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Public policy-making.

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This book provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to public policy and planning in the field of leisure and tourism. It includes theoretical perspectives and practical guidelines for the application of a range of analytical techniques. It is an updated edition of Leisure Policy and Planning (1994), now covering tourism as well as leisure and addressing such issues as citizens' rights, the implications of globalization, 'third way' politics, and 'best value' developments. Topics covered include: leisure and tourism needs, rights and citizenship; political ideologies and the role of the state; the market versus the state; public policy making; leisure and tourism plans and planning; forecasting leisure and tourism demand; economic evaluation methods; performance evaluation; and planning for different sectors (sport, outdoor recreation, tourism, and the arts) and groups (men and women, people with disabilities, ethnic groups, older people, and youth). The book has author and subject indexes.

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... However, according to Cochran and Malone (2010), public policy also means implementation decisions. A policy contains enacted law and subsequent actions implementing these acts (Anderson, 2015). According to Jenkins (1978), public policies are political decisions about achieving specific goals. ...
... According to Jenkins (1978), public policies are political decisions about achieving specific goals. Policies can be substantial regarding creating, purchasing, and distributing goods, or procedural, defining ways of working and approaches to problems (Anderson, 2015;Howlett, 2005). The outcomes of policy-making almost always take the form of structures; they create administrative capacity at the management level and implementation of services (Lynn and Robichau, 2013). ...
... The concept of a public policy portfolio could be introduced in the public sector, but it would have a different meaning than the project portfolio in private companies. The equivalent of the public policy portfolio management process is policy management and models explaining policymaking, for example, the rational choice model (Downs, 1957;Anderson, 2015), Multiple Stream Framework (Kingdon, 2003), punctuated equilibrium (Baumgartner and Jones, 1993). ...
Book
Many governments have effectively organized public project implementation systems in their jurisdictions. At the same time, many other countries remain at a less advanced level of public project management. Globally, there is a need for project management knowledge to be transferred between governments. However, no systematic review of these practices has been developed to date. Projects, Government, and Public Policy was written to fulfill this need and presents a review of project management practices in countries with developed project-based capabilities. This book uses its own rigorous model to present this review systematically. This book’s practical purpose is to give a structured overview of government-level project management practices. This knowledge can be used in the work of governments to improve the management of public projects and the implementation of public policies. Many professionals working in public institutions understand project management concepts differently than project management professionals. Therefore, this book begins with a chapter that describes the differences between the conceptual basis of public administration and project management. The body of this book has five parts. Part I is mainly intended for those involved in government and public administration who want to acquire or increase knowledge about project management. Part II provides an overview of the basic concepts from the theory of public administration, public policies, and development management. Part III describes what makes public projects unique and the success factors specific to projects of this sector. Knowledge about effective government project management practices is covered in Part IV. The concluding Part V begins with a general overview of the maturity model concept. Its main part covers the description of a maturity model showing ways to systematically improve the implementation of public projects. This book is written for governments and government administrators, including the most influential decision-makers, who craft policies to guide a country’s development as well as how to implement projects. This book is also intended for supporters and enthusiasts of project management in government and public administration by providing them with a description of the solutions used by project management in public administration. This book is intended, too, for all project management practitioners working for public projects: project managers, team members, sponsors, and middle-level executives of project-delivering private companies. By knowing public administration concepts, they can manage their projects better and use a common language with their clients. https://www.routledge.com/Projects-Government-and-Public-Policy/Gasik/p/book/9781032232683
... Consequently, Federal Government in 2007 learning from the experiences of Brazil, India among others that utilized the establishment of fiscal responsibility laws to revamp their economies enacted the Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2007. In Brazil, the adoption of FRAs is linked to states' accumulation of public debt, resulting in sub-national debt defaults in 1989, 1993and 1997(Congressional Policy and Budget Research Department, CPBRD, 2012. It then passed a Fiscal Responsibility Law (2000) which applies uniformly to the federal, states and municipal governments. ...
... In his own analysis, Anderson (1997) regards public policy as a relatively stable, purposive course of action followed by government in dealing with some problem or matter of concern. Few points can be gleaned from this definition. ...
... First, policy is linked to purposive or goal-oriented action rather than to random behaviour or chance occurrences. (Anderson, 1997). ...
... From the description of the situation, the decision-making process, and various considerations surrounding this condition, especially considerations related to the policy formulation stage. Anderson (2006), explains that policy is a relatively stable action deliberately designed by one participant or several participants to solve a problem or problem of mutual concern. Anderson believes that public policies formulated by government institutions and officials have a significant impact on society. ...
... This policy formulation is the same as Syafaruddin (2008), that the policy is called an organizational regulation policy, and is a formal model that is also accepted by the government/institution to strive to achieve its goals. The procedures and legal hierarchy of regulations with FKUB ministers formulated by the Manado City Government are supported by Anderson's (2006) theory, divided into four types of public policies: substantive and procedural policies of a government agency and its strengths and procedures. Then, Anderson (2006), explained again that policy is a relatively stable action deliberately designed by actors or many actors to solve problems or issues of mutual concern. ...
... The procedures and legal hierarchy of regulations with FKUB ministers formulated by the Manado City Government are supported by Anderson's (2006) theory, divided into four types of public policies: substantive and procedural policies of a government agency and its strengths and procedures. Then, Anderson (2006), explained again that policy is a relatively stable action deliberately designed by actors or many actors to solve problems or issues of mutual concern. Anderson believes that public policies formulated by government agencies and officials have a significant impact on society. ...
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This study aims to determine how the Manado City Religious Harmony Forum from now on known as FKUB empowers the roles stipulated in Joint Regulations Number 9 and Number 8 of 2006 by the Minister of Religion and the Minister of Home Affairs. A qualitative approach was applied to this study using the literature review method. At the same time, perform data analysis in qualitative descriptions. This is because the policy's success depends very much on the role of the government, namely the government gives the authority to FKUB managers to act as a management team to deliver information on policies formulated by the central government to cities/regions. This structured accountability system is based on the bureaucracy's compliance with the upper-level bureaucracy or the designated level of bureaucracy. Is there a smooth routine procedure and whether there are problems and the expected implementation and implementation of all existing plans and plan targets—impact (benefit). Therefore, the policy implementation process's measurement is carried out to transfer information or news from a higher organization to a lower one.
... Es decir, el proceso general de las políticas públicas identificado por algunos autores de: gestación, formulación, implementación y evaluación (Aguilar y Lima, 2009), con variaciones por algunos otros (Aguilar, 1996;Anderson 1975;Jones, 1970), no está mal, pero desde nuestro punto de vista, debiera ser reordenado y ajustado como un proceso de: 1) nacimiento o presentación -y su inclusión o no en la agenda-; 2) su valoración y formulación, incluye la detección correcta del problema y la decisión de qué hacer, incluido el hacer nada (Dye, 2008); evaluando claramente las alternativas mediante un análisis FODA u otros mecanismos, así como una programación y presupuestos con indicadores medibles y cuantificables acordes a una meta o metas finales y una aprobación y legitimación, ya comentada; 3) su implementación, que considere una reprogramación o represupuestos, sobre todo, cuando los tiempos entre la etapa de formulación e implementación -a veces por el propio proceso de aprobación-se tornan muy distantes o diferenciados, posteriormente 4) la evaluación o seguimiento y, finalmente, 5) la evaluación final o de resultados, esa es nuestra propuesta. ...
