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Analysis of Factors influencing Impulse Buying behavior towards e-tailing sites: An application of S-O-R model


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Impulse buying behavior among consumers was previously examined within the brick-and-mortar stores. The internet revolution is the shift from a traditional retail environment to electronic commerce where products and services are offered online and consumers benefit from buying impulse towards e-tailing sites. By applying the SO -R model, this study seeks to evidently identify the influencing factors of impulse buying behavior towards e-tailing sites. The survey data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The result indicates that website stimulus has no significant positive relationship with online impulsive buying behavior, but an indirect relationship is found to be associated with impulse buying behavior. Results also highlighted that website stimulus, marketing stimulus, and product variety positively influence perceived enjoyment, where perceived enjoyment was a strong predictor of online impulse buying behavior. The study contributes to the existing literature by Contemporary Management Research 98 employing external stimuli of the research framework. It was thus recommended to the online e-tailers to maximize their relationship with consumers by providing valuable products and services through online platforms.
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Contemporary Management Research
Pages 97-126, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2021
Analysis of Factors Influencing Impulse Buying Behavior towards
e-Tailing Sites
Md Wasiul Karim*
Department of Business Administration, International Islamic University Malaysia
Mohammad Abdul Matin Chowdhury
Department of Finance, International Islamic University Malaysia
Md Abdullah Al Masud
Department of Business Administration, International Islamic University Malaysia
Md. Arifuzzaman
Graduate School of Management, International Islamic University Malaysia
Impulse buying behavior among consumers was previously examined within the
brick-and-mortar stores. The internet revolution is the shift from a traditional retail
environment to electronic commerce where products and services are offered online and
consumers benefit from buying impulse towards e-tailing sites. By applying the S-O-R
model, this study seeks to evidently identify the influencing factors of impulse buying
behavior towards e-tailing sites. The survey data were analyzed using partial least squares
structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The result indicates that website stimulus has no
significant positive relationship with online impulsive buying behavior, but an indirect
relationship is found to be associated with impulse buying behavior. Results also
highlighted that website stimulus, marketing stimulus, and product variety positively
influence perceived enjoyment, where perceived enjoyment was a strong predictor of
online impulse buying behavior. The study contributes to the existing literature by
Contemporary Management Research 98
employing external stimuli of the research framework. It was thus recommended to the
online e-tailers to maximize their relationship with consumers by providing valuable
products and services through online platforms.
Keywords: Impulse buying behavior, e-Tailer, Consumer behavior, Internet marketing, S-
O-R framework, PLS-SEM, Malaysia
Following the rising number of consumers who prefer to buy impulsively from e-
tailing sites, academic research focuses on online impulse buying as a research topic. To
date, most studies on this trend have examined how online store elements represented and
experienced by consumers influence buying impulses and thus offer retailers insight into
how online store buying impulses can be stimulated (Park et al., 2012). E-commerce sites
in today’s era played a significant role by providing vast opportunities for companies to
interact with their clients on a real-time basis (Arbaina & Suresh, 2018). It is therefore
incumbent on companies to foresee a plan to make their presence known on e-tailing sites.
Although some companies have begun reorganizing advertising strategies, it is important
that their pages are readily accessible to consumers to be competitive.
Impulse buying is described as the unplanned, sudden, and spontaneous buying
behavior of the consumers. Li (2015) also described impulsive behavior as unintentional,
unreflective buying due to physical proximity and emotional intimacy to the desired
product, resulting in personal gratification. However, the internet has diverted consumers’
attention towards online shopping sites worldwide (Floh & Madlberger, 2013). According
to Wu et al. (2016), roughly eighty percent of consumer retail purchases are impulsive.
That could be a reason why retailers and vendors are targeting impulsive buyers in view of
its importance. The online buying phenomenon is becoming popular worldwide with the
emerging field of e-commerce. Research shows that users online are more impulsive than
those offline (Mwencha et al., 2014). There is an array of information about e-commerce
sites. If the service delivery does not follow a reasonable standard, the sites and companies
will quickly lose their reputation. A structured web presence with a defined workforce
helps create customer relationships and helps to effectively introduce the brand to potential
customers (Arbaina & Suresh, 2018).
In the process of online transactions, buyers first gather information about the items
they wish to buy, then place the order and make the payment before delivery (Hashmi et
al., 2019). In some cases, trust and the quality of the websites are found to be attractive
Contemporary Management Research 99
among consumers (Floh & Madlberger, 2013; Wu et al., 2016). In addition to the factors
which refer to the external and internal environment of markets, promotions, and discounts,
also influence buying impulse behavior. It thus results in brand loyalty and a successful
relationship (Al-Salamin & Al-Hassan, 2016). It has been claimed that prolonged sales and
promotions have a negative impact on the products brand image and can lead to
organizational losses (Al-Salamin & Al-Hassan, 2016).
Muruganantham and Bhakat (2013) developed an impulse buying behavior
framework by employing external and internal stimuli additionally, situational and
demographic factors and suggested those factors to be employed in the future study.
However, Muruganantham and Bhakat (2013) highlighted external stimuli as the most
challenging factors, especially in the field of marketing stimuli and store-related factors. In
terms of an online impulse purchase, consumers confidence in the e-commerce platform
is crucial because several risks are associated with transactions online. It is, therefore, an
important element to be analyzed. It is further suggested by Muruganantham and Bhakat
(2013) that retailers should exploit external stimuli by formulating effective marketing
strategies to reach the potential buyers within the store.
Website stimuli have been widely studied in Malaysia in the context of online
buying behavior (Hasanov & Khalid, 2015; Lee et al., 2016). However, impulse buying
behavior was not critically reviewed or investigated in previous studies in a Malaysian
context. Furthermore, less attention has been paid to the variety-seeking behavior among
consumers who like to buy impulsively online in Malaysia. It is against this background
that it is deemed necessary to investigate variety-seeking behavior in the case of online
impulse buying. The current study aims to fill this research gap by investigating the factors
which mostly influence consumers to indulge in impulsive shopping from e-tailing stores.
