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Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to hydrocarbons – renewables for industry

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GDE development as well as Catalyst investigations are driving force for electrochemical CO2 reduction reactions and new electrochemical systems. In this work, we provide our observations during experiments that catalyze CO2 into more complex products.
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Institute of Chemical
Engineering
Bulgarian Academy
of Sciences (BAS)
Sofia, Bulgaria
College of Energy
and Mechanical
Engineering
Shanghai University
of Electric Power
Shanghai, China
Department of
Thermal Science
and Energy
Engineering,
University of
Science and
Technology of
China, Hefei, China
Research Institute of
Mathematics and
Mechanics
Al-Farabi Kazakh
National University
Almaty, Kazakhstan
Limited Liability
Partnership "KBTU
BIGSoft", Almaty,
Kazakhstan
Fourth International Scientific Conference
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES,
MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES
AESMT ’21
Proceedings of short papers
Volume 3
Ruse, Bulgaria, 14 - 15 June 2021
MAIN TOPICS
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
Solar and Hybrid Thermal Systems
• Solar Photovoltaic Systems
• Solar Radiation Measurement and Sun-tracking
• Geothermal Energy Applications
• Phase Change Materials (PCM) Applications
• Wind Energy
• Biotechnologies
• Hydrogen Energy
• Ocean/ Tidal Energy
ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS
• Energy Materials Science
ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
• Mechanical Engineering and Technologies
• Electrical Engineering
• Low-Carbon Technologies
• Energy Efficiency
© Edited by Aleksandar Georgiev, 2021
© Publishing House: „Imeon“ Sole-owner, 2021
ISSN 2603-364X
CHAIRS:
Prof. Aleksandar GEORGIEV, PhD (Bulgaria);
Assoc. Prof. Daniela DZHONOVA-ATANASOVA, PhD (Bulgaria);
Prof. Qunzhi ZHU, PhD (China)
Prof. Gang Pei, PhD (China)
Assoc. Prof. Saltanat BOLEGENOVA, PhD (Kazakhstan);
Assoc. Prof. Rustem MANATBAYEV, PhD (Kazakhstan).
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE:
Adeel Waqas (Pakistan)
Adrian Olaru (Romania)
Aidarkhan Kaltayev
(Kazakhstan)
Aleksandra Krstic (Serbia)
Alexander Genbach (Kazakhstan)
Aleksandrs Volperts (Latvia)
Aleksey Benderev (Bulgaria)
Alexandru Radulescu (Romania)
Ali Riza MOTORCU (Turkey)
Aliya Askarova (Kazakhstan)
Ana Vieira (Portugal)
Andre Thess (Germany)
Andrei Rotaru (Romania)
Arturo Busso (Argentina)
Arvind Jadhav (India)
Barkat Ali BHAYO (Pakistan)
Bin Zhao (China)
Bo Cao (China)
Bojan Zlender (Slovenia)
Cristina H. C. Tsuha (Brazil)
Christos Markides (UK)
Daniel Tudor Cotfas (Romania)
Dinara Turalina (Kazakhstan)
Dorin Lucache (Romania)
Dorin Petreus (Romania)
Dorota Chwieduk (Poland)
Dragi Antonijevic (Serbia)
Dragomir Yankov (Bulgaria)
Erol ARCAKLIOĞLU (Turkey)
Essam A. Al-Ammar (Saudi
Arabia)
Gady Golan (Israel)
Gilles Notton (France)
Georgiana Chisiu (Romania)
Giorgio Besagni (Italy)
Guoqing He (China)
Haitham Mohamed Ramadan
(France)
Hamid Reza Karimi (Italy)
Henrik Lund (Denmark)
Hernán Olguín (Chile)
Hristo Beloev (Bulgaria)
Hülya Kalaycıoğlu (Turkey)
Iliya Iliev (Bulgaria)
Inga Zicmane (Latvia)
Irina Radulescu (Romania)
Ishak ERTUGRUL (Turkey)
Ivan Yatchev (Bulgaria)
Janis Kleperis (Latvia)
Javier F. Urchueguia (Spain)
Jing Li (UK)
Jingyu Cao (China)
Joan Ramón Morante (Spain)
Jolanta Sadauskiene (Lithuana)
