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This research examines the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE) in a sample of 302 Puerto Rican adults. We examined its internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), McDonald’s omega coefficient, construct validity, and factor structure. The Brief-RCOPE obtained an alpha coefficient of .94 in the Positive Religious Coping (PRC) subscale and .84 in the Negative Religious Coping (NRC) subscale. The omega coefficient was .94 (PRC) and .85 (NRC), respectively. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis, using the Satorra-Bentler correction, to examine the factor structure of the Brief-RCOPE. The two-factor model showed a better adjustment to the data than the one-factor model. Indicators of construct validity were also adequate. Our findings suggest that the Brief-RCOPE is a reliable and valid instrument to measure religious coping strategies that may significantly affect people’s daily lives.
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Laboratorio de Evaluación Psicológica y Educativa
Facultad de Psicología - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
2021, Vol. 21, No. 2
ISSN 1667-4545
Recuperado de
Revista Evaluar
VOL-21 2
Laboratorio de Evaluación Psicológica y Educativa
Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the Brief Religious
Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE) in Puerto Rican Adults
Propiedades psicométricas y estructura factorial de la Escala Breve
de Afrontamiento Religioso (Brief-RCOPE) en adultos puertorriqueños
Orlando M. Pagán-Torres * 1, 2, Eduardo Cumba-Avilés 3,
Ernesto Rosario-Hernández 4, Juan Aníbal González-Rivera 2
1 - Albizu University, San Juan Campus, Puerto Rico.
2 - Ponce Health Sciences University, San Juan University Center, Puerto Rico.
3 - Institute for Psychological Research, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus.
4 - Ponce Health Sciences University, Ponce, Puerto Rico.
*Author’s note: The authors have no conict of interest to disclose.
Correspondence to: Orlando M. Pagán Torres, Assistant Professor at Ponce Health Sciences University and Adjunct Professor at Albizu University. E-mail:
How to cite: Pagán-Torres, O. M., Cumba-Avilés, E., Rosario-Hernández, E., & González-Rivera, J. A. (2021). Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Brief Reli-
gious Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE) in Puerto Rican adults. Revista Evaluar, 21(2), 48-62. Recuperado de
Participaron en la edición de este artículo: Eva Crasso, Fiorella Garabano, Gloria Nieve, Alicia Molinari, Eugenia Barrionuevo, Facundo Varela, Florencia Ruiz, Benjamín
Casanova, Ricardo Hernández.
Esta investigación examina las propiedades psicométri-
cas y estructura factorial de la Escala Breve de Afrontamien-
to Religioso (Brief-RCOPE) en una muestra de 302 adultos
puertorriqueños. Examinamos la consistencia interna (alfa de
Cronbach), el coeciente omega de McDonald, la validez de
constructo y la estructura factorial. La Brief-RCOPE obtuvo
un coeciente alfa de .94 en la subescala de afrontamiento re-
ligioso positivo (ARP) y de .84 en la de afrontamiento religio-
so negativo (ARN). El coeciente omega fue de .94 (ARP)
y .85 (ARN), respectivamente. Realizamos análisis factorial
conrmatorio mediante la corrección de Satorra-Bentler, para
examinar la estructura factorial de la Brief-RCOPE. El mo-
delo de dos factores mostró un ajuste a los datos superior al
modelo unifactorial. Los indicadores de validez de constructo
también fueron adecuados. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la
Brief-RCOPE es un instrumento conable y válido para medir
estrategias de afrontamiento religioso que podrían afectar sig-
nicativamente la vida diaria de las personas.
Palabras clave: afrontamiento religioso, estructura factorial,
puertorriqueños, propiedades psicométricas, religiosidad
This research examines the psychometric properties
and factor structure of the Brief Religious Coping Scale
(Brief-RCOPE) in a sample of 302 Puerto Rican adults.
We examined its internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha),
McDonald’s omega coecient, construct validity, and fac-
tor structure. The Brief-RCOPE obtained an alpha coe-
cient of .94 in the Positive Religious Coping (PRC) subscale
and .84 in the Negative Religious Coping (NRC) subscale.
The omega coecient was .94 (PRC) and .85 (NRC), re-
spectively. We conducted a conrmatory factor analysis,
using the Satorra-Bentler correction, to examine the fac-
tor structure of the Brief-RCOPE. The two-factor model
showed a better adjustment to the data than the one-factor
model. Indicators of construct validity were also adequate.
Our ndings suggest that the Brief-RCOPE is a reliable and
valid instrument to measure religious coping strategies that
may signicantly aect people’s daily lives.
Keywords: factor structure, Puerto Rican, psychometric
properties, religious coping, religiousness
Recibido: 12/01/2021 Revisado: 12/03/2021 Aceptado: 21/03/2021
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
Research studies reveal that religious/spiri-
tual involvement is associated with better health
(Koenig, 2012, 2015; Oman & Syme, 2018).
The documented ndings concerning the impact
of religious/spiritual involvement on health are
closely associated with the use of religious cop-
ing (RC) strategies (Gerber, Boals, & Schuettler,
2011; Gonçalves, Lucchetti, Menezes, & Vallada,
2015; Pargament, 1997). RC is a strategy based
on religious beliefs and practices to prevent and
alleviate the negative consequences of stressful
events (Pargament, 1997).
Religiosity is a relevant dimension of Puerto
Ricans’ culture and lifestyle. According to the
Pew Research Center survey (2014), 89% of
Puerto Ricans living on the island self-perceive
as Christians, distributed in Catholic Christians
with 56%, followed by Protestant Christians with
33%, while 8% are unaliated and 2% who iden-
tify themselves as “other”, which could include
minority religious groups. Therefore, it is not sur-
prising that religious and spiritual beliefs play a
signicant role in the majority of Puerto Ricans’
daily life and culture (Agosto-Cintrón, 1996;
Scarano, 2008).
There are several reasons to argue the im-
portance of measuring the religious and spiritu-
al dimensions. First, research reveals that these
dimensions can aect people’s health in phys-
ical, emotional and social aspects when used as
positive or negative coping mechanisms (Bonelli
& Koenig, 2013; Koenig, 2012; Oman & Syme;
2018). Second, on many occasions, the main
complaint of patients/clients who attend therapy
is related to religious/spiritual aspects (American
Psychiatric Association, 2013). Therefore, the
measurement of these constructs will provide
more information on the role of religious and
spiritual dimensions in people’s lives. Third, a
close examination of religiosity and religious
coping strategies could help us understand the
global vision of the patient/client and strengthen
the therapeutic relationship (Richards & Bergin,
2014). Fourth, the information obtained could be
relevant in the development of a treatment plan
consistent with the needs of the client/patient
(Richard & Bergin, 2014). Last, the assessment
of these dimensions could help professionals un-
derstand the role of spirituality and religiosity in
client/patient health care (Gonçalves et al., 2015).
Pargament (1997) denes coping as “the
search for meaning in times of stress” (p. 90).