Stimulus Organism Response Model
The Stimulus Organism and Response Model (S-O-R) introduced by Mehrabian and
Russell (1974) are widely applied as a theoretical foundation for studies relevant to
consumers’ behavior (Zhu et al., 2015). Stimuli, in the SOR model, are believed to have
an impact on individuals’ internal state (Eroglu et al., 2001). An organism is defined as an
internal process or condition which mediates the relationship between the stimulus and the
final response of the person. The response is the ultimate outcome that determines
consumer behavior or avoidance (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). According to the S-O-R
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model, consumers’ feelings become an imperative part of responding to the revealing
environmental stimulus (Hetharie et al., 2019). These feelings are also influenced by
sensible and insensible perceptions and environmental understandings (Donovan &
Rossiter, 1982). So, several factors relevant to products/items’ characteristics can be
included in the S-O-R model of consumer behavior, for example, price, promotions,
branding, and quality (Buckley, 1991).
Price and quality both carry some influence on consumers’ choices (Monroe &
Bitta, 1978). The reduction in the price of a sovereign brand is considered as good value
for the spending while consumers considered the sovereign brand for the quality (Buckley,
1991), lowering the price for a brand is considered as resetting the fair price, not as a
promoting quality at a lower price (Bemmaor, 1984). The promotions such as coupons,
special price reductions, advertisements, and in-store displays influence consumers’
behavior (Chevalier, 1975).
Moreover, convenient locations, merchandize quality, price levels, variety of
choices, service, atmosphere, adequate advertisements, and salespersons have a different
impact on consumer behavior (Buckley, 1991).
Donovan and Rossiter (1982) applied the SOR model in the context of consumer
behavior for the first time. Latter, Peng and Kim (2014) applied the SOR model to
investigate the online shopping behavior of consumers and found that the web environment
plays an important role in online buying. Shen and Khalifa (2012) studied online impulse
purchases by employing the SOR model, and results revealed the importance of website
design as stimuli to predict unplanned purchases online. Liao et al. (2016) explained the
role of the SOR model and examined product type and online store display as one of the
key determinants and stimuli of emotions that trigger consumers desire to buy impulsively.
Sultan et al. (2018) define impulse buying behavior by implementing the SOR model where
window display, promotional activities, and store atmosphere were key triggers for
determining a consumers impulsive nature through positive emotion.
However, many researchers (Ahmad et al., 2019; Bharathi & Sudha, 2017; Graa &
Dani, 2012; Hashmi et al., 2019) have studied consumers’ stimuli, emotional responses,
and impulse purchase by adapting the SOR model.
Impulse Buying Behavior
Impulse buying behavior is an instant and swift purchase deprived off of any
preceding intention to shop towards an exact product type to meet certain needs (Beatty &
Ferrell, 1998). Such behavior occurs after customers experience a swift incidence of a very
Contemporary Management Research 101
sturdy urge to buy and are obligated to make an impulsive purchase without adequate
contemplation (Hausman, 2000). The motive to make impulsive buying is a multifaceted
hedonic aspect that frequently stimulates emotive conflict, which could be impending from
psychological and emotional (internal) or from the influence of marketers (external) (Rook
& Fisher, 1995). Piron (1991) conducted an in-depth analysis of the impulse purchasing
literature, introduced a more precise and detailed impulse purchasing concept that includes
four components: unplanned, the result of exposure to a stimulus, on-the-spot decision, and
involvement of emotion. Previous research has categorized buying impulses into four
types: pure, suggestion reminded, and planned (Stern, 1962). A pure impulse purchase is
when a purchase is made suddenly without any calculations and thoughts. This category is
predominantly reliant on emotions. Suggestion impulse purchase refers to a person who is
motivated by self-suggestion to try out new products because the customer has no prior
knowledge of the products. Thus, he/she wants to try something new. A reminded impulse
purchase is when customers notice the products they have seen before, which triggers them
to purchase. Planned impulse purchases occur when shoppers are preparing to buy but do
not precisely know the particular items they wish to purchase.
Most popular impulse buying research has previously concentrated on brick-and-
mortar stores (Bhuvaneswari & Krishnan, 2015; Choudhary, 2014; Jones et al., 2003;
Karbasivar & Yarahmadi, 2011; Verplanken & Herabadi, 2001). Due to the revolution of
web 2.0, traditional brick-and-mortar stores have experienced a great demise and have seen
many companies transition to online platforms. Currently, many researchers have
conducted research to examine consumers’ impulse buying behavior online, where virtual
atmosphere plays a crucial role in attracting consumers (Akram et al., 2018), additionally
price, discounts, and bonuses (Park et al., 2012; Xu & Huang, 2014).
Impulse Buying Behavior vs. Unplanned Buying Behavior
A significant and critical type of shopping behavior has been considered unplanned
or impulse purchasing, but today researchers continue to discover numerous aspects and
predictors that trigger unplanned purchasing. Impulse buying was described by Engel and
Blackwell (1982) as a buying activity carried out when the need to purchase was not
previously recognized, nor was a purchasing intention established prior to entering the
shop. Another description provided by (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998) claimed that in a retail
sense, impulse buying was a sudden and spontaneous purchase without pre-shopping
intentions either to purchase the particular product category or to fulfill a particular
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purchasing task. Unplanned or intentional purchasing is an important part of contemporary
shopping habits, and hedonic gratification is closely associated with the purchase of
impulses. When customers are unexpectedly stimulated by the shopping experience and
buy goods or services impulsively, unplanned purchases occur (Lu & Wu, 2019). The study
of (Liu et al., 2013) also demonstrates that unplanned buying and impulse buying are the
same in nature as in both occurrences, the buying behavior occurs without prior planning
and thinking.