Josua P Meyer (South Africa)
Jürgen Ulbricht (Switzerland)
Khairulla Baishagirov
(Kazakhstan)
Kim Tiow Ooi (Singapore)
Laila H. Abu Hassan (Jordan)
Leonard Vasiliev (Belarus)
Liana Bogatu (Romania)
Liana Sanda Baltes (Romania)
Lilyana Kolaklieva (Bulgaria)
Liviu Costiuc (Romania)
Luisa F. Cabeza (Spain)
Maosheng Zheng (China)
Marco Barla (Italy)
Mariya Aleksandrova (Bulgaria)
Mihaela Buciumeanu (Romania)
Michele Bottarelli (Italy)
Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova
(Bulgaria)
Ming Li (China)
Mingke Hu (China)
Mirko Komatina (Serbia)
Mitko Stoev (Bulgaria)
Muhsin Kiliç (Turkey)
Murugesan Mohanraj (India)
Musa Yilmaz (Turkey)
Naima AMRANI (Algeria)
Neyara Radwan (Saudi Arabia)
Orkun HASEKİOĞLU (Turkey)
Paul Christodoulides (Cyprus)
Paul Nicolae BORZA (Romania)
Petia Bobadova (USA)
Petru A. Cotfas (Romania)
Qiongfen Yu (China)
Ritunesh Kumar (India)
Robert Gavriliuc (Romania)
Rumen Popov (Bulgaria)
Saide Doodi (Iran)
Sakshum Khanna (India)
Sarah Mc Cormack (Irland)
Senai YALÇINKAYA (Turkey)
Simon Jayaraj (India)
Soteris Kalogirou (Cyprus)
Stanislaw Nagy (Poland)
Subarna Maiti (India)
Sümer Şahin (Turkey)
Taeseong Kim (Denmark)
Tahir Çetin Akinçi (Turkey)
Tairan Fu (China)
Telman Karimbaev (Russia)
Teodor Iliev (Bulgaria)
Theocharis Tsoutsos (Greece)
Veerabathiran ANBUMALAR
(India)
Venko Beshkov (Bulgaria)
Xie Lingzhi (China)
Xu Ji (China)
Yanjun Dai (China)
Yong Shuai (China)
Yuehong Su (UK)
Yupeng Wu (UK)
Yonghang Tai (China)
Yunlan Li (China)
Yusuf Şahin (Turkey)
Zaure Rakisheva(Kazakhstan)
Zhang Liang (China)
3
F O R E W O R D
The Fourth International Scientific Conference “Alternative Energy Sources, Materials &
Technologies AESMT’21 was held between 14th and 15th June 2021 in Ruse, Bulgaria.
Representatives of 34 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Cyprus, Egypt, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kuwait, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Spain,
Tajikistan, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Yemen) sent their works to the conference. Selected
reports (69 works) have been published as short papers in the proceeding of the conference.
It is my pleasure to be an editor of the presented short papers, which focus on new
international scientific results in the field of Alternative Energy Sources, Materials and
Technologies (Solar and Hybrid Thermal Systems, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Solar Radiation
Measurement and Sun-tracking, Geothermal Energy Applications, Phase Change Materials
(PCM) Applications, Wind Energy, Biotechnologies, Hydrogen Energy, Ocean/ Tidal Energy,
Energy Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering and Technologies, Electrical Engineering,
Low-Carbon Technologies, Energy Efficiency).
Prof. Aleksandar Georgiev, PhD (European Polytechnic University, Pernik, Bulgaria)
Chair of the AESMT’21 conference
4
Alternative Energy Sources, Materials & Technologies (AESMT’21), Volume 3, 2021
CONTENTS
SOLAR AND HYBRID THERMAL SYSTEMS
A. Toleukhanov, Ye. Belyayev, T. Amanzholov, A. Seitov, A. Aliuly, Ye. Yerdesh, M. Mohanraj, R. M. Singh. Thermal
performance calculation of solar assisted ground source heat pump ..........................................................................
9
B. Kiloglu, G. Karaca Dolgun, O. V. Güler, A. Keçebas, Aleksandar Georgiev. Thermodynamic performance of a
heat pump based concentrating parabolic trough photovoltaic thermal system for a micro CHP...… ……………...