In addition, religious coping is dened as the
dierent ways of understanding and handling
negative life events that are related to the sacred
(Pargament & Raiya, 2007). Pargament (1997)
originally developed the religious coping con-
struct. This author proposes that religion is one
of the ways in which individuals can cope with
their life situations through positive and nega-
tive strategies that emerge from their religious
beliefs and practices. Pargament, Koenig and
Perez (2000) developed the rst validated instru-
ment to measure religious coping: The Religious
Cope (RCOPE). This scale, in its original form,
had 105 items distributed in 21 sub-scales. As re-
ported in the study, the reliability estimates of the
instrument subscales were high. Specically, the
RCOPE showed a Cronbach alpha internal con-
sistency of .80 or more for all subscales except for
two dimensions: marking the religious limits (.78)
and the reassessment of the power of God (.61)
Later, a short version of the RCOPE was
developed. The Brief Religious Coping Scale
(Brief-RCOPE) includes 14 items as a result of
conducting several exploratory factor analyses
(EFA) with dierent samples (Pargament, Smith,
Koenig, & Perez, 1998; Pargament, Feuille, &
Burdzy, 2011). This measure has the advantage
of measuring religious coping strategies in a short
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
time. The scale consists of 14 items in four-point
Likert-type format ranging from Not at all to Very
much. The items are distributed in two dimen-
sions classied as positive religious coping (PRC)
and negative religious coping (NRC), as shown
by both EFA and a conrmatory factor analysis
(CFA) conducted by the authors on two samples
(Pargament et al., 1998). The model t indexes
obtained for the CFA two-factor model were ad-
equate. In their review, Pargament et al. (2011)
reported that Cronbach’s alphas for the NRC were
generally lower than those for PRC, with median
values for the PRC scale being .92 and .081 for
the NCR.
The psychometric properties and factor
structure of the Brief RCOPE have been exam-
ined in a diversity of countries and populations.
For instance, in a sample of 403 Iraqi secondary
school students, and following a principal com-
ponent analysis (PCA), with both varimax and
oblimin rotations, PRC and NRC subscales had
Cronbach’s alphas of .86 and .82, respectively
(Al-Hadethe, Hunt, Thomas, & Al-Qaysi, 2016).
Also using a PCA but with a promax rotation,
Mohammadzadeh and Naja (2016) examined
the structure of the Persian version of the Brief
RCOPE among 339 Iranian university students
(mean age = 27.30 years). They reported alpha
coecients of .79 for the PRC and .71 for the
NRC components extracted, using the eigenvalue
> 1.0 criteria. The components showed the same
item organization as the original English version.
In these two previous studies, the authors did not
report the correlation among the components or
the observed subscales scores. On the other hand,
in three Greek-Orthodox samples, and using an
EFA with unweighted least squared extraction and
promin oblique rotation, the B-RCOPE showed a
two-dimensional factor structure with remarkable
stability across the samples corresponding to the
PRC (Factor 1) and NRC (Factor 2) dimensions.
Cronbach’s alphas were .91 - .96 and .77 - .92 for
the PRC and NRC factors, respectively (Paika et
al., 2017). The authors reported factor inter-cor-
relations ranging from .33 to .51 in the sub-sam-
ples, and a value of .44 for the entire sample. In 2
out of 3 sub-samples, and in the combined sam-
ple, item 13 (demonic reappraisal) showed higher
loadings on Factor 1, although a higher loading
on Factor 2 was expected.
The complexity of the loadings of item
13 was also documented in a study with 170
Brazilian adults with end-stage renal disease,
in which the PRC = .83) and NRC = .75)
dimensions were identied after a PCA with
varimax rotation (Ramirez et al., 2012). No da-
ta was reported on components inter-correlation.
In another study conducted in Brazilian adults
(Esperandio, Escudero, Fernandes, & Pargament,
2018), the authors split the sample in two: one
for conducting an EFA (n = 249) and the other
(n = 276) to perform a CFA. In the EFA sample
(principal axis factoring extraction with varimax
rotation), a two-factor solution was reported, with
alpha coecients of .89 and .85 for the PRC and
the NRC, respectively. This factor structure was
tested with a CFA in the second sample and ad-
equate model t indexes were observed. In addi-
tion, an average variance extracted of .50 (min-
imum size recommended) was found for each
factor, with a composite reliability of .87 for the
PRC and .84 for the NRC. Data on the inter-fac-
tor correlation was not provided, nor the path di-
agram of the CFA, although the factors were con-
sidered orthogonal in the EFA. In a third study
conducted with a Brazilian Portuguese version,
Freitas et al. (2015) used the Brief RCOPE in 147
adults (73.5% Roman Catholics) with inam-
matory bowel disease. The authors conducted a
PCA with varimax rotation and an eigenvalue >
1.5 as the criteria for component retention. Two
components were retained which were consistent
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
with the PRC (Factor 1, α = .87) and NRC (Factor
2, α = .74) dimensions. Item 14 (Questioned the
power of God) showed the lowest loading with
its respective component (.31). The authors kept
this item even when it did not meet their cut-o
criteria (a loading ≥ .40).
Spanish versions of the Brief-RCOPE have
been used at least for the past 14 years. As far as
can be ascertained, the rst Spanish version of this
measure was developed by Rivera-Ledesma and
Montero-López (2007). In two samples (sample
1, n = 129; sample 2, n = 209) of Mexican adults
aged 50 and over (88% Catholics), these authors
found internal consistency (alpha) values ranging
from .82 to .83 for the PRC and from .60 to .65
for the NRC. When they removed item 13 from
the NRC subscale, its alpha values were .62 and
.67, respectively. The authors then submitted data
from the larger sample to a PCA with varimax ro-
tation, using the eigenvalue > 1.0 criteria to deter-
mine the number of components. Although they
found four components in the initial analysis, on-
ly the PRC showed a conguration identical to
the original version. Only three items loaded on
the NRC component, yielding an alpha coecient
of .50. The internal consistency of the PRC =
.83) and NRC = .61) was also reported in a
study in which Robles-García et al. (2014) used
the Spanish Brief RCOPE in a sample of Mexican
patients with paranoid schizophrenia. However,
in this study, the factor structure of the scale was
not examined. Martinez and Sousa (2011), on
their behalf, used a Spanish version of the scale in
a sample of 121 Mexican-American adults with
type 2 diabetes (82% Catholics). In their rst
PCA, they found three factors with eigenvalues
> 1.0, with the third factor being composed by
items 6 and 7. After excluding those items, addi-
tional PCAs (with oblimin and varimax rotations)
revealed a two-component solution in which item
13 did not load onto any of them. Cronbach’s
alpha values for the 5-tem PRC and the 6-item
NRC were of .85 and .86, respectively.