Table1 Impulsive Buying between Offline and Online Retailing Environments
Buying impulse often occurs
based on an encounter of
certain stimuli, such as layout
design, lighting, music, and
product assortments (Summers
& Hebert, 2001)
Buying impulse occurs when
discounts and promotions are given
online. Visual appeal such as
website design and color also
attracts consumers (Akram et al.,
Traditional “brick-and-mortar”
stores where consumers look
around and ask if they have
any questions and if consumers
are satisfied with an answer
they end up purchasing that
product (Bhuvaneswari &
Krishnan, A review of
literature on impulse buying
behaviour of consumers in
brick & mortar and click only
stores, 2015)
Products are displayed in different
online platforms where price,
promotions and payment methods
are properly specified (Vonkeman
et al., 2017).
Consumers can experience the
product in their hands and
ensure its quality is up to par
with their standards
(Aragoncillo & Orus, 2018)
Consumers are being able to buy
from anywhere in the world
whenever they think they need that
product the most (Zhao et al.,
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Perceived Enjoyment
Enjoyment refers to an individuals’ emotional state wherever it plays an important
role in buying behavior. A perceived enjoyment can be described as the pleasure that a
consumer may get from the shopping activities (Mohan et al., 2013). Consumers’ positive
emotions entail excitement, enjoyment, relaxation, and inspiration (Verhagen & van Dolen,
2011). With a growing sense of pleasure when using online platforms, the possibility of
the consumer making an impulse buying decision increases. Therefore, in developing e-
commerce support systems, a tacit understanding of the factors influencing customer
enjoyment is necessary to stimulate impulse purchasing behavior (Do et al., 2020). Sohn
and Lee (2017) posited that consumers emotional experience impacted their impulse
buying decisions positively. Hasima et al. (2020) found from the study that perceived
enjoyment did mediate the relationship between online store environment, promotions, and
impulse purchase and had a direct positive and significant association with an online
impulse purchase. Baskaran et al. (2019) examined impulse buying behavior and found
that impulse purchases among wen are genuinely based on the stimulation effects of
perceived enjoyment. Xiang et al. (2016) studied perceived enjoyment as a mediator to
examine impulse buying urge from e-commerce sites, and results indicated the positive
relationship between enjoyment and online impulse buying. A prior study found the
mediating relationship between perceived enjoyment and online impulse buying (Floh &
Madlberger, 2013; Saad & Metawie, 2015). According to Ingham et al. (2015), perceived
enjoyment can be obtained through visiting the websites, and the experience will enable
them to perform certain actions such as online purchasing activities. Sometimes viewers
from different vlogs pursue enjoyment and are satisfied with the content shown in vlogs
that are insightful and influence them to decide to buy it immediately. Based on the
abovementioned discussion, the following hypothesis is proposed:
H1: There is a positive and significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and
impulse purchase towards e-tail stores.
Website Stimulus
The website stimulus refers to the characteristics of a website. Website stimulus
explains the appeal offered to consumers by the user interface design (Maiyaki & Mokhtar,
2016). Hence, website design efficiency is critical and should be a crucial factor in
attracting customers for any online merchandise because customers obtain information
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about products and services through social media and online websites (Turkyilmaz et al.,
2015). Previous research indicates that websites esthetic presence is critical in attracting
customers and inducing impulsive behavior (Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2003). It was also
found that the store design aspect directly affects the purchasing of impulses. This involves
ease of website use, visual presentation, safety, and security, etc. (Lo et al., 2016). Akram
et al. (2018) have studied impulse buying behavior among Chinese online shoppers in
China. The results revealed that the quality of the website is an essential aspect that
influences Chinese online shoppers when impulsively purchasing online. Thus, a
significant positive relationship between website quality and impulse buying online was
found in the study of Akram et al. (2018). The characteristics of a website, such as visual
appeal, transaction security, and navigation, are all specific signs which have a direct
impact on impulse buying among consumers (Wells et al., 2011). Website quality attracts
and retains new customers, and it is the quality of the website that influences consumers’
preferences for a specific website (Sharma & Lijuan, 2015). Earlier literature indicates that
their many characteristics can improve the quality of websites. The quality of the website
may influence consumers to attempt impulse purchase (Matharaarachchi et al., 2016).
Specific website personality traits such as dynamism, enthusiasm, genuineness,
sophistication, and enjoyment are positively linked to purchasing impulse activity (Rezaei
et al., 2016). Consumers’ impulse purchase can be determined by few attributes, such as
contemplated content, variety, effortless navigating, and design of the websites, which
motivates them to attempt purchasing action (Wadera & Sharma, 2018). Consumers will
enjoy browsing a website if the quality of the website meets their expectations. Xiang et
al. (2016) found that visual representation of e-commerce websites positively and
significantly affects consumers’ emotional states thus, inducing pleasure and enjoyment.
Based on the literature discussed above, the following hypothesis is formed:
H2: There is a positive and significant relationship between website stimulus and
perceived enjoyment.
H3: There is a positive and significant relationship between website stimulus and impulse
purchase towards e-tail stores.