11
D. Nikolic, J. Skerlic, A. Radojevic, A. Miškovic, R. Tamašauskas, J. Šadauskiene. Influence of different parameters
of solar systems on building exergy optimization...………………………………………….................................
13
D. T. Cotfas, P. A. Cotfas, S. Mahmoudinezhad. Overview of Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Systems............ 15
Jingyong Cai, Lijie Xu, Tao Zhang. Heating performance of multi-functional heat pump system with solar-air
composite heat source..................................................................................................................................................
17
Michele Bottarelli, Silvia Cesari, Eleonora Baccega. Role of phase change materials in backfilling of shallow
ground heat exchangers................................................................................................................................................
19
N. D. Vassileva. Modelling the process of charging water tanks with heat from solar collectors using TRNSYS.. 21
Q. Li, Y. G. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. H. Tai. Experimental investigation on the operating parameters of a solar storage
tank………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
23
Q. Li, X. Ding, Y. G. Zhang, T. Liu, W. F. Gao, W. X. Lin. Effect of vertical buoyant jet in a thermally stratified solar
water tank...………………....................................................................................................................................…..
25
V. Incili, G. Karaca Dolgun, A. G. Georgiev, A. Keçebas, N. S. Çetin. Performance evaluation of a hybrid micro-
CHP integrated PV-Stirling engine for local heating system......................................................................................
27
Yousef N. Dabwan, Gang Pei. Augmentation of Intercooled Gas Turbine Performance in Hot Regions Using Inlet
Air Cooling...................................................................................................................................................................
29
Zaiguo Fu, Yang Li, Qunzhi Zhu. Assessment on the applicability of solar-assisted heating system with electric
thermal storage in different geographical areas of China............................................................................................
31
Zhaomeng Li, Jie Ji, Jing Li, Xudong Zhao, Guiqiang Li, Zhiying Song, Xin Wen. Investigation on the effect of the
working medium filling ratio on a novel loop-heat-pipe PV/T system with spiral-falling concentric copper
tubes.............................................................................................................................................................................
33
Zijing SUN, Qunzhi ZHU. Effects of heat storage system on the operating load and economy of PV heat pump
heating systems............................................................................................................................................................
35
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS
Gady Golan, Moshe Azoulay, Gilad Orr. Recycling of rejected silicon wafers and dies for high grade and efficient
solar cells…………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………
37
R. Çelikel, M. Yilmaz, A. Gündogdu. New MPPT Method for PV Power Systems Under Partial Shading
Conditions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
39
V. Z. Manusov, A. K. Kirgizov, M. Kh. Safaraliev, I. Zicmane, S. Beryozkina, Sh. M. Sultonov. Stochastic model of
forecasting electric power generation of a solar photoelectric panel……………………………………….…..……
41
SOLAR RADIATION MEASUREMENT AND SUN-TRACKING
C. Bayón-Cueli, A. Barbón, L. Bayón, A. Fernández-Conde. Energetic analysis of single-axis trackers installed in a
sloping terrain...............................................................................................................................................................
43
I. St. Stoyanov, T. B. Iliev. Seasonal Fluctuation Index of the Solar Radiation in Ruse Region, Bulgaria…………...… 45
5
Xiaoqiao Huang, Yonghang Tai, Junsheng Shi. Prediction of hourly electricity consumption for a University Campus
based on LSTM...…………………………………,,.................……………………………………………………..
47
Xiaoqiao Huang, Yonghang Tai, Junsheng Shi. Prediction of hourly photovoltaic power based on conditional
generative adversarial network and Bi-LSTM...…...……………...............................................................................
49
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS
A. Galgaro, A. Carrera, E. Di Sipio, G. Dalla Santa, A. Ramos Escudero, J. M. Cuevas, R. Pasquali, B. Sanner, A.
Bernardi. Scale drillability maps as a tool to select the drilling technology to install Borehole Heat Exchange
(BHE) probes...............................................................................................................................................................