However, the Brief-RCOPE bifactor struc-
ture was replicated in a sample of 442 Spanish-
speaking Chileans aged 18 to 83 years who
had been exposed to traumatic events (García,
Oyanedel, Páez, & Arias, 2021). The measure
obtained a Cronbach’s alpha of .94 for the PRC
subscale and .79 for the NRC dimension. In this
study, the authors used a CFA with the robust
weighted least square estimation due to the lack
of multivariate normality of the data. Model t
indexes yielded excellent results. The correlation
among the PRC and NRC factors was .35. In a
fth study conducted with a Spanish version of
the scale, Mezzadra and Simkin (2017) used the
Brief RCOPE with 200 Catholic students from
Buenos Aires, Argentina (aged 14 to 18 years).
The authors analyzed data with a polychoric cor-
relation matrix using a CFA and obtained adequate
goodness of t indexes for a two-factor structure.
Alpha coecients for the PRC and NRC were .83
and .72, respectively.
The scientic study of religion and spiritu-
ality from a mental health perspective in Puerto
Rico has increased in recent years (González-
Rivera et al., 2019; Pagán-Torres, Sánchez-
Galarza, Tollinchi-Natali, & González-Rivera,
2017). Currently, there are wide varieties of re-
ligious and spiritual measures validated with
Puerto Rican samples (Pagán-Torres & González-
Rivera, 2019). Recently, González-Rivera and
Pagán-Torres (2018) validated in Puerto Rico a
religious coping scale with 350 adult participants.
The measure obtained a Cronbach’s alpha inter-
nal consistency of .95. This scale is based on the
Lazarus and Folkman (1986) Transactional Model
of Stress and Coping, which conceptualizes cop-
ing styles in two dimensions: internal and exter-
nal coping strategies. The rst study in which a
Spanish version of the Brief RCOPE was used in
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
Puerto Rico was conducted with a sample of 70
Puerto Rican adult patients (61% Catholics) with
cancer (Rodríguez-Carrión, Sayers-Montalvo, &
Martínez-Taboas, 2011). Nevertheless, no data
about the psychometric performance of the scale
in that sample was provided. Years later, Colón-
Rivera (2014) translated into Spanish and validat-
ed the Brief RCOPE with 226 Puerto Rican adults.
The psychometric properties of the instrument re-
vealed a reliability coecient of .93 for the PRC
subscale, and .88 for the NRC subscale. However,
the factor structure of the Brief RCOPE has not
been explored in a sample of Puerto Ricans.
Therefore, this study has the following
aims. First, (a) to examine the factor structure
(unidimensional or multidimensional) of the
Brief RCOPE, using CFA with the maximum
likelihood estimation, in a sample of Puerto Rican
adults, given thatthe state of the research litera-
ture reects a lack of evidence on the factor struc-
ture of the Brief RCOPE in Puerto Ricans (Pagán-
Torres & González-Rivera, 2019). Second, (b)
to examine the reliability of the Brief RCOPE
through Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency
and McDonald’s omega coecient. Third, (c) to
evaluate the corrected item-total correlation of
each item and concurrent validity of each sub-
scale. Finally, (d) to examine the construct va-
lidity, through the evidence of its convergent and
discriminant validity, using the average variance
extracted (AVE) and related statistics.
Research design and procedures
This research has an instrumental design
consisting of a one-time assessment. This is a
secondary analysis from a research study autho-
rized by the Institutional Review Board (IRB)
from Ponce Health Sciences University, Ponce,
Puerto Rico (protocol #1902005352). Once the
IRB authorization was obtained, the recruitment
of the participants began. The digital platform
PsychData was employed to collect the online
survey data. Online recruitment was achieved
through the sharing of study information via so-
cial networks and emails. When the participants
accessed the survey link, they proceeded to read
the informed consent form, which explained all
the information, the purpose, the procedures, and
the benets and risks of the research. If the par-
ticipants agreed to participate, they proceeded to
communicate their consent in the space provided
in the digital form. In order to guarantee the pro-
tection of condentiality, only an identication
code was assigned in the database to record the
data of the participants, but no identifying data
was collected. After completing the informed
consent form, participants proceeded to complete
the sociodemographic data form, as well as the
study measures.
A non-probabilistic recruitment strategy
was applied. The convenient sample consisted
of 302 Puerto Rican adults. The sample average
age was 35.79 years (SD = 12.14). The inclusion
criteria were: (1) being 21 years of age or old-
er, (2) possessing the ability to read and under-
stand Spanish, (3) being Puerto Rican, and (4)
being a resident of Puerto Rico. Table 1 shows
the full sociodemographic characteristics of the
Sociodemographic Data Form. This document
included questions aimed to explore the prole of
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
Table 1
Sociodemographic Characteristics of the Sample.
Demographics f%
Male 78 25.8
Female 224 74.2
21-29 134 44.2
30-39 66 21.9
40-49 48 15.9
50-59 41 13.8
60-69 11 3.6
70-71 2 0.6
Marital Status
Single 148 49.0
Married 102 33.8
Widowed 3 1.0
Divorced 18 6.0
Cohabiting (free union) 31 10.3
Annual Income (USD)
$0–20,000 150 49.7
$21,000–30,000 47 15.6
$31,000–40,000 34 11.3
$41,000–50,000 13 4.3
$51,000–60,000 18 6.0
$61,000 or more 40 13.2
Academic Preparation
High school or less 14 4.6
Associate degree/technical 13 4.3
Bachelor’s degree 84 27.8
Master’s degree 102 33.8
Doctoral degree 89 29.5
Religious Aliation
Catholic 124 41.1
Protestant (Evangelical,
Method i s t , B a p t i s t s ,
116 38.4
Adventist 2 0.7
Islamism (Muslim) 1 0.3
Buddhism 5 1.7
Santería 1 0.3
None 53 17.5
Importance of Religion
Nothing 36 11.9
Somewhat 57 18.9
Important 80 26.5
Very important 129 42.7
Participation in religious activities
Never 59 19.5
Once a year 79 26.2
Monthly 44 14.6
Weekly 107 35.4
Daily 13 4.3
Participation in private religious
Never 60 19.9
Once a year 28 9.3
Monthly 25 8.3
Weekly 53 17.5
Daily 136 45.0
Note. N = 302.
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
the study participants such as the age, marital sta-
tus, gender, annual income, religious aliation,
importance assigned to religion, participation in
religious activities, and participation in private
religious practices.
Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE;
Pargament et al., 1998). To measure religious
coping, we used the Brief Scale of Religious
Strategies (Brief RCOPE) described by Pargament
et al., (2011). We used the Spanish version vali-
dated in the Puerto Rican population by Colón-
Rivera (2014). The inventory measures PRC and
NRC strategies based on the Pargament (1997)
theoretical model. The instructions of the Brief-
RCOPE invite participants to think about the
most stressful event they have experienced in the
last year. Then, the scale presents a list of 14 RC
strategies (e.g., I looked for God’s love and care;
I looked for God’s help to release my courage; I
wondered if God had abandoned me), and ask the
respondent to indicate, on a four-point Likert-type
response scale, the degree to which each strategy
applied to them: 1 (Not at all), 2 (Somewhat), 3
(Quite a bit) and 4 (Very much).