... Evaluación: se centra en el estudio de las consecuencias o efectos que la política genera y, que sirven para retroalimentar el proceso. Otros autores, entre estos Jaime et al., (2013), han desarrollado y redimensionado estas consideraciones, ampliando el número de etapas o bien resumiéndolas, precisando en cada una de ellas la naturaleza de las preguntas a responder, la especificidad de los procesos políticos y técnicos involucrados, los requerimientos informacionales, los actores movilizados, el tipo de conflictividad que se genera, así como las aproximaciones metodológicas adecuadas, destacando las contribuciones de Jones (1970), Rose (1973), Brewer (1974), Anderson (1975), Jenkins (1978) o May y Wildavsky (1978). ...
... La realizada por Jones (1970), identifica cinco etapas: 1) la identificación del problema que reclama la atención del gobierno o sobre el que el gobierno desea/pretende intervenir; 2) la formulación de la política, que abarca la construcción de alternativas de políticas y la selección de un curso de acción; 3) la legitimación de la política o curso de acción elegido, esto comprende la argumentación, evidencias, símbolos y fundamentos que están detrás de la política pública elegida; 4) la aplicación, que refiere al proceso de administración o gestión de la política y que supone la conversión de los insumos puestos a disposición en productos o resultados consistentes con las metas establecidas en el estatuto de la política pública; y 5) la evaluación, que supone la medición de los resultados o consecuencias que la política produce sobre el contexto, los comportamientos de los actores, sus percepciones y, en especial, sobre el problema atendido (Jaime et al., 2013, p. 88). Anderson (1975), considera también cinco etapas: 1) la agenda: que refiere a los problemas que reciben la atención por parte del gobierno y supone explicar el proceso por el cual ciertos problemas son atendidos -no necesariamente resueltos-y otros no; 2) la formulación de alternativas: que comprende el desarrollo de propuestas de cursos de acción que sean aceptables, pertinentes y factibles, y exige dar cuenta de la racionalidad o no de ese proceso y del rol que juegan las ideas y el conocimiento experto; 3) la adopción de la decisión: incluye la elección y legitimación de un curso de acción y requiere explicar por qué se ha elegido o priorizado ese política en lugar de las otras alternativas; 4) la implementación: refiere al proceso de aplicación de la política y supone explicar los comportamientos administrativos que desencadena la política y la relación -causal-entre estos y los resultados de la política; y 5) la evaluación: refiere a los esfuerzos que los gobiernos realizan con el propósito de determinar la eficacia, eficiencia y efectividad de las políticas seleccionadas (Jaime et al., 2013, p. 88). ...
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El presente artículo propone un modelo general para la creación de las políticas públicas que comprende su nacimiento, o gestación del problema o situación; la valoración y formulación de las respuestas; la implementación y ejecución; su seguimiento y control y, la evaluación final. Es un proceso que busca el carácter cíclico de las políticas al tiempo que su perfil público y democrático. Tomando como referencia un conjunto de definiciones y procesos se propone la construcción de un nuevo modelo y proceso general donde la participación ciudadana es imprescindible. Se observa que, las propias definiciones multi-conceptuales y el sinnúmero de procesos propuestos, si bien han ayudado a enriquecer su estudio han traído algunas confusiones que contribuyen a la ineficiencia en los procesos.
... Policy can be defined as a 'purposive course of action followed by an actor or a set of actors ' (Anderson, 1975;ETF, 2013). In theoretical terms, it is a process with distinctive differentiated stages, each with an activity that enables the next stage, the results of which feed back into the process (Lasswell, 1963). ...
... In theoretical terms, it is a process with distinctive differentiated stages, each with an activity that enables the next stage, the results of which feed back into the process (Lasswell, 1963). These stages aim to address an issue (programme, problem) in a systematic way by defining it, developing solutions, implementing the solutions and evaluating the results (Anderson, 1975;Nakamura, 1987;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002). This process-oriented view implies that the notion of policy goes beyond planning and commitments in laws and strategies to include the implementation of plans and the evaluation of results. ...
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The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of government policies on paddy production in Sri Lanka from 1998 to 2018. The study collected secondary data from all paddy growing areas to identify the effect of agricultural policies implemented during the last two decades. The primary data was collected from the Kurunegala District in December 2019 using a structured questionnaire. Kurunegala was purposively selected since this district represents paddy production under major and minor irrigation well as rain-fed cultivation. The sample was drawn from individual farmers who cultivated in 2017/2018 Maha season and accordingly 155 of them were surveyed during the study period. Policy-induced effects were estimated using indices such as via market price differential (MPD), producer support estimates (PSE), consumer support estimates (CSE) and market price support estimates (MPS). The policy framework related to paddy cultivation concerns itself with a myriad of factors. They include irrigation, diversification, land, fertilizer, subsidies, climate change adaptation policies, research, marketing and trade. Paddy production has been increasing at an average around 4.08 percent annually since 1998 with improved access to inputs such as fertilizers and seeds through government policies. However, during the period under consideration there was no statistically significant difference, indicating that the increase in paddy production has been marginal over the years. Import remained insignificant compared to local production during this period. The average nominal price of rice varied with a standard deviation of 0.101 and coefficient of variance of 0.908 when considering Samba rice, standard deviation of 0.087 and coefficient of variance of 0.912 for Nadu rice indicating that state intervention has not mitigated price fluctuation. Price variation by district remained the same indicating that there is no significant geographical variation in prices. The margins between retail price and guaranteed price were 1.26 and 1.52 on average for Nadu and Samba rice respectively. This indicates that it is possible to increase the farm gate price in order to encourage production quantities by maintaining the same consumer utility levels. Producer Support Estimates (PSE) and Market Price Support (MPS) estimates were negative, demonstrating that policy instruments induce a lower farm gate and domestic market price thereby discouraging commodity production. The Nominal Rate of Assistance (NRA) has a positive relationship with the paddy yield. Thus, if the NRA for paddy increases in a particular year (with more subsidization or less taxation) the yield increases in the following year, provided other variables remain constant. Furthermore, improved access to information has a positive effect on yield and climate variables, with rainfall especially having a significant effect on paddy yield. This highlights the need for more climate resilience policies to increase paddy production. Yield is positively affected when markets are better developed and there is access to information. Moreover, it was found that farmers are aware of policy changes, as the majority (63.9%) knew about guaranteed price schemes and nearly half of the farmers were aware of insurance schemes for paddy cultivation. Agricultural policies which move away from market-distorting measures and blanket income transfers, with a focus towards strategic investments, can help deliver sustainable productivity growth and enhance climate resilience. This results in increased income opportunities for farm households and mitigates farmer migration. These need to be considered when developing policy instruments, since the prevailing policy regime induces a low farm gate price thereby discouraging commodity production. To this end, policymakers should reduce the use of market price support with a view to its eventual elimination, as market price support seldom reaches the intended beneficiaries. Moreover, climate risk management policies which assist farmers and enhance their capacity are strongly recommended, especially considering rainfall variability.
