala at [12]. Roadmaps: By Industry and By geography. ...
Conference Paper
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Damage tolerant design requires knowledge of reliability in discontinuity detection. Over the last three decades, many nondestructive testing (NDT) reliability assessment and demonstration programs have been performed by various organizations. The subject has substantially evolved in approach, understanding and cost effectiveness. This paper reviews the valuable information available from the past efforts on nondestructive testing reliability.
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Measurement outputs from a nondestructive testing (NDT) inspection system usually involve different sources of variability such as operator variation, probe or transducer variation, flaw morphology variation, setup and calibration variation, environmental related variations, and measurement error. If an appropriate experiment is conducted, it is possible to estimate the separate effects of different sources of variability. These sources of variability imply that the probability of detection (POD) itself is random, depending, for example, on the operator and transducer assigned to do the inspection. The commonly-used traditional statistical techniques for estimating POD provide an estimate of the mean of the POD distribution. That is, the traditional techniques provide an estimate of the POD that one would obtain by averaging over all of the different sources of variability captured by the POD experiment. This focus on mean POD (and its associated lower confidence bound) ignores inspection variability and has the potential to provide an overly optimistic impression of POD when there is considerable variation. In this paper, the authors describe an extension to the traditional reporting of mean POD that accurately reflects NDT variability and the risk of having an inspection that will have poor performance. © 2015, American Society for Nondestructive Testing. All rights reserved.
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The focus of NDT reliability research in the past was in the field of two high risk industries: (atomic) power plants and aircrafts. The responsible organizations have been well aware of the risks and founded projects to understand and optimize critical steps during production, operation and maintenance. But the use of NDT is not limited to these two fields. The risks during operation of chemical plants, trains or windmills are different from the area above but evident. The coverage by legal regulations is relatively low. Instead of this owner responsibility, product liability and financial issues are the driving forces to do inspections and to use non-destructive testing. The different targets and financial issues influence the practice of NDT-inspections. A survey of this practice and its results are shown.
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The issues of POD and NDE reliability have received considerable attention from the research community over the last few years. Certainly part of the impetus for this movement is the realization that successful life management of the increasing inventory of aging systems depends on the ability to quantify NDE procedure capability and reliability. The accepted method of NDE capability quantification, the POD curve, shows the probability of a flaw's detection as a function of flaw size for a specific inspection technique. While a complete and successful POD determination is quite expensive, it has been pointed out by Grills (2001) that the return on investment can be very high in terms of improved safety, lower life cycle cost and extended system life. Recent research efforts involving POD and NDE reliability have been directed toward broadening application by using actual in-service inspection data, using smaller data sets, transferring information from simple shapes to complex structures, and using neural networks, among others.
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The foundations of a general theory of statistical decision functions, including the classical non-sequential case as well as the sequential case, was discussed by the author in a previous publication [3]. Several assumptions made in [3] appear, however, to be unnecessarily restrictive (see conditions 1-7, pp. 297 in [3]). These assumptions, moreover, are not always fulfilled for statistical problems in their conventional form. In this paper the main results of [3], as well as several new results, are obtained from a considerably weaker set of conditions which are fulfilled for most of the statistical problems treated in the literature. It seemed necessary to abandon most of the methods of proofs used in [3] (particularly those in section 4 of [3]) and to develop the theory from the beginning. To make the present paper self-contained, the basic definitions already given in [3] are briefly restated in section 2.1.
Over 13 million vehicles recalled Year-to-Date globally
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Fundamentals of structural integrity damage tolerant design and nondestructive evaluation
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The detection of fatigue cracks by nondestructive testing methods. Spring conference, American Society for Nondestructive Testing
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