Data analyses
The IBM SPSS version 27.0 program (IBM
Corp., 2020) was used to perform most statisti-
cal analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculat-
ed through measures of central tendency (mean,
mode and median) and use of percent and fre-
quencies, to explore the sociodemographic char-
acteristics of the sample. In addition, the items’
discrimination index through corrected item-total
correlation (rbis) were considered. Those items
with correlations magnitudes greater than .30 had
acceptable discrimination indexes (Kline, 2005).
The reliability of the measure was explored using
the Cronbach’s alpha and the McDonald’s omega
coecients, both had to be equal or greater than
.70 to be considered adequate (DeVellis, 2017).
In addition, the convergent validity of the Brief
RCOPE was examined through the average vari-
ance extracted (AVE) as recommended by Fornell
and Larcker (1981). To establish convergent va-
lidity, the AVE had to be equal to or greater than
.50, thus establishing that 50% or more of the
construct’s variance was due to its indicators
(Fornell & Bookstein, 1982). Concurrent valid-
ity was examined through a Pearson correlation
coecient between the PRC subscale and ratings
in areas such as importance of religion, partici-
pation in religious activities and participation in
private religious practices (e.g., prayer, sacred
texts readings) which were extracted from the so-
ciodemographic data form. For the examination
of concurrent validity, Pearson correlation values
less than .35 were considered weak or low correla-
tions; values between .36 and .67 were considered
moderate correlations; values between .68 and .89
were considered high correlations, and, nally,
values from .90 onwards were considered very
high correlations (Taylor, 1990). Finally, to deter-
mine the discriminant validity of each dimension,
the value obtained by the individual AVE of each
factor had to be higher than the maximum shared
variance (MSV) and the average shared variance
Using STATA version 15 program
(StataCorp, 2017), two CFAs were conducted
with the robust maximum likelihood estimation
method. Specically, the Satorra-Bentler adjust-
ments were employed, which is a recommended
alternative when data is not normally distributed
(Satorra & Bentler, 2001), as it is the case in the
current study’s measurement. In order to exam-
ine how the proposed model adjusted to the data,
the following assessments were conducted: the
corrected Chi-square test 2
sb), the ratio between
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
the latter and the degrees of freedom 2
sb / df),
the corrected root mean square error of approx-
imation (RMSEAsb), the standardized root mean
square residual (SRMR), the Tucker-Lewis index
(TLI), the comparative t index (CFI), and the
Akaike information criterion (AIC). Values of χ2
/df lower than 3.0 were indicative of a very good
t for the model, while values of 5.0 or below
were considered acceptable. Values of RMSEA
less than .08, and SRMR values less than .08
were indicative of an acceptable adjustment of
the model (Hooper, Coughlan, & Mullen, 2008;
Kline, 2011). Meanwhile, CFI and TLI values
greater than .90 represented acceptable adjust-
ment of the model (Hooper et al., 2008; Kline,
2011). In addition, we used the AIC to compare
the models’ parsimony. The model with the low-
er index shows a better adjustment (Schumacker
& Lomax, 2010). For the purpose of examining
the statistical signicance of the changes in the
t of the models when comparing one to the oth-
er, the Δ χ2
sb test was conducted (also known as
the Satorra-Bentler scaled Chi-square dierence
test) with a p value of .05. So, as to evaluate the
magnitude or size of such changes, Cohen’s w
(Cohen, 1988) was employed, a coecient whose
suggested standards for a small (.1), medium (.3),
and large (.5) eect are provided in parenthesis.
Assessment of the normality assumptions
Using SPSS 27.0 (IBM Corp., 2020), the
univariate normality assumption was tested using
the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Shapiro-Wilks
test. In both cases, the tests provided evidence that
none of the 14 items had a normal distribution (p
< .001). Tests for multivariate normality conduct-
ed with STATA also yielded results that revealed
violations to the normality assumption [Mardia
mSkewness = 62.61, χ2 (560) = 3186.91, p < .001;
Mardia mKurtosis = 325.98, χ2
(1) = 1752.54, p <
.001; Doornik-Hansen test, χ2 (28) = 2443.01, p <
.001). Given the lack of normality of data, and
to correct its eect on the estimation of the stan-
dard errors of parameters and global model t,
we used the Satorra-Bentler adjustments as part
of the maximum likelihood estimation in STATA.
Conrmatory factor analyses
To determine the factor structure of the
Brief RCOPE (Spanish version), two CFA were
performed using the robust maximum likelihood
estimation method. The rst model evaluated
was the one-dimensional model, in which the 14
original items were loaded onto one factor (M1).
The CFA showed that the one-factor structure
did not obtain adequate goodness of t indexes.
Then, a second model (M2) was examined with
a two-correlated factor structure, in which items
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 loaded on a common factor
identied in the literature as PRC, and the items 8,
9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 loaded on a common fac-
tor identied in the literature as NRC. Although
this model was superior to the one-factor model
(Table 2), item 14 yielded low factor loading (<
.40) in the NRC latent variable and aected the
goodness of t statistics of the model. Therefore,
the model was re-specied (see Figure 1) by elim-
inating this item (M2a). At this stage, the CFA re-
vealed that the revised two-factor model of the
Brief RCOPE provided the best adjustment to the
data [Corrected χ2 = 142.94, p < .001; Corrected
RMSEA = .06; SRMR = .07; Corrected CFI = .96,
Corrected TLI = .95; AIC = 7966.14 (see Table
2)]. Observed scores for the 7-item NRC factor
and the 6-item version correlated at .99.
The examination of the statistical signi-
cance of the changes in the models using the Δ χ2
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
test yielded a p value of less than .001. Cohen’s w
values for the M1 to M2 and the M2 to M2a com-
parison, which examined the size of the change in
the χ2
sb value considering the change in degrees
of freedom, were 1.30 (large size) and .12 (small
Table 2
Goodness-of-t tests for analyzed models using robust maximum likelihood estimation.
Model χ2
sb χ2
sb / df RMSEAsb SRMR CFIsb TLIsb AIC Δ χ2
M1 701.47 9.11 .16 .20 .70 .64 9279.57
M2 194.93 2.57 .07 .10 .94 .93 8517.41 Δ χ2
sb (1) = 70.80
M2a 142.94 2.23 .06 .07 .96 .95 7966.14 Δ χ2
sb (12) = 50.25
Note. Degrees of freedom for M1, M2 and M2a are 77, 76 and 64, respectively. M1 = one-dimensional model with 14 items;
M2 = two-correlated-factors model; M2a = two-correlated-factors model with 13 items (deleting item 14); sb = Satorra-
Bentler adjustments; χ2
sb= corrected Chi-square Test; df = degrees of freedom; RMSEAsb = corrected root mean square error
of approximation; SRMR = standardized root mean square residual; CFIsb = corrected comparative t index; TLIsb = corrected
Tucker-Lewis index; AIC = Akaike information criterion; Δ χ2
sb = Satorra-Bentler scaled Chi-square dierence test; χ2
sb values
and Δ χ2
sb tests are signicant at p < .001.
size), respectively. This suggests that the dier-
ences in the t indexes between the models exam-
ined were not trivial, although were substantially
greater from M1 to M2.