... The reality however is that public policy embraces all governmental activities or outputs as it affects members of the society, and cannot be limited only to important activities of government. Public policy is also defined as a purposive course of action followed by an actor or set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern (Anderson, 1975). It is a series of goal-oriented actions taken by government actors (Leichter, 1979). ...
... The special character of public policies stems from the fact that, they are basically formulated for the public by authorities. This implies that those persons, who engage in the daily affairs of a political system, are recognized by most members of the system as having responsibility for these matters and take decision that are accepted as binding (Anderson, 1975). The argument is that; www.ijeais.org/ijaafmr ...
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This paper x-rayed the role of impact evaluation on policy implementation in Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of the state of the country's development (under-developed) despite the huge potentials-both human and material resources available. Policies are very crucial in governance as it is what governments utilize in the pursuit of its goals-which are attempts at resolving numerous social cum political problems that confront the citizenry and its environment. Policies therefore, are interventions employed by government to deal with public and/or social phenomena for the growth and development of the state. Impact evaluation appraises how the intervention under evaluation influences outcomes and whether these consequences cum effects are intended or unintended. Impact evaluation also serves as checks and balances on public policies and provide direction and innovative focus for public policies as well as provide unique information on the efficacy and value of social programmes. The paper explored and clarified concepts such as policy, public policy, policy analysis, public policy implementation and policy impact. The paper concludes that since impact evaluation is a major panacea for performance failures of organisations and programmes, and given the woeful performance of the Nigeria public service institutions and programmes, institutionalizing impact evaluation in the public policy process in Nigeria becomes quite imperative. The paper also note that impact evaluation will also be of immense benefit to the policy process in Nigeria as it will among others, inform policy makers about potential economic, social and environmental ramifications of policies, improve transparency and increase public participation in order to reflect a range of considerations, thereby improving the legitimacy of policies.
... Moreover, the impact of tourism development is not instantaneous but requires time to prove, and usually occurs after the end of tourism activities [12,14,15]. Especially with the development of Internet technology and software technology [16], coupled with the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic [17], people have begun to change their behaviors and choices in tourism activities. ...
... It was found that most people believed that the development of cultural tourism in Wude Temple has combined with local specialty industries (4.24), increased entrepreneurship and employment opportunities (3.95), and indirectly improved the standard of medical and health care (4.09). However, the effectiveness of the existing tourism development in giving back to the community (3.53) was not perceived, and the quality of public facilities (4.11) and public transportation (3.18) remained poor, which is not entirely consistent with the literature [14,21,[53][54][55]. In addition, there was a significant difference in the perception of the current status of public facilities maintenance in communities with feedback from tourism development (p < 0.01), and residents felt worse about the effectiveness of public facilities maintenance; the older they were, the worse they felt, as shown in Table 4. Based on the above description, Hypothesis 1 was not confirmed. ...
... Berikut pengertian kebijakan yang dikemukakan oleh beberapa ahli atau organisasi: 1. Menurut Lasswell (1970): kebijakan adalah sebagai suatu program pencapaian tujuan, nilai-nilai dan praktik-praktik yang terarah (a projected program of goals values and practices). 2. Menurut Anderson (1979): kebijakan adalah serangkaian tindakan yang mempunyai tujuan tertentu yang mesti diikuti dan dilakukan oleh para pelakunya untuk memecahkan suatu masalah (a purposive corse of problem or matter of concern). 3. Menurut Heclo (1977): kebijakan adalah cara bertindak yang sengaja dilaksanakan untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah. ...
... Kebijakan publik muncul dari adanya suatu masalah di tengah masyarakat yang mana masyarakat sendiri tidak akan mampu memecahkannya, sehingga perlu adanya campur tangan pemerintah melalui rangkaian kegiatan dan tindakan yang dipilih dan ditetapkan (Anderson, 1979;Lester & Stewart, 1996). Sebagaimana pendapat Dewey (1927), kebijakan publik menitikberatkan pada masyarakat dan permasalahannya. ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sejauh mana implementasi kebijakan Undang-Undang Nomor 52 Tahun 2009, faktor-faktor pendukung dan penghambat implementasi kebijakan, serta upaya pemerintah meminimalkan tindakan kekerasan dalam rumah tangga di Kabupaten Jayawijaya, dengan fokus pada lima fungsi keluarga (agama, sosial budaya, pendidikan, ekonomi, dan kesetaraan). Desain penelitian kualitatif digunakan untuk mengevaluasi implementasi dari suatu kebijakan atau program. Pengumpulan data melalui wawancara diperoleh dari anggota masyarakat dari 40 distrik di Kabupaten Jayawijaya, yang diklasifikasikan sebagai informan utama dengan jumlah 17 orang pelaku, 17 orang korban, dan 2 orang pendamping korban. Analisis data kualitatif meliputi pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan (verifikasi). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa implementasi kebijakan Undang-Undang Nomor 52 Tahun 2009 berdasarkan lima fungsi keluarga (fungsi agama, sosial budaya, pendidikan, ekonomi dan kesetaraan) berdampak pada penurunan jumlah tindakan kekerasan dalam rumah tangga yang signifikan pada tahun 2018 sejak sosialisasi Undang-Undang yang dilakukan tahun 2014. Hal tersebut didukung oleh adanya lembaga perwakilan BKKBN di tingkat provinsi dan DP3AKB di tingkat kabupaten, sementara faktor penghambat implementasi kebijakan antara lain faktor demografi serta tidak maksimalnya sosialisasi dan penyebarluasan informasi. Pemerintah melalui DP3AKB Kabupaten Jayawijaya telah melakukan upaya preventif dengan sosialisasi, penyuluhan, dan penyebarluasan informasi; memberikan pendidikan, pelatihan gender bagi aparat pendamping maupun korban; mengirim aparat pendamping Kabupaten Jayawijaya untuk mengikuti seminar-seminar dan penyuluhan tentang KDRT; meningkatkan profesionalisme kerja pendamping korban keterampilan dan kemampuan pendamping korban dalam menyelesaikan setiap kasus; serta bekerja sama dengan psikiater atau psikolog.
... Olurode further buttressed that the worrying situation itself constitutes a social problem about which social policy has been formulated to arrest the situation through actionable programs as opposed to mere paperwork or theories. Furthermore, [5] opined that public policies are those policies developed by governmental bodies and officials, although nongovernmental sectors and factors may, of course, influence policy development. This provides the basis for government and political authorities to take actions that are accepted as binding most of the time by most members of the society so long as they act within the limits of their roles and powers [6]. ...
... As noted earliest, public policies are designed by governmental bodies to accomplish specific goals and produce definite results. In other words, policies involve what governments actually do and not merely what government officials say they will do (Anderson, 2015). Thus a public policy is about a fundamental choice on the part of the government, which is why Thomas Dye says that the agent of policymaking is the government and when we talk about public policies, we speak of the actions of governments, cited in (Howlett & Ramesh, 2003). ...