51
B. Kunovska, D. Djunakova, N. Chobanova, J. Djounova, A. Angelova, Z. Stojanovska, K. Ivanova. Daily variation
of the indoor radon in Bulgarian spas using geothermal water...………………………………………………...…..
53
Hossein Javadi, Javier Fermín Urchueguía Schölzel, Borja Badenes, Ali Nejad Ghafar, Lenin Guillermo Lemus
Zúñiga, Miguel Ángel Mateo Pla, Ojas Arun Chaudhari. Innovative research methodology of borehole heat
exchangers incorporating advanced materials for use as thermal energy storage
(BTES)...……………………………………………....................…………………………………………………..
55
L. Aresti, A. Skaliontas, G. Florides, P. Christodoulides. Environmental Impact of a Ground Source Heat Pump
system of in a Mediterranean residential building a Preliminary
Assessment...…....................................................................…………………………………………...….................
57
P. N. Gerginov, N. T. Stoyanov, A. D. Benderev, S. Valtchev. Opportunities and approaches for the use of thermal
waters in Central Northern Bulgaria...….....................................................................................................................
59
PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) APPLICATIONS
Bin Xu, Xing Xie, Xing-ni Chen. Implicit methods for solving heat transfer model: Applications on phase change
materials and thermochromic windows.……………………………………………………………….….…………
61
Silvia Cesari, Giuseppe Emmi, Michele Bottarelli. An experimental data-driven control strategy for PCM integrated
radiant floor systems.…………...………………… …………………………………………………………………………....
63
WIND ENERGY
B. Li, V. S. Olawoore, Y. Shuai, W. H. Cai. Numerical Investigation of Synthetic Jet Assisted Flow Control Over
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines………….……………………………………………………..……………………
65
N. Khasanzoda, I. Zicmane, S. Beryozkina, M. Kh. Safaraliev, Sh. M. Sultonov, A. K. Kirgizov. Fuzzy models for
management and evaluation of power wind systems on the basis of probability
characteristics.…………………………………………………….…..………………………………………….…..
67
N. Khasanzoda, M. Kh. Safaraliev, I. Zicmane, S. Beryozkina, J. B. Rahimov, J. S. Ahyoev. Optimization of wind
unit’s operation in isolated power systems under smart grid concept…………………………………………………..
69
P. T. Gkeka-Serpetsidaki, S. Papadopoulos, T. Tsoutsos. Estimation of the optical disturbance of offshore wind
farms..……………………..............................................................................................................................................
71
Zh. E. Baizhuma, R. K. Manatbayev, A. K. Yershina, A. G. Georgiev, A. Zhumabayev. Performance evaluation of the
G-shaped Vertical Axis Wind Turbine using commercial
software……………………………………………………………………………………………………………....
73
BIOTECHNOLOGIES
Ance Plavniece, Aleksandrs Volperts, Galina Dobele, Aivars Zhurinsh, Ivar Kruusenberg, Katlin Kaare, Kaspars
Kaprans, Ingars Lukosevics, Janis Kleperis. Activated Biochar Pre and Post N-doping for energy applications…..
75
6
HYDROGEN ENERGY
M. Kramer, L. Eitzinger-Lange, M. Leeb, A. Meindl, G. C. Brunauer. Investigations into the viability of utilizing
locally produced green hydrogen for seasonal energy storage for alpine heavy-duty vehicles Simulation based
on Austrian communities.…………………… ………....................................................................................................
77
Zaiguo Fu, Jin Lu, Jiang Liu, Zhuoxiong Zeng, Weiguo Pan. Numerical simulation of combustion characteristics of
methane mixed with hydrogen in the combustor of a counter-flow micro gas
turbine…………………………………………………………………………..........................................................
79
ENERGY MATERIALS SCIENCE
Azeem Mustafa, Yong Shuai, Bachirou Guene Lougou, Samia Razzaq. Modeling the electrochemical conversion of
CO2 to CO in a microfluidic cell..……………...……………………………………………………...…………….
81
B Guene Lougou, Y Shuai, H Zhang, B Jiang, Y Getahun Dessie, J Zhao. (Mn, Co) oxide redox cycles-based high-
temperature thermochemical energy storage..…………………………………………………………………….....