Figure 1
Two-factor structure model of the Brief-Religious Coping Scale.
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
Reliability and Validity of the Brief-RCOPE
All the Brief RCOPE items obtained dis-
crimination indexes greater than .30 using the
corrected item-total correlation technique as rec-
ommended (Kline, 2005). Table 4 shows the dis-
crimination indexes of all items. In terms of the
Cronbach’s reliability, the PRC subscale obtained
an excellent coecient of .94 and the NRC sub-
scale showed an alpha value of .84. The omega co-
ecient was .94 for the PRC subscale and .85 for
the NRC subscale. The convergent and discrimi-
nant validity of the revised two-correlated-factor
model was also examined through the AVE, ASV,
and MSV. Results showed that the AVE values for
both factors were higher than the values of MSV
and ASV (see Table 3). Furthermore, the PRC
subscale correlated positively and signicantly
with the importance toward religious belief (r =
.681, p < .001), participation in religious activities
(r = .569, p < .001), and participation of private
religious practices (r = .568, p < .001). However,
the NRC did not correlate with these variables.
The results showed that the Brief-RCOPE has a
good convergent and discriminatory validity.
Table 3
Average variance extracted, maximum shared variance and average shared variance.
Factors AV E MSV ASV Factor 1 Factor 2
Positive Reli-
gious Coping .69 .03 .03 1 .23***
Negative Reli-
gious Coping .51 .03 .03 .17** 1
The present study aimed to examine the
psychometric properties and factor structure of
the Brief-RCOPE. The CFA showed a satisfacto-
ry t with the data to the bifactorial structure of
the Brief-RCOPE, particularly the model. These
results are consistent with other studies conduct-
ed in Spanish-speaking countries, such as Chile
(García et al., 2021), Argentina (Mezzadra &
Simkin, 2017) and Mexico (Martinez & Sousa,
2011; Rivera-Ledesma & Montero-López, 2007),
in which the Brief-RCOPE obtained a bifactor
structure and good reliability scores. For the re-
vised two-factor model, item 14 was removed
given the improvement in the goodness-of-t of
the structure model associated with its exclusion.
The relative weakness of item 14 for our sample
is similar to ndings from Freitas et al. (2015).
It should be noted that retaining the item in the
NRC would also reduce the alpha coecient of
the factor to .84, the omega coecient to .84, and
the AVE to .451. This latter value would be be-
low the requested level (of .50 or more) to support
the convergent validity of the NRC factor, and is
considered unacceptable. However, the overall
results of the revised model replicate the two-di-
mensional structure considered by the authors
in the theoretical construction of the instrument.
The two-factor structure of the Brief-RCOPE is
closely related to the theoretical foundations and
assumptions of the coping model. Furthermore,
this instrument obtained adequate Cronbach al-
pha internal consistency and omega coecient
for the PRC and NRC dimensions, which is con-
Note. The value below the diagonal represents the correlation between latent factors, while the value above the diagonal
represent the correlation among direct scores AVE = average variance extracted; MSV = maximum shared variance; ASV =
average shared variance; Brief R-COPE = Brief Religious Coping Scale. **p < .01; ***p < .001.
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
Table 4
Item discrimination indexes and condence intervals for factor loadings.
Items of the Brief R-COPE (in Spanish) rbis1 rbis2 β95% CIsb
1. Busqué una conexión más fuerte con Dios. .87 .92 .90 – .95
2. Busqué el amor y cuidado de Dios. .90 .94 .93 – .96
3. Busqué ayuda de Dios para soltar mi coraje. .80 .83 .79 – .88
4. Intenté resolver la situación de la mano de Dios. .87 .90 .88 – .93
5. Traté de ver cómo Dios podría estar tratando de fortalecerme en esta
.80 .82 .78 – .87
6. Pedí perdón por mis pecados. .71 .72 .66 – .78
7. Me enfoqué en la religión para dejar de preocuparme por mis problemas. .61 .63 .57 – .69
8. Me pregunté si Dios me había abandonado. .73 .81 .74 – .88
9. Sentí que Dios me había castigado por mi falta de devoción (consagración o
.71 .81 .74 – .89
10. Me pregunté qué hice para que Dios me castigara así. .80 .90 .86 – .95
11. Dudé del amor de Dios por mí. .66 .72 .62 – .81
12. Me pregunté si mi iglesia me había abandonado. .43 .43 .29 – .57
13. Decidí que el diablo (Satanás, Lucifer o el mal) había hecho que esto
.45 .46 .34 – .59
Note. N = 302. rbis1 = corrected item-total correlations of items with the positive religious coping factor; rbis2 = corrected
item-total correlations of items with the negative religious coping factor (revised two-factor model); β = standardized regres-
sion coecient for each item with its respective factor in the revised two-factor model; CIsb = condence interval with the
Satorra-Bentler correction for non-normality; Brief R-COPE = Brief Religious Coping Scale. All coecients are statistically
signicant at p < .001.
sistent with previous psychometric data about
the scale when used with Puerto Ricans (Colón-
Rivera, 2014). All the items obtained an adequate
discrimination index. The AVE, MSV and ASV
of the subscales were excellent, showing a good
concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validi-
ty. The data suggest that the Brief-RCOPE is a
reliable and valid instrument to measure RC strat-
egies among Puerto Rican adults, particularly if
item 14 is excluded.
Despite the fact there is a religious coping
measure validated with Puerto Rican samples
(González-Rivera & Pagán-Torres, 2018), the
measure is based in the Lazarus and Folkman
(1986) theoretical model of external and internal
coping strategies. However, the Brief RCOPE
is based on the Pargament theoretical model of
positive and negative religious coping strategies
(Pargament, 1997). In fact, this is the original
model that conceptualized the religious coping
strategies as a variable of study. Furthermore, the
Brief-RCOPE is a measure widely used in a di-
versity of countries to measure RC. Therefore, the
examination of its reliability, validity and factor
structure is essential to promoting the scientic
study of religion and spirituality in Puerto Rico,
as well as to comparing the ndings from stud-
ies conducted in other countries to the results ob-
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
tained in Puerto Rico.
The Brief-RCOPE may be used in a clinical
and research context with clinical and non-clinical
samples. In the clinical setting, this measure may
be used as a tool for screening religious strategies
with high precision and in a short time. Another
advantage of this measure is that it provides the
opportunity to simultaneously administer a bat-
tery of other religious/spiritual and mental health
measures (for clinical or research purposes) to
explore additional constructs that are positive-
ly and negatively associated with RC. The nd-
ings provide preliminary evidence of the validity
and factor structure of the Brief-RCOPE in the
Puerto Rican context. This study adds support to
the relevance of conducting additional research
in Puerto Rico aimed to evaluate the relationship
that PRC and NRC dimensions may have with
mental health variables in clinical and non-clin-
ical samples.