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Sustainable development is an idea of global awareness about the demand for natural resources for growth and development with obvious consequences on the environment, especially for the future. The idea now has a 17-goal agenda, which was adopted in January 2015, by the UNDP to be achieved within a time frame of 15 years, from 2015 to 2030. Even though Africa is not on the same level as the global North, in terms of development, all African countries now embrace the idea. Using public policy as a perspective in understanding the implementation of the 17 goals, because all the 17 goals are policy issues and the state is central to policy formulation and implementation, this paper, therefore, interrogates the nature of the African state in order to see the extent to which African countries can achieve the 17 goals. The paper observes that the nature of the African state must be put in a proper perspective in order to understand why African countries may not achieve even one of the 17 goals within the 15- year time frame. This is because the state is today, the problem with the African development process, for being in crisis and for operating with very weak institutions.
... The quality and relevant capacity building in developing countries should be such that it must help the countries in question put in place strategies for sustainable development. According to Anderson (2015) and Dibie (2014), for Africa to tackle the unemployment and capacity gap between basic education, vocational training, and the job market life-long, learning these factors are (6) maintaining employability of workers and sustainability of enterprises; (7) match demand and supply of skills; and (8) sustain a dynamic development process (Lehne, 2012;ILO, 2008;Jones, 2001). It could be argued therefore, that skills development can improve employability of workers, productive enterprises and inclusiveness of economic growth. ...
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Youth unemployment and human capacity building is one of the greatest challenges facing Nigeria today and has maintained a rising trend over the years. Within the framework of social constructionist theory, the paper examines the nexus between youth unemployment and human capacity building in Nigeria and the imperatives of entrepreneurship education. This study utilized data derived from primary and secondary sources. It argues that human capacity building is a continuous process of development that could be accomplished through entrepreneurial education. Technical human capacity building will serve as leverage for youth unemployment in the country. While the Nigerian government policies have not been able to effectively galvanize the private sector and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to create more jobs for the youths, however, the missing link is the negative correlation between the nation's educational system and the kind of technical skills needed to achieve youth employability in the country. This study concludes that the dynamics of development at national, state and local levels in the country should involve the exposure of government change agents to participatory learning and action methodologies. This study therefore, recommends among others that, in the new global economy, young people need to acquire more than just basic education and curricula. They should be influenced by the current trends in globalization, entrepreneurial studies and technological transformation. Micro and Small Enterprises should be strengthened and supported both technically and financially by government, private sectors and NGOs. Also, appropriate monetary and fiscal policies are necessary for Nigeria to effectively address its youth unemployment and human capacity development problems.
... Orang dituntut untuk melaksanakan protokol kesehatan dan membatasi kerumunan atau physical distancing untuk mencegah penularan virus corona. Kondisi tersebut mengharuskan para pembuat kebijakan untuk mampu bersikap responsif dan adaptif, baik terhadap bentuk dan jenis kebutuhan publik yang telah mengalami perubahan akibat suatu kondisi sosial tertentu maupun responsif dan adaptif terhadap perubahan publik akibat perkembangan teknologi yang sedang terjadi (Anderson, 1979). Akibat dari pandemi Covid-19 tersebut, banyak event dan festival seni kemudian beralih format ke dalam bentuk virtual yang berbasis internet dan aplikasi teknologi informasi, tidak terkecuali kegiatan pameran yang harus mengubah strategi untuk tetap berjalan tanpa harus menciptakan kerumunan. ...
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ABSTRAK Pandemi Corona Virus Disease (Covid-19) yang terjadi belakangan ini menyebabkan perubahan dalam beberapa tatanan kehidupan masyarakat dan bentuk kegiatan publik, salah satunya adalah pameran seni rupa. Peralihan konsep dan cara pameran yang sebelumnya dilakukan secara tatap muka kemudian menjadi virtual/daring tentunya hal ini dapat memengaruhi kualitas sebuah pameran, baik dari segi pelayanannya, konsep display maupun sistem informasi yang digunakan, sehingga pemangku kepentingan dalam pameran memiliki peran dan tanggung jawab untuk membuat suatu pameran tersebut tetap berkualitas dan memberikan pengalaman serta kepuasan kepada pengguna jasa meskipun pameran tersebut berbasis virtual. Pengujian kualitas pameran dilakukan dengan melakukan wawancara semi terstruktur kepada tujuh orang narasumber pengguna jasa pameran virtual/daring dan diukur melalui lima dimensi kualitas pelayanan, yaitu Tangible, Reliability, Responsiveness, Empathy, dan Assurance. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan, pameran secara virtual/daring memberikan pengalaman yang baru bagi para pengguna jasa yang belum pernah mereka rasakan sebelumnya. Meskipun mengalami situasi perubahan dari pameran secara tatap muka ke pameran secara virtual/daring, kualitas pameran masih sangat baik karena pemangku kepentingan memperhatikan tiap karya yang dipamerkan dari partisipan sebagai pengguna jasa. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa dimensi tangible (bukti fisik), reliabilitiy (kehandalan), responsiveness (cepat tanggap), dan empati dalam pameran virtual memiliki kualitas yang baik dan secara positif memberikan dampak kepuasan terhadap pengguna jasa. Sedangkan pada dimensi assurance (jaminan), pemangku kepentingan tidak memengaruhi kepuasan terhadap pengguna jasa, karena kualitas assurance (jaminan) berasal dari kesadaran pengguna jasa dalam berkarya yang harus tetap mengikuti pameran walaupun dengan situasi yang berbeda. Participants’ Perceptions of the Virtual Agency of Art Exhibition Quality in the Covid-19 Pandemic Situation ABSTRACT The Corona Virus Disease Pandemic (Covid-19) that has occurred recently has caused changes in various structures of community life and forms of community activities, one of which is an art exhibition. The transfer of the concept and mode of the exhibition that was previously carried out face-to-face to virtual/daring, of course, can affect the quality of an exhibition, both in terms of service, display concept and information system used, so that stakeholders in the exhibition have roles and responsibilities. responsible for realizing exhibitions that remain of high quality and provide experience and satisfaction to service users even though the exhibition is virtually based. Exhibition quality testing is carried out by conducting semi-structured interviews with seven speakers using virtual/daring exhibition services and measured through five dimensions of service quality, namely Tangible, Reliability, Responsiveness, Empathy, and Assurance. Based on the results of the research conducted, virtual/daring exhibitions provide new experiences for service users that they have never experienced before. Although the situation has changed from face-to-face exhibition to virtual/daring exhibition, the quality of the exhibition is still very good because stakeholders pay attention to every work on display from participants as service users. This shows that the dimensions of tangible, reliability, responsiveness, and empathy in virtual exhibitions have good quality and have a positive effect on service user satisfaction. Whereas in the dimension of assurance, stakeholders do not affect service user satisfaction, because quality assurance comes from the awareness of service users in their work who must continue to participate in exhibitions even in different situations.
... Keempat kebijakan dapat bersifat baik dan buruk. Kelima kebijakan yang baik berkarakter otoriter karena berdasarkan kepada hukum (Anderson, 1979). ...