Marketing Stimulus
Marketing stimulus is described as the type of product, price, promotion, and
bonuses offered to attract a consumer. Price is an important factor under marketing
stimulus that has widely being exercised to examine impulse buying behavior (Park et al.,
Contemporary Management Research 105
2012; Sari & Pidada, 2020; Xu & Huang, 2014). Price reductions are offered with a
discount to encourage consumers’ sudden urge to buy, and it can be an initial factor to
attempt the buying behavior (Yue & Abd Razak, 2018). When prices are lowered,
consumers spend less than the original price, and the perceived price discount pleases and
arouses the buyer, which is a contributing factor to their impulse buying behavior
(Koschate-Fischer et al., 2012). Being able to buy a product at a discounted price, making
shoppers feel more optimistic about having to take the opportunity, rather than letting it go
(Sundström et al., 2013). Price discount is a significant factor in the purchase of impulses,
and it is one of the most common marketing promotional strategies as it is capable of
delivering positive effects, resulting in buying opportunities (Park et al., 2012; Sundström
et al., 2013). More precisely, when there are sales or price promotions, buyers appear to be
more impulsive (Rizwan et al., 2014). Consequently, the lower price of a good is the key
determinant of impulse buying (Lim & Yazdanifard, 2015). Sales promotions are
structured as a series of various promotional resources to encourage customers to buy
multiple goods or services within a limited timeframe (Lo et al., 2016). Price discounts,
bonus packs, and coupons are the most growing promotional efforts of online retailers (Tu
et al., 2017). and it results in hedonic browsing among consumers. Park et al. (2012) studied
consumers hedonic product browsing and found that consumers feel happy and relaxed
when the prices are reasonable and affordable. Based on the abovementioned literature, the
following hypothesis is formed:
H4: There is a positive and significant relationship between marketing stimulus and
perceived enjoyment.
H5: There is a positive and significant relationship between marketing stimulus and
impulse purchase towards e-tail stores.
Product Variety
Online buyers tend to be variety-seekers because they would like to explore the wide
range of selections offered on websites (Lim & Dubinsky, 2004; Moe, 2003). According
to Moe (2003), a vast number of category-level pages are likely to get hedonic browsing
visits, indicating that offerings from a variety of shopping malls allow customers to browse
for hedonic reasons such as diversion, pleasure, or enjoyment. Furthermore, finding a
variety of products improves shopping productivity by increasing access to comparable
items and allowing the better choice of products by prolonged internet browsing (Sharma
et al., 2006). In terms of shopping experiences, the variety of selections offers a change in
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routine and escape from boredom, which is usually a function of exploratory searches
(Blakeney et al., 2010).
According to Hawkins et al. (2007), buyers will switch brands spontaneously if they
discover anything new and variations of choices, and these variations will encourage
customers to quickly buy or purchase without giving it a second thought. Few researchers,
such as Sharma et al. (2010), revealed that variety-seeking behavior would allow
consumers to engage in impulsive buying behavior because variety-seeking is directly
linked to unplanned buying. Research by (Amos et al., 2014) indicated customers choosing
to buy online often depends on their variety-seeking behaviours. Based on the discussion
above, the following hypothesis is proposed:
H6: There is a positive and significant relationship between product variety and impulse
purchase towards e-tail stores.
H7: There is a positive and significant relationship between product variety and impulse
purchase towards e-tail stores.
Figure 1 Conceptual Model: Proposed Model for this Study
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PLS-SEM (Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model)
Social science researchers have adopted partial least squares structural equation
modeling (PLS-SEM) as a standard methodology for analyzing multifaceted
interrelationships between exogenous and endogenous variables (Sarstedt et al., 2020).
This method provides various beneficial features which enhanced its applicability into
several research sectors in the current decade (Sarstedt et al., 2020), such as the ability of
handling complex models for relatively small data (Hair et al., 2017), assessing formative
definite extent models (Sarstedt et al., 2016), and identify the scores for the determinate
endogenous variable (Rigdom et al., 2019). According to the past published papers, PLS-
SEM is being emphasized for its appealing method, particularly for applied science, by
promoting the testing for hypothesized relationships through a forecast emphasis in the
estimation of the model (e.g., Carrión et al., 2016; Evermann & Tate, 2016). Furthermore,
PLS-SEM asphyxiates the outward contrast between explanations that generally academic
research underlines and forecasts, which is necessary to develop managerial implications
(Hair et al., 2019; Shmueli et al., 2016, 2019). However, several debates were
acknowledged in regards to the merits and limitations of this method in different research
areas (Khan et al., 2019). Hence, Hair et al. (2012) recorded 204 marketing-related studies
that adopted PLS-SEM in the period of 1981-2010.
One significant implication of this method is that it provides a complementary
method for robustness assessment (Latan, 2018). Researchers in regression-based studies
generally check those robustness assessments to estimate the behavior of core regression
coefficient when regression measurement is reformed in some way, usually with addition
and confiscation regression (Lu & White, 2014). The recent PLS-SEM guidelines include
nonlinear effects, endogeneity, and unobserved heterogeneity as compulsory for any
analysis (Latan, 2018). PLS-SEM is a popular methodology in recent studies relevant to
consumer/users’ behavior (Blasco Lopez et al., 2018; Chiang et al., 2019; Hossen et al.,
2020; Marmaya et al., 2019). Therefore, this study adopted PLS-SEM to examine the
influential factors on impulse buying behavior.
Construct Measurement
The deductive approach was preferred for this analysis, which concentrated on the
formation of the hypotheses based on existing theory. This was followed by the appropriate
research strategy which was selected to test the hypotheses (Bryman, 2008). Five
constructs were assessed to test the hypotheses, including website stimulus, marketing
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stimulus, product variety, perceived enjoyment, and impulse buying behavior. However,
six items of website stimulus were mainly adapted from Wells et al. (2011). Five items of
the marketing stimulus were adapted from (Ali et al., 2019). Four items of product variety
were adapted from Park et al. (2012). Three items of the perceived enjoyment were
extracted from Sun and Zhang (2006), and for impulse purchase behavior, five items were
extracted from Park et al. (2012) and then adapted for the current study. A total of twenty-
three items of the five variables were measured using a five-point Likert scale (e.g., 1=
Strongly disagree to 5= Strongly agree) to express the degree of an agreement. Each item
of the questionnaire was developed using the English language. With the aim of attaining
comments and feedback from the respondents, twenty questionnaires were distributed for
pilot testing (n= 20). The questionnaires were subsequently modified in order to bring
Sample size and technique
A sample is defined as a subgroup of the population that has been selected for
participation in the research. The target respondents for this study were e-commerce users
in Malaysia. However, the accessible populations for this study were the e-tail users at
Klang Valley area in Malaysia. The total population was recorded at 7,996,830 based on
the report of world population view 2020 ( The current study
is aimed at getting 385 respondents based on the sample size formula shown. The study
selected a non-probability sampling method which is judgment sampling, or it is also
known as purposive sampling. Purposive sampling refers to a specific person who can
provide information which the author needs or meets the researchers requirements to be
selected as a sample (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010). In the current study, researchers asked the
respondents through qualifying questions whether they make use of e-tailing sites or not.