Our study has several limitations. First,
the participants in the study were not randomly
recruited. Instead, we used a non-probabilistic
convenience recruitment method. Therefore, our
sample is not representative of the Puerto Rican
adult population. Second, we did not evaluate
the reliability of the instrument over time (using
a test-retest strategy). However, we did evaluate
Cronbach alpha consistency and McDonald’s
omega coecient. In addition, digital recruitment
allowed us to amplify the diversity of the sam-
ple in terms of sociodemographic characteristics
and sample size. Moreover, we used advanced
statistical techniques with CFA and an adequate
sample size to provide empirical strength to our
results. Third, the number of women participants
was signicantly higher than the number of men
participants in this study. Further studies should
consider exploring factorial invariance and exter-
nal validity (correlations with other psychologi-
cal variables), among other relevant analyses. In
addition, future research should consider working
with religious samples, as working with universi-
ty students or the general population is one of the
main limitations within the eld of Psychology of
Religion and Spirituality (Kapuscinski & Masters,
2010). Despite the limitations mentioned above,
the results of this study provide relevant and pre-
liminary information on the psychometric prop-
erties and factor structure of the Brief RCOPE
in Puerto Rican adults. In addition, we suggest
future research to focus on using a diversity of
psychological measures that have been positive-
ly and negatively associated with RC to examine
the nature of PRC and NRC strategies as potential
protective or risk factors in diverse populations.
This is the rst study aimed to examine the
psychometric properties and factor structure of
the Brief-RCOPE in Puerto Ricans. Our ndings
revealed that the Spanish Brief-RCOPE used in
Puerto Rico has excellent psychometric prop-
erties and essentially replicates the two-dimen-
sional factor structure. These ndings support
the applicability of the Brief-RCOPE within the
Puerto Rican population. Future studies could
further explore the relevance of Brief-RCOPE di-
mensions with other religious/spiritual measures
and mental health outcomes in Puerto Rican clin-
ical (outpatient) and non-clinical samples. This
research represents a signicant contribution to
the scientic study of religion and spirituality in
Puerto Rico. In summary, the Brief-RCOPE is a
reliable and valid measure, easy to administer,
that may be used in any research and/or clinical
setting to explore religious coping strategies and
their potential status as protective or risk factors
on mental health.
Pagán-Torres et al., Evaluar, 2021, 21(2), 48-62
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... The results revealed 10 measures published in professional journals, none of which assessed RSS. More recently, Pagán-Torres et al. (2021a) examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish-Language Brief-RCOPE in 302 Puerto Rican adults. Results showed an α coefficient of .94 for the PRC subscale and .84 for the NRC subscale, respectively. ...
... Then, it presents a list of 14 religious coping strategies (e.g., I looked for God's love and care, I looked for God's help to release my courage) and ask them to rate, on a 4-point Likert-type response scale from 1 (Not at all) to 4 (Very much), the degree to which each one of them was performed. This scale has adequate psychometric properties in the Puerto Rican context (Pagán-Torres et al., 2021a). ...
Religious/spiritual struggles (RSS) have been reported as a risk factor for mental health. Therefore, it is justified to explore how this construct may manifest among religious/spiritual people from diverse origins. The aims of this study were to: (1) translate and adapt the RSS Scale from English to Spanish; (2) examine its internal consistency (using α and ω coefficients); (3) explore its concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity; and (4) examine its factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a sample of 225 Puerto Rican adults. The Spanish RSS Scale showed excellent psychometric properties. In CFA with robust maximum likelihood estimation, a 25-item Spanish version of the instrument replicated the six-factor structure of the original 26-item English version and showed excellent reliability. The 25-item RSS scale also presented adequate concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity. This work advances the development of measures of religious and spiritual aspects in Puerto Ricans.
... Several studies have shown that the Brief RCOPE has been translated and validated using diverse participants like Christians and Muslims from different jurisdictions such as Europe [e.g., Italy, Poland, Spain, Greece, France, and Portugal] (Paika et al., 2007;Giaquinto et al., 2011;Caporossi et al., 2018;Casaleiro et al., 2022), America (e.g., United States, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Puerto Rico; e.g., Mezzadra and Simkin, 2017;Esperandio et al., 2018;García et al., 2021;McGrady et al., 2021;Pagán-Torres et al., 2021) and Asia (e.g., Persia, Pakistan, Iran, and India; e.g., Khan and Watson, 2006;Mohammadzadeh and Najafi, 2016;Grover and Dua, 2019;Rezaeipandari et al., 2021). These validation studies have approved and reported sound psychometric properties of the two-factor structure of the Brief RCOPE. ...
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Background Previous studies have revealed that religious coping strategy is common among athletes due to the stressful experiences before and during competitions as part of the mental preparations they go through, the uncertainty of sporting outcomes, and other organizational issues they encounter. This research assessed the reproducibility of the Brief Religious Coping (RCOPE) instrument in an African setting using athletes’ samples from different countries. Particularly, the research sought to assess the (1) factor structure of Brief RCOPE with an African sample, (2) construct validity of the RCOPE measure, and (3) measurement invariance of the RCOPE instrument based on gender and nationality.Methods The study surveyed a convenient sample of 300 athletes, including 164 male and 136 female athletes, from 3 African countries (Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria) who participated in the 2018 West African University Games. The Brief RCOPE instrument was administered to the athletes for validation purposes before the competition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using the ordinal factor analytic approach.ResultsThis validation study confirmed the two-factor dimension (positive and negative religious coping) of the Brief RCOPE measure. Further, all items for each of the dimensions of the inventory contributed significantly to the measure of the Brief RCOPE domains. The positive and negative religious coping dimensions contributed more than half of the variance of their respective indicators. Measurement invariance across gender and nationality was confirmed.Conclusion Sufficient evidence was gathered to support the interpretation and use of the Brief RCOPE measure. Coaches and sports psychologists could adopt the Brief RCOPE measure to understand the mental or thought patterns of religious athletes based on existential concerns or stress accrued from impending competitions to inform appropriate religious coping interventions. This notwithstanding, the Minimum Clinical Important Difference (MCID) of the Brief RCOPE should be further investigated to enhance the utility of the instrument for use in intervention-based studies.
... Según un metaanálisis realizado por Kato (2015), los dos instrumentos más utilizados consisten en el Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ) que fue desarrollado por Folkman y Lazarus (1988) y el COPE de Carver, Scheier y Weintraub (1989). Este último instrumento, de 57 ítems, dispone también de una versión breve, el Brief COPE de 28 ítems, que fue diseñado por Carver (1997) e, incluso, se cuenta con adaptaciones para evaluar el afrontamiento religioso (Mezzadra & Simkin, 2017;Pagán-Torres, Cumba-Avilés, Rosario-Hernández, & González-Rivera, 2021). Ambos instrumentos, el COPE y el Brief COPE, representan catorce dimensiones, pero la estructura factorial original sufrió numerosas modificaciones, pues una aumentada cantidad de estudios creó nuevas dimensiones o utilizó solamente una parte del total de ellas (Kato, 2015). ...