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This paper looks at how a public policy process is issued, implemented, and its implications. The policy issued was the stipulation of Law no. 16 of 2017 (Law on community organizations) in lieu of Perppu No. 2 of 2017 (Perppu for community organizations). The main thesis proposed in this paper is that the policy of passing the law on community organizations is an attempt by the state to protect the Pancasila ideology, which is the sole ideology in Indonesia. This paper is prepared using qualitative methods by collecting data through Library Research. The findings of this study are that the issuance of the first law on community organizations cannot be separated from debates in parliament. The parties in parliament are inconsistent with their party ideology. Supporting or rejecting the law on community organizations is based on the pragmatic interests of the party. Secondly, the existence of the Community Organization Law makes it difficult for community organizations to stand and makes it easier for the government to dissolve community organizations that are not under Indonesian ideology. Third, the first community organization that was dissolved after the law on community organizations took effect was the Islamic Defenders Front (FPI).
... The well-known steps of the rational model or the well-known cycle of public policy making (Anderson, 1975) that represents a rather idealized process was in various scholar's writings analyzed (Walker, 2000) as: ...
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The Covid-19 crisis is a unique challenge that transcends national borders of many countries. Its immediate life-threatening effects for certain patients and its contagiousness left no time for executives to reflect upon the measures that would be efficient enough to tame the issue. Conventional tools such as the Parliamentary working, the consultation period, etc. cannot be of great assistance and immediate, flexible forms of management, such as governmental committees and task forces of experts and other stakeholders, are instead recommended, so as to determine in a "sense making approach" a viable provisional solution. Administrations need to acquaint themselves with experimentation and "trial-and-error", to combine the "regulation" and the "execution", to "adopt" and "adapt" to new conditions with a new mindset. A "small-wins" approach is of great assistance as it is a step-by-step methodology in which administrations gain knowledge and capitalize on what works and what does not for handling the situation. This new working methodology in unchartered waters challenges the conventional governmental working and takes power from the stable institutional framework, transferring it to more flexible forms of governance. Leadership, novel staff arrangements, better use of e-tools to settle team working and service delivery, and all this combined with political responsibility and accountability, are of great importance in dealing with Covid-19, proving the necessity to dispose of mature democracies in times of crisis.
... This model is referred to as the classical model, stages model, policy process model (Gülteki, 2014), or the "textbook model" (Nakamura, 1987). Harold Lasswell (1956) and other scholars, including Jones (1970), Anderson (1975), and Brewer and deLeon (1983), are proponents of this model (Sabatier, 2007). The model assumes that policy adoption processes occur linearly or procedurally. ...
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Public policy scholars and analysts have advocated specific policy models as the most realistic for explaining policy adoption during crisis. Using four models: policy stream metaphor, lesson drawing, advocacy coalition framework, and interest groups theory, this study examines policy adoption to address the coronavirus pandemic by four countries: China, Italy, the USA and Ghana. A comparative case study design, a mixed-method approach and a review of secondary data on policy adoption of the four countries were employed to collect and analyze data. The study finds that while the policy stream metaphor, advocacy coalition framework, and interest group theory could explain policy adoption during certain crises. In the case of the COVID 19 pandemic, the underlying conditions of these models provide shortcomings in explaining the kind of policy adoption by the four cases. The study concludes that the lesson drawing theory offers itself as the best explanatory model for understanding the nature of the COVID 19 pandemic policy adoption by the four countries under study.
... Public policies can be understood as the "purposive course of action followed by an actor or a set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern" [14], which are often "formal, legally-binding measures adopted by legislative and administrative units of government" [15]. Overall, public policies are arbitrary rules and regulations developed to create social goods [16]. ...
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Policies shape society. Public health policies are of particular importance, as they often dictate matters in life and death. Accumulating evidence indicates that good-intentioned COVID-19 policies, such as shelter-in-place measures, can often result in unintended consequences among vulnerable populations such as nursing home residents and domestic violence victims. Thus, to shed light on the issue, this study aimed to identify policy-making processes that have the potential of developing policies that could induce optimal desirable outcomes with limited to no unintended consequences amid the pandemic and beyond. Methods: A literature review was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus to answer the research question. To better structure the review and the subsequent analysis, theoretical frameworks such as the social ecological model were adopted to guide the process. Results: The findings suggested that: (1) people-centered; (2) artificial intelligence (AI)-powered; (3) data-driven, and (4) supervision-enhanced policy-making processes could help society develop policies that have the potential to yield desirable outcomes with limited unintended consequences. To leverage these strategies’ interconnectedness, the people-centered, AI-powered, data-driven, and supervision-enhanced (PADS) model of policy making was subsequently developed. Conclusions: The PADS model can develop policies that have the potential to induce optimal outcomes and limit or eliminate unintended consequences amid COVID-19 and beyond. Rather than serving as a definitive answer to problematic COVID-19 policy-making practices, the PADS model could be best understood as one of many promising frameworks that could bring the pandemic policy-making process more in line with the interests of societies at large; in other words, more cost-effectively, and consistently anti-COVID and pro-human.
... The basic tenet of the theory posits that decision-makers are confronted with a given problem, for instance, this global pandemic of COVID-19, and that the objectives of the decision-maker is to solve the problem as specified in the case of global pandemic which appear to be top on the priority list of most countries including Nigeria. Anderson (1975), argued that decision-makers consider various alternatives for dealing with problem or achieving the objectives as identified. It is pertinent to note that decision-makers as a rational being look at the consequences of any decision particularly in term of cost and alternative which must be identified and investigated. ...
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The disruption by COVID-19 from its entry into Lagos in February, 2020, has affected various sectors of the economy and particularly, the fisheries sector. While it has been reported that COVID-19 virus does not infect seafoods, it has been found to alter food systems. This study assessed the pains and gains (impacts) of COVID-19 pandemic on the fisheries at the fishing settlement, retail, wholesale and industrial levels using questionnaires, interview sessions with key management and relevant personnel, focused group discussions as well as secondary data from the target industry. It covered period before lockdown (pre-COVID-19; December 2019-February, 2020), during lockdown (COVID-19 lockdown; March-June, 2020) and that following the lockdown (post-COVID-19; July-August, 2020). Qualitative and quantitative data from artisanal, retail, wholesale and industrial sub-sectors showed that while the pandemic caused decline in income and impairment of livelihood, it increased costs of logistics, electricity supply, production and commuting while the quality of seafood harvested was unaffected. It had positive impacts on personnel health consciousness and hygiene, fish catch at both the artisanal and industrial sub-sectors, and reduced stress levels but varying effects on fish consumption, staff emolument and cost of products.
... public policy is "the authoritative allocation of values for the whole society" [15]. Public policies are policies developed by government agencies and officials [16]. Public policy is whatever governments choose to do or not to do. ...
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Indonesia is an archipelagic state with a very large area and borders with 10 countries, both inland and sea areas. One of Indonesia's land border areas is located in West Kalimantan Province which is directly adjacent to the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. The border is a very strategic area with problem complexity. Therefore, it requires proper and comprehensive management efforts from the government. This study aims to analyze one of the dimensions of collaborative governance, namely the collaborative process in the management of territorial boundaries in West Kalimantan Province to support national defense. This article is compiled based on the results of a qualitative descriptive study. The data in this study were obtained using interview techniques, direct observation, and literature study. The data is then analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques which include the following activities: data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and verification. Based on data analysis and discussion, this border area is managed by several stakeholders, both government and non-government, so that proper collaboration is needed in the formulation of border area management policies to be effective, efficient, and right on target. The collaborative process in collaborative governance includes five elements of the collaborative process, namely: face-to-face dialogue, building trust, commitment to the process, mutual understanding, and intermediate results. The results of this study are expected to become one of the fundamental foundations for the Indonesian government, particularly in the formulation and implementation of policies related to land border management to defend the sovereign territory of Indonesia..