83
C. Dulucheanu, T. L. Severin, D. A. Cerlinca, L. Irimescu, J. Javorova. Mechanical properties of some dual-phase
steels with low manganase content……………………………………………………………………………..……
85
Cong Wang, Xu Ji, Biangfeng Yang, Jiangyang Han, Delong Yang. Study on adsorption characteristics of carbon
based composite desiccant...........................................................................................................................................
87
G. Orr, G. Golan. Crystalline quality in aluminum single crystals, characterized by X-Ray diffraction and Rocking-
Curve analysis. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
89
J. X. Flores-Lasluisa, F. Huerta, D. Cazorla-Amorós, E. Morallón. Manganese-based materials for the oxygen
reduction reaction ……………………………………………………….…………………………………………...
91
Jie Liu, Xianze Ao, Kegui Lu, Bin Zhao, Gang Pei. Scalable Polymer-based Film for Continuous Sub-ambient
Radiative Cooling. ………………………….……………………………………………………………………….. 93
Lin Fu, Tairan Fu, Kai Chen. Synthesis and thermal properties of silica aerogel composites reinforced with various
fibers..…………………………………………… ……………...…………………………………………………..
95
R. A. Umirzakov, Bulbul Ongar, A. G. Georgiev. Development and research of a highly efficient drying plant for
oilseeds..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
97
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGIES
A. S. Askarova, S. A. Bolegenova, V. Yu. Maximov, S. A. Bolegenova, M. T. Beketayeva, Z. A. Bakyt. The method of
improving the environmental situation by modeling of pollutants in combustion systems of the Republic of
Kazakhstan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
99
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
P. N. Borza, M. Machedon-Pisu, S. Vlase, F. Hamza-Lup. Electric hybrid storage systems and their applications
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
101
LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES
A. Mezulis, P. Lesnicenoks, J. Kleperis, I. Dimanta. Developing the technical solutions for use of biofuels and
hydrogen fuel additive in Latvia...………………………………………………………………………………………….….
103
A. S. Askarova, S. A. Bolegenova, A. O. Nugymanova, A.S. Tagaibek. Influence of thermochemical activation of fuel
on the combustion process in furnace chambers of thermal power plants…………………………………………...
105
Ahmad Faraj, Mostafa Mortada, Jalal Faraj, Haitham S. Ramadan, Ziad M. Ali, Mahmoud Khaled. Enhancing the
Thermal Performance of Vehicle Cooling Modules Using Diffusers.……....………………………… ……………
107
7
Bianfeng Yang, Xu Ji, Cong Wang, Qianrong Yue. Performance evaluation of a twice evaporative cooling air
conditioning system based on desiccant bed……………..……………….……………………………………….…
109
Chengfeng Xu, Xianze Ao, Bin Zhao, Gang Pei. A new type of spectrally selective spectrum for better radiative sky
cooling..………………………………………………...…………………………………………………………….
111
P. Lesnicenoks, J. Kleperis, A. Knoks, L. Jekabsons. Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to hydrocarbons renewables
for industry...……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
113
Tianxiang Hu, Trevor Hocksun Kwan, Gang Pei. An All-day Cooling System that Combines Solar Absorption
Chiller and Radiative Cooling......................................................................................................................................
115
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
G. S. Lu, L. Ming, Y. Zhang, L. Zhao, G. L. Li, C. Z. Hu. Research on Characteristics of Direct Contact Heat
Exchange Refrigeration System Under Different Energy Storage ……………………………………………….....
117
I. Berezovskaya, Sa. Bolegenova, O. Vorobyova, M. Ryspayeva, Sy. Bolegenova, Ye. Shotaeva, Z. Begaly. Numerical
study of heat and mass transfer processes in the internal combustion chamber by method of computer
simulation...… ………………………….…………………………………………………………….…….………..
119
L. Costiuc, I. Costiuc. Dynamic modelling of the condenser type heat-exchanger..………………………….…..…….. 121
L. Lopez, A. Giusti, E. Gutheil, H. Olguin. A comparison of the total heat release and soot formation rates of ethanol
and n-butanol flames in a counterflow configuration……………............................................................................