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Cuando se percibe que una demanda externa o interna agota los recursos individuales, se utilizan ciertas estrategias para afrontar el estrés que conlleva. Una de las estrategias que más se asocia con determinadas condiciones patológicas es la represión emocional. A pesar de ello, no existen en lengua española instrumentos breves que evalúen dicha estrategia de afrontamiento del estrés. Debido a eso, el objetivo del presente estudio consistió en el desarrollo de una versión breve del Coping Strategies Inventory que contiene solamente tres ítems por cada factor. La muestra argentina (N = 762) se recogió por Internet y se dividió en dos partes. La primera se utilizó para realizar un análisis factorial exploratorio, el cual mostró la existencia de ocho dimensiones. Para todos los análisis posteriores, se utilizó la segunda parte de la muestra. Los resultados del análisis factorial confirmatorio no solo evidenciaron unas propiedades psicométricas adecuadas, sino también la idoneidad para utilizar el instrumento con una estructura factorial de primer orden y no de orden superior. Con el fin de comprobar la validez convergente, se encontraron correlaciones significativas con todos los rasgos de la personalidad. Se concluye que el desarrollo de una versión breve del Coping Strategies Inventory se realizó de forma exitosa, debido a que todos los índices psicométricos alcanzaron unos valores iguales o incluso superiores a la versión original con mayor cantidad de ítems.
En este capítulo presentamos una revisión de instrumentos validados en Puerto Rico de constructos pertenecientes al campo de la psicología positiva (PP). Se proveen descripciones breves de cada instrumento con el objetivo de familiarizar a las personas lectoras con los instrumentos disponibles. Para cumplir estos objetivos, revisamos una variedad de revistas arbitradas, libros y disertaciones doctorales en Puerto Rico para ampliar el margen de los resultados. Identificamos un total de 34 escalas de autorreporte de constructos pertenecientes a la PP que han sido validadas en el contexto puertorriqueño. Los resultados de esta revisión sugieren un progreso considerable en el desarrollo y validación de instrumentos de medición de constructos estudiados en la PP en el contexto de Puerto Rico. No obstante, los hallazgos sugieren que aún la psicología en Puerto Rico carece de una notable cantidad de instrumentos de medición que representen la totalidad de los constructos estudiados en la PP.
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The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Haitian Creole version of the Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE). A total of 256 adult survivors of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti completed the Brief RCOPE and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, resilience, general coping, and posttraumatic growth. The results showed the Brief RCOPE to have excellent internal consistency reliability α = .94 and α = .85 for the positive religious coping and negative religious coping, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis showed construct validity for the Brief RCOPE subscales. The results also showed evidence of convergent validity of the Brief RCOPE in relation to measures of positive spiritual change and religion. Independent t-tests revealed statistically significant gender differences in scores on the positive religious coping subscales as women scored higher than men. These findings suggest that the psychometric properties of the Haitian Creole version of the Brief RCOPE are adequate for the assessment of religious coping with Haitian adults exposed to a natural disaster.
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Objetivo: determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala Breve de Afrontamiento Religioso (Brief-RCOPE, Brief Religious Coping) en adultos colombianos. Método: la muestra estuvo conformada por 456 adultos colombianos (41,7% hombres y 58,3% mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 98 años. Para analizar la estructura factorial, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio con el método de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró un nivel de ajuste satisfactorio al modelo teórico propuesto de dos factores (χ2=2187.25; RMSEA=.061 (IC 95%: .033-.085); SRMR=.059, TLI=.924; CFI=.940). Las estimaciones de los índices de confiabilidad del Brief-RCOPE, medida con el Alfa de Cronbach y la Omega de McDonald alcanzaron el límite tradicional de .70. Se encontró un índice de discriminación de los ítems de la Brief-RCOPE alto (R²= .302** - .729**). Conclusiones: la evidencia sugiere que la Brief-RCOPE es un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación del afrontamiento religioso en adultos colombianos. Objective: to determine the psychometric properties of the Brief Scale of Religious Coping inColombian adults. Method: the sample consisted of 456 Colombian adults (41.7% men and58.3% women) with ages between 18 and 98 years. To analyze the factor structure, aconfirmatory factor analysis was performed with the unweighted least squares method.Results: the confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory fit level to the proposedtwo-factor theoretical model (χ2=2187.25; RMSEA=.061 (IC 95%: .033-.085); SRMR=.059,TLI=.924; CFI=.940). The estimates of the Brief-RCOPE reliability indices, measured withCronbach's Alpha and McDonald's Omega, reached the traditional limit of .70. We found that the items discrimination index of the Brief-RCOPE scale was high (R² = .302** - .729**).Conclusions: the evidence suggests that the Brief-RCOPE scale is a valid and reliable instrumentfor evaluating religious coping in Colombian adults.
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RESUMEN La muerte de una persona querida es uno de los eventos más difíciles de asimilar y comprender. Numerosas investigaciones sostienen que, en personas teístas, la religión y espiritualidad sirven de sostén en momentos de pérdida. Sin embargo, también sabemos que hay personas que ante estas pérdidas desarrollan luchas con lo divino y lo espiritual. Estas personas suelen desarrollar más problemas emocionales que las personas sin esas luchas. En el presente estudio se correlacionaron distintas variables con las pérdidas de personas significativas en la vida de 116 participantes teístas. Se auscultaron los afrontamientos positivos y negativos religiosos y su relación con síntomas de depresión. Observamos que los afrontamientos religiosos negativos (ARN) se correlacionaron de manera moderada con la presencia de sintomatología depresiva. Por otro lado, encontramos que los afrontamientos religiosos positivos (ARP) correlacionaron de manera baja y positiva con síntomas depresivos. Asimismo, los hombres, ante pérdidas, utilizaban más los ARN que las mujeres. Estos resultados sugieren que los ARN suelen relacionarse con sintomatología depresiva, lo que a su vez apunta a que el fenómeno de ARN y luchas religiosas y espirituales debe ser auscultado en el ámbito clínico para buscar opciones de resolver dichos conflictos. ABSTRACT The death of a significant person is one of the most difficult events to comprehend and assimilate. Numerous investigations sustain the view that in theistic individuals, religion and spirituality serve as support in such a difficult moment. Nevertheless, it is also known that there are people that in moments of loss develop religious and spiritual struggles. Those people tend to demonstrate more emotional problems than those who do not demonstrate such struggles. The present study aimed to explore different correlations and the death of a significant person in the lives of 116 theistic participants. We investigated the positive and negative religious coping and their relationship with symptoms of depression. We observed moderate associations between negative religious coping (NRC) and the endorsement of depressive symptoms. On the other hand, we found that a low correlation between positive religious coping (PRC) and symptoms of depression. In addition, we found that men tended to use more NRC than women. These findings indicate that NRC tend to correlate with emotional anguish and emphasize the importance of assessing NRC in a clinical context and the incorporation of such conflicts in the treatment of mental dysfunctions.