... At the same time, in terms of the degree of formalisation, stakeholders are divided into formal and informal (Anderson, 1979). Formal entities are made up of those stakeholders who have the authority to ...
Article
In the past decade, the issue of stakeholder participation has been researched in the context of sustainable development. Indeed, new approaches to sustainable development point out the role of relationship-building with stakeholders and search for suitable tools how to involve stakeholders in the local strategic development. This paper deals with stakeholder participation at the local self-government level and its development. As such, it presents results obtained by a research conducted in the conditions of the Slovak Republic. The first primary research was carried out in 2009-2011 on a sample of 100 local self-governments, the second primary research was repeatedly carried out in 2011 - 2013 with a sample of 286 municipalities. This data was complemented by secondary data sources and primary data collection by the Delphi method among experts in the fields of public administration, public policy, economics and regional development. The analysis reveals potential opportunities for the development of local governance instruments with an emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in local policy and strategic planning of territorial development in a typical post-socialist country of the Central and Eastern European region.
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Devletin yaptığı ve yapmadığı şey olarak tanımlanan kamu politikaları tarihten günümüze kamu politikaları belgeleri ismiyle başlayıp, ikinci dünya savaşı sürecinde yöneylem araştırmaları kullanımının yaygınlaşması, istatistik ve matematiğin de politika yapımı süreçlerine dahil edilmesiyle beraber klasik politika belgelerinden bir adım öteye geçmiş ve kamu politikası analizi ortaya çıkmıştır. Akabinde de kamu politikaları yapımı, uygulaması ve analizine ilişkin çalışmalar ortaya çıkarmıştır. Günümüzde kamu politikaları üretimi, uygulaması ve değerlendirilmesi ayrı bir analiz süreci olarak incelenmektedir. Geleneksel olarak kamu politikalarının yapımında rasyonel yaklaşım (en faydalı olanı seçme), artırımcılık yaklaşımı (eskinin üzerine bina etme), kurumsal yaklaşım (kurumsal gündeme dayalı politika), elit teorisi (güçlülerin politika üretmesi), kamu tercihi teorisi (kişisel faydanın ön plana çıkması) ve çöp kutusu modelleri (örgütsel anarşi içerisindeki belirsizlikler) gibi modeller varken Kingdon, çöp kutusu karar verme modelini geliştirmiş, yaptığı saha çalışmalarının neticesinde çoklu akımlar çerçevesini ortaya atmıştır. Çoklu akımlar çerçevesine göre ortaya çıkan soruna ilişkin ilk ilkel siyasa topluluğundan müteşekkil politika akımı ortaya çıkar, soruna ilişkin neler yapılabileceğini de içerisinde barındıran siyaset akımıyla beraber siyasa girişimcisinin de sürece dahil olmasıyla politika penceresi açılır. Kingdon bu süreçleri birbirinden bağımsız olarak ele alır aynı zamanda politika girişimcisi bu akımları bir araya getirip politika penceresini de açan kişidir. İdeal durumda bu akımların hepsinin bir arada olması beklenirken amprik çalışmalar her zaman her akımın açılmadığını da göstermektedir.
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The study set out to establish the relationship between policy, legislation and Mau Forest conservation in Kenya. An attempt has been made to justify the study both as policy and as scholarly contribution. It is useful not only to Kenyan policy makers but to the global community. It underlines the gaps both theoretically and in literature which the study is likely to fill. Literature review further emphasized the need to investigate the relationship between politics and Mau Forest conservation. The study is guided by the theory of ecologism as espoused in political ecology and where the two hypotheses are drawn the first being that politics play a role in destruction of the Mau Forest and two that there is political interest in the conservation of the Mau Forest. This is strengthened by the fact that the nature of encroachment in the Mau Forest land and the defense of the encroachers by the political class hence the shift from forest conservation to political duel. In terms of methodology, the study relied on both primary and secondary data. The respondents in the primary data were identified through non-probability sampling technique. The secondary data on the other hand was obtained from books, journals, magazines, newspapers, websites and government documents.
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This chapter deals with the global context of public policy making, especially the influence of globalization on public policy making in Africa. It provides a precise and conceptually focused definitions of globalization and public policy. It addresses the emergence of global institutions of governance, international conventions, global policies and their diffusion and influence on national policy making around the world. It takes us around the debates around policy paradigms in the study of the public policy choice and policy change. It examines influence of global policy paradigms on national public policy making in Africa, with illustrations drawn from Republic of Kenya. It therefore identifies and discusses the competing forces of both internal and external factors that influence public policy making in Africa.
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This chapter analyses the interconnections among the concepts of governance, politics and public policy and examines the political and governance issues around policy making in Africa. It explores the concepts of “public policy”, “Politics” and “governance” and their inter-relationship. It then elaborates the main features of the governance context of policy making and the formal governance institutions of policy making: the arms of government and the models and systems of government. It also describes policy roles of the party and electoral systems as frameworks of democratic governance. It explores public policy instruments and actors in the policymaking process as well as the informal dimensions of politics and public policy making.
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This chapter examines the nature of social science research as it has evolved historically in Africa within the colonial context. It examines the linkages between social science research institutions and the policy processes, providing a discussion of a variety of techniques for policy analysis. It draws on research to map the debate around these connections and the ongoing quest to promote innovation and achieve an uptake in evidence-informed policy making across Africa.
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This book is a reservoir of modern principles and practical guides on administration and organizational behaviour. It is interdisciplinary in nature and provides a one-stop-source for accessing knowledge on the theory and practice of organizational behaviour. Importantly, it shows how these principles can be applied in both the public and private sector organizations. It is suitable for all students of management courses (Business Administration, Public Administration, among others) and professional managers in all sectors.
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This study aims to describe the policy evaluation of the Featured Home Industry program in Palopo City by looking at the program policy evaluation indicators, namely technical feasibility, economic and financial opportunities, political support capacity, and organizational carrying capacity. The type of research used is descriptive qualitative research type intended to reveal the problem to be investigated by describing the subject and object of research based on existing facts about the Khilan Industry program. Data obtained through observation, interviews, and documentation of a number of informants. The results showed that initially the khilan program could improve the economic level of the community, but the subsequent development of the achievement of the results was not optimal because of the 50 khilan groups that were previously members of the khilan group, now only 3 groups are still actively producing, selling raw materials for making khilan products in the form of zaro snacks. purchased from the khilan group at low prices, while the manufacturing process takes days, causing bottlenecks in the production of raw materials.
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The development of increasingly advanced technology has contributed to the dissemination of information. The simplicity of information on social media can be accessed by anyone, anytime, anywhere using a smartphone. Given the easy availability of information, you have to be smart in choosing and sorting information from social media, so you need to determine whether the information is correct based on data. Therefore, to convey this information, it is necessary to clarify more accurate and effective sources of information. It also improves the knowledge and skills of the service providers involved to increase the coverage of information on the reproductive rights of their families and relatives, as well as information and mediation services in the event of a violation of reproductive rights. Therefore, it is hoped that the role of the media and competent human resources will increase in the provision and dissemination of reproductive health information, especially HIV/AIDS.