𝑛 =
𝑍2×𝑃×(1 − 𝑃)
1 + 𝑍2× 𝑃(1 − 𝑃)
𝑛 =
1.962× 0.5 × (1 − 0.5)
1 + 1.962× 0.5(1 − 0.5)
𝑛 = 384
Data Collection
Data for this current study were collected in a span of one month, between
September and November of 2019. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed with the
aim of getting 384 for further analysis. However, only 439 responses were received from
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the respondents living at Klang Valley in Malaysia. After the data screening and cleaning
processes were completed, 392 responses were unattained.
Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 25.0 and PLS-SEM
version 3.0. Table 1 represents the demographic profile of the participants from Klang
Valley area. For this study, respondents were asked their gender, age, marital status,
educational qualification, monthly income, and online buying experience.
Table 1 Demographic Profile
50 and above
Marital status
Educational qualification
Monthly income*
less than RM1000
Between RM1000-RM1999
Between RM2000-RM2999
Between RM3000-RM3999
RM4000 and above
Online buying experience
Less than 1 year
1-2 years
2-3 years
More than 3 years
Note. Malaysian Ringgit (RM) = 0.24 United States Dollar (USD)
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Measurement Model
Convergent and discriminant validity tests were performed to assess the
measurement model. To test convergent validity, each construct of composite reliability
and Cronbach'α values should be higher than or equal to 0.7 (Chin, 1998). The current
study shows the composite reliability (CR) values ranging from 0.897 to 0.970 and
Cronbach’α values from 0.848 to 0.961. The guideline for loadings is to be at least 0.5 as
conferred by Hair et al. (2006). Although loading of more than 0.7 reflects more variance
(Neupane et al., 2014). The loadings for each indicator are way higher than 0.7, ranging
from 0.746 to 0.954 indicates good loading. The AVE value equal to or above 0.50 implies
that on average, the construct clarified more than half the variance of its indicators. By
comparison, an AVE of less than 0.50 suggests that there is still more error in the items
than the average variance described by the constructs. The rule of thumb therefore is that
an AVE value greater than or equal to 0.50 is appropriate (Hair et al., 2013). AVE for the
current study ranging from 0.685 to 0.865. The test result of the current study may therefore
infer the strong reliability of all of the items.
Discriminant validity concerns the uniqueness of a construct, whether the phenomenon
captured by a construct is special and not reflected in the model by the other constructs
(Hair et al., 2013). Discriminant validity can indeed be evaluated by comparing cross loads
among constructs, using the Fornel-Larcker criterion and the Heterotrait-Monotrait
(HTMT) correlation ratio. Discriminant validity of a construct can also be measured by
comparing the square root of the AVE values with the latent variable correlations (Fornell
& Larcker, 1981). Table 2 shows the strong discriminant validity as it shows that each
factors square AVE is greater than all of its correlations with the other factors.
∗ 𝐴𝑉𝐸 = ∑𝜆𝑖
2+ ∑𝑖Var(𝜀𝑖)
𝐶𝑅 =(∑𝜆𝑖)2
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Table 2 Convergent Validity and Reliability
Note. AVE= Average variance extracted, CR= Composite reliability
Structural Model
We use the bootstrap re-sampling technique (5000 re-sample) and then test the path-
coefficient to investigate the significance of the hypotheses. The t-value> 1.96 is significant
at p<0.05 and t-value> 2.58 is significant at p< 0.01 (Hair et al., 2017).
Figure 2 represents the PLS structural equation modeling technique. The model fit
was adequate based on SRMR and Chi-Square values (Table 3). Only NFI value was below
the standard threshold level. The hypothesized path coefficients are presented in Table 4.
Figure 2 and Table 3 describe the path coefficient (β), t-statistics, and p-value of
each hypothesis. According to the findings in Table 4, all proposed hypotheses were
supported except H3, which indicates a direct relationship. H1 (β= 0.380, t= 2.717)
indicates the path between perceived enjoyment of using e-tailing sites (WS) and impulse
buying behavior (OIBB), describing an existence of a significant positive relationship in
between. H2 (β= 0.208, t= 2.701) shows the path between website stimulus and online
impulse buying behavior, which shows a significant positive relationship between WS of
e-tailing stores and OPBB. H3 (β= 0.089, t= 0.785) describes that website stimulus (WS)
has no positive and significant influence on OIBB. H4 (β= 0.300, t= 3.168) ascertains the
direct, positive, and significant relationship between marketing stimulus (MS) and
perceived enjoyment (PE). H5 (β= 0.221, t= 1.982) indicates the relationship between
marketing stimulus (MS) from online commerce sites and OIBB, which were found to have
positive and significant thus, supported for the current study. H6 (β= 0.324, t= 4.022)
alludes that there was a significant positive association between product variety (PV) and
online impulse buying behavior (OIBB). Lastly, H7 (β= 0.229, t= 2.260) was found to be
significant where it shows a positive association between product variety and online
impulse buying behavior.