123
M. Milanovic, M. Komatina, N. Manic. Thermomechanical aspects of juice industry residues....................................... 125
M. Y. Shi, L. Ming, Y. Zhang, J. Li, M. Gao, Z. H. Deng, R. Liu, G. S. Lu. Flow field analysis and structure
optimization of heat pump drying oven.......................................................................................................................
127
N. S. Milutinovic, N. R. Rudonja, M. D. Gojak, G. S. Živkovic. Energy and exergy assessment of an ORC power plant
with geothermal hot water and wood biomass-Serbian case…….…………………………………………………..
129
S. Birkelbach, S. Bilir Mahcicek. Thermal Behaviour Simulation and Analysis of Adaptive Facades....……………… 131
S. Zerbib, N. Shahar, G. Golan. Flow Measurements Using Enthalpy Sensing...…………......……………………….. 133
T. Zhang, Z. W. Yan, J. Y. Cai. Structural Optimization of a Low-Temperature Heat Pump Sludge Drying System...... 135
Xing Xie, Xing-ni Chen, Bin Xu, Gang Pei. Effect of cool storage zone on thermal comfort during occupancy: A case
study of public buildings with high window-wall ratio in Guangzhou........................................................................
137
Xing Xie, Yu-qian Zhao, Fei Xia, Bin Xu, Yang-liang Wang, Gang Pei. Effect of surface emissivity on indoor thermal
comfort with the radiant wall heating system..............................................................................................................
139
Zahra Wehbi, Ahmad Faraj, Jalal Faraj, Haitham S. Ramadan, Ziad M. Ali, Mahmoud Khaled. A Short Review on
Waste Water Heat Recovery Systems: Types and Applications..................................................................................
141
Zhangwei Feng, Chengyun Xin, Jianmei Zhang, Tuo Zhou, Tairan Fu. Investigation of air-side thermal and hydraulic
performances of integrally-formed spiral fin-and-tube heat exchangers.....................................................................
143
Zibaei Freidoon. Facing Global Warming…....................................................................................................................
145
8
Alternative Energy Sources, Materials & Technologies (AESMT’21), Volume 3, (pp. 113-114) 2021
ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, Low-Carbon Technologies
Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to hydrocarbons renewables for industry
P. Lesnicenoks1,2*, J. Kleperis1, A. Knoks1, L. Jekabsons1
1 Institute of Solid State Physics of University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063, Riga, Latvia
peteris.lesnicenoks@cfi.lu.lv
2 Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 P.Valdena Str., LV-1048, Riga,
Latvia
Wind, Solar, Water hydropower energy are generated often with unpredictable surplus to current demand, therefore various PtF
(power to fuel) applications has been proposed. An idea to EU H2020 project CO2EXIDE is with renewable electricity to convert
residual CO2 from the biogas plant into ethylene highly demanded hydrocarbon in plastics industry. The process itself is realised on
electrocatalytic carbon/copper cathode, where an anode chamber is used for water oxidation to peroxide. Our work is connected with
cathode chamber and design of electrocatalytic electrode from graphene sheet stacks coated with copper nanostructures.
Electrochemical deposition method was recognized as successful and most promising for GSS material to grow Cu crystals - also on
the edges of GSS. The GSS material itself can be drop casted or electrophoretically incorporated onto the gas diffusion electrode
(GDE). Gaseous products from CO2 electrolysis on cathode was investigated by mass-spectrometer, but electrode surface analysed
by SEM/EDS method.
Keywords: Electrocatalysis, CO2, graphene sheet stacks, gas diffusion electrode, catalysts, ethylene.
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays CO2 is one of the main greenhouse
gases contributing to global climate change - the
global mean CO2 level reached 410 ppm in 2019
[1]. About 170 nations signed the Paris agreement
in 2016, committing to fight climate change by
cutting CO2 emissions to keep warming well below
2oC [2]. There are numerous routes to convert CO2
to fuels and other chemicals employing renewable
energy [3]. One rout is with renewable electricity to
convert residual CO2 from the biogas plant into
ethylene highly demanded hydrocarbon in plastics
industry [4]. The process itself is realised on
electrocatalytic carbon/copper cathode, where an
anode chamber is used for water oxidation to
peroxide.