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U.A.E faces a major traffic problem at peak hours which results in mishaps, accidents, traffic jams etc. Traffic congestion is a phenomenon where automobiles queue up in lanes which has reached beyond its capacity. This happens at peak hours when most of the working population goes to earn their livelihood and students leave for schools & colleges. Remaining might just add on to the existing load of traffic creating further jams. This paper focuses on major causes which result in traffic snarl up and the ones which are overlooked at a place like U.A.E where roads are so sleek and smooth that we are just tempted to check the top speed of our vehicles if we are able to do so. There are many solutions to deal with traffic problems suggested by renowned thinkers but the one which we are going to discuss is a major cost effective technique to control traffic which is a reverse lane system. Besides this, some other methods are suggested which can curb the traffic to some extent. The experiment was conducted on one of the busiest roads extending from Sharjah entrance junction on Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed road till National Paint junction spanning 1 km length. We utilize queuing technique (M/M/C):(FCFS/œ/œ) where multiple lanes serves as more than one queue in the model & National Paint junction end serves as multiple servers.
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Since the emergence of the Fourth Republic, successive political administrations have rolled out various coordinated development plans to accelerate the pace of Ghana’s development. Within the period, various development plans have been introduced with the idea of ensuring socio-economic development. However, plan implementation has become very difficult and a challenge to almost all the political administrations. In the light of the importance to plan implementation to the country, the study examines the various challenges that affect the implementation of development plans by political parties.
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Research outcomes or findings are regarded in developed nations as important in expanding existing knowledge on any phenomenon in the society. This is because it fosters growth of logical reasoning and it is crucial for socioeconomic progress of the society. Findings from the study showed that the Nigerian government does not appreciate the importance of research outcomes or finding that is why the public sector is backward in terms of socioeconomic development due to neglect of the research component in the economy; some of the importance of research findings include: The current status of research in the country is not encouraging to foster socioeconomic development because Research and its findings as a tool for socioeconomic development has not been properly put into use or applied appropriately; among the challenges besetting utilization and application of research findings are: lack of implementation of research findings, lack of reliable and valid data, secrecy and inadequate funding from both government and nongovernmental organizations. A content analysis and a descriptive research technique was employed for obtaining data through the use of secondary sources; e.g. reviewing of existing literature on the topic under investigation; the paper recommends that research should be adequately funded by the government with the support of the private sector, Research findings should be given priority and must be fully utilized and applied in policy formulation and implementation to achieve desired socioeconomic growth and development and that: Research findings should be made available to the public for use in solving the human problems. Abstrak Hasil atau temuan penelitian di negara maju dianggap penting dalam memperluas pengetahuan yang ada tentang fenomena apa pun di masyarakat. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-sa/4.0/) Bello, dkk. / JGAR, 3 (1) : 31-59 32 Hal ini karena mendorong pertumbuhan penalaran logis dan sangat penting untuk kemajuan sosial ekonomi masyarakat. Temuan dari studi menunjukkan bahwa pemerintah Nigeria tidak menghargai pentingnya hasil penelitian atau temuan itu sebabnya sektor publik terbelakang dalam hal pembangunan sosial-ekonomi karena mengabaikan komponen penelitian dalam perekonomian; beberapa temuan penelitian yang penting antara lain: Status penelitian di tanah air saat ini tidak mendorong untuk mendorong pembangunan sosial-ekonomi karena Penelitian dan temuannya sebagai alat untuk pembangunan sosial-ekonomi belum dimanfaatkan atau diterapkan secara tepat; Di antara tantangan yang melanda pemanfaatan dan penerapan temuan penelitian adalah: kurangnya implementasi temuan penelitian, kurangnya data yang dapat diandalkan dan valid, kerahasiaan dan pendanaan yang tidak memadai baik dari pemerintah maupun lembaga swadaya masyarakat. Analisis isi dan teknik penelitian deskriptif digunakan untuk memperoleh data melalui penggunaan sumber-sumber sekunder; misalnya meninjau literatur yang ada tentang topik yang diselidiki; makalah ini merekomendasikan bahwa penelitian harus didanai secara memadai oleh pemerintah dengan dukungan sektor swasta, Temuan penelitian harus diprioritaskan dan harus dimanfaatkan dan diterapkan sepenuhnya dalam perumusan dan implementasi kebijakan untuk mencapai pertumbuhan dan pembangunan sosial-ekonomi yang diinginkan dan bahwa: Temuan penelitian harus tersedia untuk umum untuk digunakan dalam memecahkan masalah manusia.
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The book 'Women and Policy Communication in India' is a detailed study of policy and communication, and the interrelationship between policy and communication, particularly in India. The book focuses on this issue through various themes like social, economic, and political issues of women; constituent assembly debates on gender equality, constitutional provisions for women, the Right to Health and the healthcare system in India, poverty, and women, major economic policies, New Education Policy-2020, and women, etc. This will provide the reader with a complete understanding of women's problems and communication gaps in making policies or conveying policies to the general public.
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Freedom of information is a central part of transparency and accountability by government in every society. In Nigeria, the Freedom of Information Act (FOI) 2011 combines legislation with other mechanisms to bring government information into the public domain and grants citizens the latitude to hold the government accountable for their actions and inactions. The idea is that increasing citizens' access to information will lead to transparency, which in turn leads to accountability. The FOI Act is therefore intended to improve participatory democracy in Nigeria, improve government delivery of public goods, increase government accountability, and reduce corruption. Against this background, this study therefore looked at the key issues of the Freedom of Information Act, 2011 as well as the challenges working against the implementation of its provisions in Nigeria. The study adopted Group theory a fiuntcwoik foi cjnuly:>i:> unci inuuc use oi M-IOMUUI) data diavwt mainly from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the Freedom of Information Act itself. Descriptive research design was employed as a method for the study while content analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The study amongst others; found that while the Freedom of Information Act is a veritable tool which can be used to entrench accountability and transparency in government, there is less awareness on the side of the citizens about the Act. Consequently, the study recommends that government at all levels should synergize and domesticate the Act in their laws; civil society
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The work looks at decision making in an organization. It looks at the nature,types , techniques, processes, bases, models of decision. The work also looks at the differences between decision and concepts such as planning and policy
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The emergence of Joint Decree (SKB) Number 219 year 2021 cannot be separated from the polemic at SMKN 2 Padang West Sumatra in 2021. The purpose of this study is to explore and analyze through an educational policy model approach. This research method uses a qualitative research model with a content analysis approach. Sources of research data use primary data from the SKB in this study, and are supported by various secondary data sources that are still relevant to this research study. The results of this study indicate that 1) The background for the issuance of the SKB 3 Minister's policy is the existence of problems that arise in the community about the attributes of the veil in government schools; 2) The formulation of the SKB 3 Ministerial policy through several stages, namely; problem formulation, forecasting (forecasting), policy recommendations, policy monitoring, and policy assessments; 3) The impact of the implementation of the 3 Ministerial Decree, namely; a) Revocation of various regulations issued by the Regional Government; b) Freedom in choosing to use attributes without religious distinctiveness or by using religious characteristics for both education and students; c) There are sanctions for violators of the SKB 3 Ministerial policy; d) Regional governments and government school principals will not issue policies that require or prohibit the use of school uniforms / attributes; and e)The development of tolerance, moderation, and mutual respect is not coercive within educational institutions.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Implementasi Kebijakan Penyaluran Pupuk Bersubsidi Melalui Program Kartu Tani pada petani nanas di Desa Siwarak Kecamatan Karangreja Kabupaten Purbalingga, berlandasakan Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Prasarana Dan Sarana Pertanian Nomor 11/Kpts/SR.310/30/2020 Tentang Petunjuk Teknis Pelaksanaan Penyediaan dan Penyaluran Pupuk Bersubsidi Tahun Anggaran 2020. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kualitatif deskriptif dan perolehan data dilakukan melalui wawancara terstruktur, observasi lapangan serta telaah dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pembuatan Kartu Tani di Desa Siwarak sudah sesuai pada regulasi yaitu pengusulan, penerbitan dan penebusan, namun dalam penerapannya masih belum optimal. Faktor pendukung dari implementasi yaitu adanya sumber daya manusia yang kompeten, anggaran yang memadai dan partisipasi masyarakat. Faktor penghambat dilihat dari adanya keterbatasan jarak dan biaya dalam mengakses pupuk subsidi, hambatan dalam penyusunan dan validasi Rencana Defintif Kebutuhan Kelompok (RDKK) serta lemahnya jaringan dalam mengakses Kartu Tani.