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Figure 2 PLS-SEM Structured Model
Table 3 Model Fit
Fit Indices
Estimated Model
Ideal Threshold
Upper is Better
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Table 4 Hypothesis Testing
Not Supported
Note. *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001
In PLS analysis, the prediction power of a specific construct to determine the standard
path coefficient for each relationship between exogenous and endogenous variables is
evaluated using the endogenous variables’ R-squared (R2) values. The values of R2 in PLS
are interpreted similarly to those obtained from multiple regression analysis. R2 values of
0.75, 0.50, and 0.25 define substantial, moderate, and weak levels to predict the accuracy,
according to Hair et al. (2014). The degree of R2 (determination coefficient) is evaluated
subsequently. Website stimulus (WS), marketing stimulus (MS), and product variety (PV)
accounted for 32.7% (R2= 0.327) of variance in explaining perceived enjoyment.
Meanwhile, perceived enjoyment along with WS, MS, and PV accounted for 45% (R2=
0.450) of the variance in impulse buying behavior.
This study was conducted to investigate the key factors of impulse buying behavior.
Factors such as website stimulus, price and promotion, and varieties of selection were
examined to establish the relationship with impulse buying behavior. However, perceived
enjoyment was employed to see the mediating effects between independent and dependent
variables. Firstly, perceived enjoyment was found to have a significant influence on online
impulse buying behavior (H1 was supported). In this study, respondents perceive that
getting pleasure triggers them to indulge in spontaneous buying behavior. A prior study by
Baskaran et al. (2019) found that perceived enjoyment plays a significant role in buying
intention. Secondly, a positive and significant relationship is associated between website
stimulus (WS) and perceived enjoyment (H2 was supported), but a negative relationship
was found between WS and OIBB (H3 was rejected). Results indicate that website stimulus
Contemporary Management Research 114
has no direct impact on impulse buying behavior, but previous studies asserted that the
visual appeal of a website is pleasing among e-commerce consumers. Although impulse
purchase is widely made online, Malaysians are still prudent and cautious when selecting
websites for purchasing products because of fraud issues. Adopting web-based purchasing
is increasing, and only a few of the customers who have successfully placed an online order
did not receive all their ordered items.
Another reason worthy of highlighting is the fact that the visually attractive product
that the customer paid for online was different from the one that was eventually delivered
to them (Katrina & Benedict, 2019). Visual appeal in pictures, graphics, and motions was
the key determinant of a consumers instant gratification. Thus, H2 was in line with the
previous study of Liu et al. (2013) and Hasima et al. (2020). Thirdly, the current study’s
marketing stimulus was significant in determining perceived enjoyment and impulse
purchase behavior towards e-tailing sites (H4 and H5 were supported); thus, the findings
of this study are consistent with the prior literature of Yue and Abd Razak (2018). Lastly,
both perceived enjoyment and online impulse buying were influenced by a variety of
selections (H6 and H7 were supported). Bringing more varieties in the products stimulates
online shoppers’ emotional state; therefore, consumers urge to buy impulsively.
Table 5 Mediation Effects Analysis
Bootstrapping 95% confidence
Note. *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 (p value)
Three mediating effects in this study were examined. Firstly, the study examined the
mediating effect of perceived enjoyment on the relationship between marketing stimulus
and online impulse buying behavior. Then the study investigates perceived enjoyment on
the relationship between product variety and online impulse buying behavior and, finally,
perceived enjoyment on the relationship between website stimulus and OIBB. With 95%
confidence intervals, 5000 simulations were bootstrapped and found no 0 straddle in
between (Efron & Tibshirani, 1993). The study indicates that perceived enjoyment has
Contemporary Management Research 115
significant and positive impacts on website stimulus, price and promotion and online
impulse purchase behavior.
The findings can be important for both practical and theoretical implications on
consumers’ impulse buying behavior. At the practical level, the transition from consumers’
planned purchase to impulse buying behavior influenced by marketing stimulus and
product varieties provides an important direction to the retailers. Therefore, these findings
can be useful to retailers and companies to design their strategies for attracting customers.
Retailers and marketers should acknowledge during the development of their strategies that
Malaysian consumers are concern over market stimulus and product varieties. Further,
retailers and companies should keep their websites vibrant and update from time to time
with accurate information. Theoretically, the findings may enhance the understanding of
individuals’ differences in impulse buying behavior, thus expanding knowledge related to
the relationships among antecedents and impulse buying behavior patterns.
Limitation and Future Research Direction
This research has its limitations. Firstly, due to the time constraints, the data were
collected through online platforms and social media, and respondents were mainly from
Klang Valley area. Thus, the study should be inclusive of the entire Malaysia, including
Sabah and Sarawak areas, respectively. Secondly, due to the movement control order
(MCO) imposed in Malaysia to curb the spread of COVID-19, face-to-face questionnaire
distribution was interrupted, and alternative data collection was carried out online and via
social media. Therefore, a high possibility of getting false and unexpected answers was a
remaining spectacle. Thus, it is recommended that the study should be conducted through
the physical distribution of research questionnaires. Though website stimulus had widely
being exercised in the impulsive purchase studies, especially in terms of online or e-
commerce purchase, variety of selection was comparatively less concentrated in the area
of impulse buying online, and few more factors are to be applied in order to study impulsive
purchase via e-retailing stores.
However, it is further recommended that future studies should be carried out in the
entire country (Malaysia), including rural and urban areas. Therefore, the study should also
focus on employed citizens or salaried workers because the impulse purchase behavior may
vary based on situational factors such as time and availability of money. Similarly, the
study would focus on the buying behavior between genders. However, further study could
Contemporary Management Research 116
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Mr. Md Wasiul Karim (Corresponding author) has completed his MBA, focusing on
marketing. The primary research focuses on the factors affecting impulse purchase behavior
among generation Y in Malaysia. His research interests include consumer behavior, marketing
research, Islamic finance and banking, quantitative research, and digital marketing.
Dr. Mohammad Abdul Matin Chowdhury recently completed a Ph.D. in Business Administration with
a major in finance. He has an MSc in finance, especially in the microfinance sector. His research interests
include behavioral finance, financial planning, Islamic finance and banking, consumer behavior, and
banking performance and efficiency.