There are many catalyst materials screened up to
now, but only Cu or copper oxide-derived catalysts
are known to drive the electrolysis of CO2 into bi-
carbon compound ethylene [5]. This multiple-step
12 electron transfer reaction on copper rich
electrodes proceed at fairly high Faradaic
Efficiencies (FE) but with low currents [5].
Therefore, more efforts have to be devoted, to
develop more powerful catalysts for efficient CO2
reduction to higher hydrocarbons.
The graphene/nanoparticle hybrid structures
exhibit additional advantageous and often
synergistic properties that greatly augment their
potential for catalysis applications [6]. In our work
the design of electrocatalytic electrode from
graphene sheet stacks coated with copper
nanocrystals is done.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
The electrochemical exfoliation method is
adapted to synthesize micro-structured multilayer
stacks of graphene oxide, which afterwards are
annealed at 500 in Ar/H2 (95/5) atmosphere. The
material is exfoliated from a waste graphite
crucible, used in Bronze metallurgy in a 2 electrode
cell - both electrodes can be graphite to double the
output of such exfoliation process, but this in turn
increases the used current. The peak duration is 5
sec, amplitude 6 V and 10 V, modulated with small
amplitude (100 mV). The conductivity of the
exfoliated graphene sheet stacks (GSS) before
reduction is semiconductor-type and changes to
metallic conductivity after the reduction. SEM
analysis of GSS was performed with Lyra3
TESCAN. Ultrasonic treatment of GSS was done
by ultrasonic homogenizer UP200St, Hielscher in
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). To make electrode
the carbon paper AvCarb MGL190 was used as
substrate and GSS particles deposited on it
electrophoretically from solution. Copper coatings
with different structures are electrochemically
deposited (0.05 M Cu2SO4 aqueous solution) on the
carbon paper with GSS particles. Tests were done
in 3 electrode cell containing 0.5 M KHCO3
solution saturated with CO2, as electrolyte,
reference electrode Ag+/AgCl and counter electrode
Pt plate. Different measurements linear sweep
113
P. Lesnicenoks et al.: Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to hydrocarbons renewables for industry
voltammetry, chrono-potentiometry were done with
VoltLab PGZ-301 potentiostat. The gases emitted
from the cathode were collected with a syringe and
analysed in a mass spectrometer RGA-100.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The SEM picture of exfoliated GSS powder is
shown below in Fig.1. Clear GSS edges are seen.
Fig.1. SEM inspection of graphene sheet stacks.
Before starting experiment an electrolyte 0.5 M
KHCO3 was saturated with CO2 20 minutes. The
time of electrolysis experiment (3.0 V, 6 mA/cm2)
was 1 h, and in syringe 12 cm3 of cathode gas was
collected. As it was found in mass spectra, about
60% is carbon dioxide. The rest 40% of the gases
selected for analysis were H2, CO, C2H4, HCOOH;
no CH4 and C2H6 were found (Table 1).
Table 1. Gas products from cathode chamber
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
No Gas Number Concentration Faraday
of electrons efficiency*
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vol% ppm %
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 H2 2 22.9 228900 68.4
2 CO 2 1.95 19500 9.3
3 C2H4 12 0.4 4400 7.9
4 HCOOH 4 0.3 3000 2.9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
*Error at least 25% of value
For higher current electrolysis (66 mA/cm2)
with similar cathode composition (carbon paper
impregnated with GSS and copper), the huge
amount of hydrogen gas was registered (66%), but
lower concentrations of ethylene (FE 0.14%). Next
experiments must be performed increasing the load
of copper, thereby decreasing surface of carbon and
suppressing hydrogen evolution.
CONCLUSIONS
The design of electrocatalytic electrode from
graphene sheet stacks coated with copper
nanocrystals to reform CO2 to ethylene is done.
Electrocatalytic CO2 reforming to ethylene under
low current conditions has been experimentally
proven. In order to improve the efficiency of
electrocatalysis, two tasks need to be solved - how
to strengthen the bonding of copper nanocrystals to
graphene plates, and to determine the optimal
thickness of the copper coating.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express their gratitude
for funding from the European Union’s Horizon
2020 research and innovation programme under
grant agreement No 768789 (CO2EXIDE project).
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114
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