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As part of Harold D. Lasswell’s policy sciences, the decisions functions emerged to explore and understand comparative policy processes. The decision functions specified different categories of purposes, roles, and responsibilities performed, to various extents and ways, by all governments. These included intelligence, recommendation, prescription, invocation, application, appraisal, and termination. Additionally, the decision functions were not necessarily sequenced or in any government unit. Over time, the decision functions morphed in meaning and use, eventually supplanted by the policy cycle. This commentary digs up and polishes the decision functions and argues for their inclusion in contemporary policy process theories and research. We end with new questions and paths for advancing knowledge and contributing to Lasswell’s vision in realizing greater human dignity.
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The implementation of the waste management system policy in Tanjungpinang City, Riau Islands Province has not been running effectively so that it has an impact on community satisfaction. The research method used is an explanatory survey method with a quantitative approach. While the theory used in this study is the theory of policy implementation from Hoogerwerf, 2003, while the theory of community satisfaction from Irawan, 2004. Simultaneous policy implementation has a fairly large and significant impact on community satisfaction in Tanjungpinang City, Riau Islands Province, by 37.1%/Page This implies that the implementation of the waste management system policy that has been carried out by the City Planning, Hygiene, Cemetery and Park Service Office of the Public Works and Environment Agency is very dominant and determines the satisfaction of the people in Tanjungpinang City. Besides that, the satisfaction of the people of Tanjungpinang City in the waste management system is not only influenced by the implementation of the policy, but there are other variables that also influence it, namely 62.9%. The implementation of policies in the waste management system partially has the largest and most significant impact on community satisfaction in Tanjungpinang City. This means that the implementation of policies in the waste management system is dominant in increasing community satisfaction in Tanjungpinang City. The aspects of policy implementation that have the largest to the smallest influence on community satisfaction in order are aspects of information, policy content, potential sharing and support. The information aspect has the greatest influence (15.4%), meaning that this aspect is the most dominant in influencing community satisfaction, while the support aspect has the least effect (2.9%), meaning that this aspect is not too dominant in influencing community satisfaction.
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This research examines the role Financial Management Agency, Revenue in Increasing Non-Metal Mineral and Rock Tax Revenue, it is known that in 2016-2020 there was a significant decrease in the realization of tax revenues (in 2016 the realization was Rp. 1.887.075.092,- until 2020 the realization only reached Rp. 305.450.406,-). This decrease was due to a change in the collection system used in collecting taxes on non-metallic minerals and rocks in 2016-2020 from an official assessment system to a self assessment system. The theory used to analyze the problem is the implementation theory according to Edwards III with four main indicators including communication, resources, disposition, and bureaucratic structure. The research method use a gualitative approach. Date collection techniques through observation, interviews and documentation. The results showed that tax revenues for non-metallic minerals and rocks continued to decline in Bener Meriah Regency from 2016-2020, using the self assessment system as a system for collecting taxes on non-metallic minerals and rocks that were still not effectively implemented. What steps are taken to increase tax revenues for non-metallic minerals and rocks in Bener Meriah Regency are due to the lack of socialization of the regulations that have been set and coordination of information delivery among tiered officials. Resources that are lacking in carrying out supervision in the form of tax collectors for non-metallic minerals and rocks.Weak disposition with lack of seriousness in tax collection management. The bureaucratic structure with a lack of coordination is the cause of the lack of information and communication carried out by officials who collect taxes on non-metallic minerals and rocks at BPKPA, Bener Meriah Regency
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ÖZET - Ankara Anlaşması'nın 12 Eylül 1963'de imzalanması ve 1 Aralık 1964'de yürürlüğe girmesiyle birlikte Türkiye'nin Avrupa Birliği ile ortaklık ilişkisi başlamıştır. 17 Aralık 2004 tarihinde alınan kararın sonrasında, 3 Ekim 2005'de Türkiye'nin Avrupa Birliği'ne katılım müzakerelerinin başlaması ile yeni bir sayfa açılmıştır. Bu çerçevede, kırsal kalkınma ile ilgili olarak dünyada değişen yeni yaklaşımları ön plana alan, Avrupa Birliği‟ne uyum sürecini sürdüren, buna ilave olarak ülkenin gereksinimlerinin, önceliklerinin ve mevcut şartlarının farkındalığına sahip olan bir kırsal kalkınma planının ortaya konması kararlaştırılmıştır. Türkiye'nin Avrupa Birliği ile ekonomik ve sosyal alanda uyumun oluşturulması sebebi ile kırsal anlamda gerekli görülen ve ihtiyaç duyulan adımların atılması ve bu çalışmaların sonuca ulaştırılması uyum sürecinin iyi bir şekilde sürdürülebilmesi yönünden kırsal kalkınma planı oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye'nin Avrupa Birliği‟ne uyum sürecinin Türkiye'nin kırsal kalkınmasına olan etkileri ve bu bağlamda süreç içerisinde Manisa İline olan etkileri ve görülen değişiklikler ele alınmıştır. Bu çalışma üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde, kalkınma ve kırsal kalkınma kavramları, Türkiye'deki kırsal kalkınma faaliyetleri ve kırsal kalkınma politikaları ele alınmıştır. İkinci bölümde, Avrupa Birliği'nde kırsal kalkınma faaliyetleri, kırsal kalkınma politikaları ve Türkiye'nin kırsal kalkınma bağlamında Avrupa Birliği'ne uyum süreci irdelenmiştir. Son olarak üçüncü bölümde ise, Avrupa Birliği‟ne uyum süreci bağlamında Manisa ilinin kırsal kalkınma analizi yapılmıştır.
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