Contemporary Management Research 126
Mr. Md Abdullah Al Masud is currently pursuing his doctorate in business administration, focusing on
marketing. The primary research focuses on the influence of e-marketing, e-WOM, perceived risk, and
perceived usefulness through online trust on online purchase intentions. He completed his MSc in
marketing while focusing on customer loyalty in the fast-food industry in Malaysia. His research interests
include consumer behavior, Islamic marketing, digital branding, social media marketing, digital customer
experience, brand management, relationship marketing, business environment, and corporate social
Mr. Md Arifuzzaman is currently pursuing a Master of Business Administrative (MBA) at Graduate
School of Management (GSM), International Islamic University Malaysia, focusing on finance. In
addition, his primary research areas are financial derivatives, risk management, and future and option.
... Customers commonly access and browse interesting products through online shop websites thus the design and characteristics of online shopping websites are one of the external stimuli that trigger the decision of consumers to buy products or services. The attraction of the user interface design to customers is ex-plained by website stimulation (Karim et al., 2021). Hence, Customers receive information about items and services through social media and online websites, therefore website design efficiency is vital and should be a significant aspect in attracting customers for any online merchandise (Turkyilmaz et al., 2015). ...
... Baskaran et al. (2019) revealed that perceived enjoyment has a substantial impact on purchase intent. And this was supported by the study of Karim et al. (2021) that the impact of perceived satisfaction on online impulsive purchases was shown to be considerable. If online shoppers enjoy their shopping experience, they are more likely to engage in more exploratory web browsing, which leads to more unintentional purchases (Beatty & Ferrell, 1998). ...
... Thus, H7 is also supported. This result aligns with the study of Karim et al. (2021), which states that respondents believe that experiencing pleasure causes them to engage in spontaneous purchasing action and that there is a positive and substantial link between website stimulation and reported enjoyment. The study's marketing stimulus was significant in determining perceived enjoyment and impulse purchase behavior towards e-retailing sites. ...
... To perform the analysis, structural equation modelling was employed. The PLS-SEM approach is most suited to this scenario because the study is exploratory and predictive [65]. The study used SmartPLS 3.0 software to run the data analysis. ...
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People’s acceptance of technological changes has escalated with time. However, the acceptance and adoption of fintech services hiked after the outbreak of the virulent coronavirus. With this breakout, the adoption of mobile fintech services (MFS) increased among general citizens and business sectors around the world, including in developed, emerging, and developing economies. This study aimed to identify the factors that impact the adoption intention of consumers to embrace and enhance the use of mobile fintech services in an emerging market, Bangladesh. A research model was developed to strengthen the objective of this paper. A total of 218 respondents responded to the questionnaire. The study utilized structural equation modeling to analyze the results in SmartPLS software. The results showed significant positive effects of social influence, trust, perceived benefit, and facilitating conditions on the adoption intention towards MFS. Mobile fintech service providers must keep their users’ needs and literacy rates in mind when designing the user interface (UI). Moreover, they should also cater more efficient services to the users and work based on the feedback received. The customers’ satisfaction will ultimately lead to customers conducting more digital transactions and will contribute to the escalation of fintech transactions, resulting in more financial inclusion.
... The SOR model is a mediation model in which a stimulus provokes a response through the mediating effects of the organism. The SOR model has been applied to studies of online purchasing behavior (Hashmi et al., 2019;Huang and Suo, 2021;Karim et al., 2021;Lee and Chen, 2021;Ming et al., 2021). Impulse purchases are unplanned and occur when consumers are stimulated internally and/or externally (Rook, 1987;Lim et al., 2017). ...
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Livestreaming e-commerce has emerged as a highly profitable e-commerce that has revolutionized the retail industry, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, research on livestreaming e-commerce is still in its infancy. This study sheds new light on impulsive purchase behavior in livestreaming e-commerce. Based on stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory, this study introduces the “People-Product-Place” marketing strategy for livestreaming e-commerce from the perspective of consumer perception and aims to understand the impact of marketing strategy on impulsive purchase behavior in e-commerce livestreaming shopping scenes, and to examine the mediating effect of involvement. The study conducted SEM analysis, in Amos, on 437 response sets from an online anonymous survey. The results show that perceived e-commerce anchor attributes, perceived scarcity, and immersion positively influence impulsive purchase behavior; that “People-Product-Place” marketing strategy is important; and that effective marketing triggers impulsive purchase. Perceived e-commerce anchor attributes, perceived scarcity, and immersion positively influence involvement, which positively influences impulsive purchase. Involvement mediates between perceived e-commerce anchor attributes, perceived scarcity and immersion, and impulsive purchase. These findings guide marketers to improve the profitability of livestreaming e-commerce and provide some references of economic recovery for many other countries that also suffered from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Concerning social media communication, the stimuli are often conceptualised as the information disseminated through social media that affects the cognitive and affective reactions of the customers (Liu et al., 2021). The organism elements were frequently presented as sensible perceptions and environmental understanding (Karim et al., 2021). Similarly, the outcome in the S-O-R model can be classified as either approach or avoidance behavioural response (Mehrabian and Russell, 1974). ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyse user-generated content and firm-generated content on perceived quality and brand trust, and eventually how it impacted brand loyalty with pandemic fear as the moderator. Design/methodology/approach – This study employed an online survey questionnaire method in the Facebook online shopping groups to collect the data. The filter question technique was adopted to verify the respondent’s validity. A total of 434 samples was collected using purposive sampling. The data were then analysed using SmartPLS 3.0. Findings – The analysis showed that firm-generated content appeared to have a stronger positive relationship on perceived quality and brand trust than on user-generated content. Brand trust and perceived quality are found to influence brand loyalty positively. However, pandemic fears only moderate the relationship between firm-generated content and brand trust and perceived quality. This study revealed that the main components in social media communication do not influence perceived quality and brand trust to the same extent. Originality/value – This study contributes to the knowledge of social media communication during the pandemic period that has not been studied empirically in the Malaysian context. The main components in social media communication were delineated and the impact of pandemic fears on how they would possibly affect the established relationships in the literature were examined. This study enables the researchers and practitioners to take a closer look at how the pandemic crisis could provide a shift on what has been understood so far
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Payment systems have been enormously switched out by introducing a new dimension in fintech where e-wallets can be used in conjunction with mobile payment. The severe competition of e-wallet services has forced providers where satisfaction is of prime concern. A total of 480 data were obtained from the respondents living in Dhaka city. The structure of this study was developed by approaching the TAM model, and Structural Equation Modeling was applied to examine all the hypotheses. Results revealed that technology self-efficacy is one of the exigent factors of satisfaction where a positive relationship exists in between. All the hypotheses were found to be significant except the relationship between perceived usefulness and satisfaction. This study has validated external variables to contribute to the existing theory based on the previous literature. Lastly, in order to promote the enhancement of the mobile payment system, proposals for developing e-payments were made to increase the degree of satisfaction.