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Among the different ways of coping with stress, religious coping has shown particularly the promising results; nonetheless, there are few validated instruments to assess it in non-English language. This article presents the psychometric properties of the Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief-RCOPE) in Chilean adults exposed to stressful events. The scale shows a reliability, test–retest stability, and confirmatory factor analysis support structural validity. The scale also shows concurrent validity with another measure of religious coping. Finally, confirming predictive criterion validity, negative religious coping predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms 6 months after, but not posttraumatic growth. Positive religious coping was associated with posttraumatic growth enhancement. This study shows Brief-RCOPE as a valid and reliable instrument for measuring religious coping in this population.
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This article examines the psychometric properties of the Religious Coping Strategies Inventory (IEAR) in a sample of Puerto Rican adults. Religious coping methods are ways of understanding and dealing with negative life events that are related to the sacred. A total of 350 Puerto Ricans participated in this exploratory and psychometric study. The results indicated that the scale has a two-factor structure. These factors were denominated internal strategies and external strategies. A total of 12 items complied with the criteria of discrimination and presented appropriate factorial loads (six items per factor). The reliability index of the scale was of .95 (Cronbach's alpha). These results suggest that the IEAR has the potential to measure this construct among Puerto Rican adults. Likewise, the IEAR will advance further research of religious coping in Puerto Rico and Latin America.
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The concept of spiritual-religious coping gained attention in Brazil with the adaptation and validation of the RCOPE Scale (Panzini 2004; long version: 87 items and brief version: 49 items). The Brief RCOPE still contains a large number of items, so attempts to further reduce the size of the measure are relevant. This study presents the validation process of the Brief SRCOPE scale (14 items) for use in the Brazilian context. Data were collected from the general population (N = 525) and subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 249) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 276). The EFA resulted in a two-factor solution: Positive Religious Coping (PRC) and Negative Religious Coping (NRC). All 14 items of the original scale were retained and correlated with the same factor as the original scale (KMO = 0.852; 58.15% of total variance explained; PRC Cronbach’s alpha = 0.884 and NRC Cronbach’s alpha = 0.845). The model tested through CFA showed adequate adjustment indices (χ2 = 146.809, DF = 70, χ2/DF = 2.097, NFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.962, GFI = 0.930, AGFI = 0.895, RMSEA = 0.063, PCLOSE = 0.065 and SRMR = 0.0735). The Brief SRCOPE Scale-14 has shown reliability for the studied sample and might be applicable to other contexts. It may ultimately prove useful to professionals and researchers interested in better knowing how people make use of religious coping to face stress and suffering.
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p>En la actualidad, el estudio del afrontamiento religioso constituye una de las principales líneas de investigación en psicología de la religión. Debido a la escasez de instrumentos que posibiliten su indagación en el contexto argentino, el presente estudio se propone adaptar y validar la Escala Abreviada de Afrontamiento Religioso (B-RCOPE), una de las técnicas más empleadas para su evaluación empírica. Participaron en el presente estudio 200 estudiantes de ambos sexos de colegios secundarios de confesión católica de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA). De acuerdo con los resultados, el análisis factorial confirmatorio presenta un ajuste adecuado a los datos recabados de la población en estudio, de manera similar a lo reportado en otros trabajos. Por su parte, la consistencia interna resultó aceptable tanto para el afrontamiento positivo como para el afrontamiento negativo. De esta manera, los resultados obtenidos indican que la B-RCOPE cuenta con características psicométricas adecuadas, ofreciendo un aporte a la adaptación y la validación de este instrumento para el contexto argentino.</p
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Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with elevated levels of anxiety and depression and a reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Nonadherence to treatment is also frequent in IBD and compromises outcomes. Religious coping plays a role in the adaptation to several chronic diseases. However, the influence of religious coping on IBD-related psychological distress, HRQoL, and treatment adherence remains unknown. Method: This cross-sectional study recruited 147 consecutive patients with either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Sociodemographic data, disease-related variables, psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), religious coping (Brief RCOPE Scale), HRQoL (WHOQOL-Bref), and adherence (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to evaluate the effects of religious coping on IBD-related psychological distress, treatment adherence, and HRQoL. Results: Positive RCOPE was negatively associated with anxiety (b = 0.256; p = 0.007) as well as with overall, physical, and mental health HRQoL. Religious struggle was significantly associated with depression (b = 0.307; p < 0.001) and self-reported adherence (b = 0.258; p = 0.009). Finally, anxiety symptoms fully mediated the effect of positive religious coping on overall HRQoL. Conclusion: Religious coping is significantly associated with psychological distress, HRQoL, and adherence in IBD.
This volume reviews the exploding religion/spirituality (R/S) and health literature from a population health perspective. It emphasizes the distinctive Public Health concern for promoting health and preventing disease in societies, nations, and communities, as well as individuals. Part I offers a rigorous review of mainstream biomedical and social scientific theory and evidence on R/S-health relations. Addressing key gaps in previous literature, it reviews evidence from a population health viewpoint, surveying pertinent findings and theories from the perspective of Public Health subfields that range from Environmental Health Sciences to Public Health Nutrition to Health Policy & Management and Public Health Education. In Part II, practitioners describe in detail how attending to R/S factors enhances the work of clinicians and community health practitioners. R/S provides an additional set of concepts and tools to address opportunities and challenges ranging from behavior and institutional change to education, policy, and advocacy. Part III empowers educators, analyzing pedagogical needs and offering diverse short chapters by faculty who teach R/S-health connections in many nationally top-ranked Schools of Public Health. International and global perspectives are highlighted in a concluding chapter and many places throughout the volume. This book addresses a pressing need for Public Health research, practice and teaching: A substantial evidence base now links religious and spiritual (R/S) factors to health. In the past 20 years, over 100 systematic reviews and 30 meta-analyses on R/S-health were published in refereed journals. But despite this explosion of interest, R/S factors remain neglected in Public Health teaching and research. Public Health lags behind related fields such as medicine, psychology, and nursing, where R/S factors receive more attention. This book can help Public Health catch up. It offers abundant key resources to empower public health professionals, instructors, and students to address R/S, serving at once as a course text, a field manual and a research handbook.
The present study aimed to explore the factor analysis and validation of the Brief Religious Coping Scale among an Iranian population. The number of 339 university students participated in this research. Principal Component Analysis led to the extraction of positive and negative religious coping factors. Convergent validity coefficients were obtained equal to .85 and .83 for positive and negative religious coping subscales, respectively. Test–retest reliability of total and subscale was found equal to .90, .93, and .88, respectively. Split-half reliability of total scale and the two aforementioned subscales were, respectively, obtained equal to .75, .85, and .81. Cronbach’s alpha scores were also obtained equal to .79 and .71 for positive and negative factors, respectively. Results showed that the female group gained higher scores of positive religious coping. According to desired psychometric properties, the current instrument can be applied as a useful scale for screening the larger sample sizes in the studies related to religion.