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Impulse buying behavior is used to be an interesting issue to be figured out by many researchers and marketers, among consumer behavior's studies. Increased access to education and employment opportunities are improving the social status and economic independence of women. There is no doubt that women are driving the world economy. Provided with various marketing techniques and innovations, it is much easier for consumers to buy impulsively, thus it is worthwhile to look in details how these marketing factors trigger impulse buying and which of them exerts the greatest effect. This research aim is to investigate how extrinsic cues affect the impulse buying behavior amongst working ladies. The five extrinsic cues involved in this research are price, store atmosphere, brand reputation, country of origin and social influence. This research is providing useful information to the marketers of Malaysia's apparel industry in understanding consumers' needs deeper in order to contribute in the growth of their business. Target population of this study is full-time working ladies, aged between 16 to 35 years. Due to large population, sampling of 400 questionnaires was distributed in One Utama shopping mall, Selangor. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyzed the data collected. It was found that price, store atmosphere and social influence are having significant relationship with impulse buying behavior among working ladies while brand reputation and country of origin of product are not.
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The study aims to investigate the relationship between internal corporate social responsibility (ICSR) practices and employee engagement through job satisfaction as a mediating variable. The ICSR dimensions are comprised of employee empowerment, education and training, employment stability, as well as a working environment. This study is based on the social exchange theory to explore the relationship between the above factors and ICSR. In this study, purposive sampling was adopted. A quantitative (survey) method was employed, generating 93 valid responses. The data was then analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling through Smart-PLS 3.0. The results revealed that ICSR practices, namely employee empowerment, and employment stability contributed positively to job satisfaction. However, training & education and working environment were found not significant to job satisfaction. In addition, job satisfaction has a positive influence on employee engagement. The results of the study found that except for training, education, and the work environment, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between ICSR practices and employee Contemporary Management Research 208 engagement. Conclusion, implications of the findings, and suggestions for future study are also discussed.
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Many of today's online services are designed specifically to encourage impulse buying. Moreover, many studies have shown that with the assistance of Mobile Augmented Reality, retailers have the potential to significantly improve their sales. However, the effects of Mobile AR on consumer impulse buying behavior have yet to be examined, particularly in the tourism field. Consequently, the present study integrates the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) framework, and flow theory to examine the effects of Mobile AR apps on tourist impulse buyingbehavior. The research model is implemented using an online questionnaire, with the results analyzed by Partial-Least-Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. The results obtained from 479 valid samples show that the characteristics of Mobile AR apps play an important role in governing tourist behavior in making unplanned purchases. In particular, as the utility, ease-of-use, and interactivity of the apps increase, the perceived enjoyment and satisfaction of the user also increase and give rise to a stronger impulse buying behavior. The results also reveal a mediating effect of the flow experience on the relationship between the perceived ease of use of the Mobile AR app and the user satisfaction in using the app. Overall, the findings presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for Mobile AR app developers, retailers, and tourism marketers in better understanding users' preferences for Mobile AR apps and strengthening their impulse buying behavior in the tourism context as a result.
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The prevalence of online, impulse purchasing has raised significant interest among academic scholars and practitioners, regarding the factors that influence this phenomenon. The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between online store environments, online promotions, perceived enjoyment, and online impulse purchasing. This study utilised the survey research method. A total of 407 respondents took part in this study. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) applied, to fit the data into the hypothesised model. The results show that online store environment, online promotions, and perceived enjoyment affect online impulse purchase behaviour. The study is useful to both researchers and online retail operators, to understand the importance of online store environments, online promotions, and perceived enjoyment for consumers.
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The rapid growth of technology advancement in Malaysia enabled Malaysian consumers to browse and purchase products or services from online stores. Consequently, the shopping trend has been changing significantly from the physical store to online stores. Therefore, it is important to identify the determinants of the consumers online purchase intention. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between impulsive buying tendency and perceived risk towards online purchase intention among Malaysian women. In order to investigate this relationship further, the mediating effect of shopping enjoyment was examined on the relationship between impulsive buying tendency and perceived risk towards online purchase intention among women online buyers in Malaysia. The study employed an online survey among women in Malaysia and the data was analyzed with SPSS. The results indicated that only impulsive buying tendency to be significant while the perceived risk was insignificant. Additionally, a partial mediation of shopping enjoyment was found between impulsive buying tendency and online purchase intention only and the same for perceived risk was unable to be retained. This findings have further supported the Theory of Planned Behaviour which claim that human will analyze the available information on hand and make a logical, reasoned decision to engage in specific behaviors. In this study, it was proven that consumers will make an impulsive purchase with the stimulation effect of shopping enjoyment. The research also discussed theoretical and managerial implications and ended with suggestions for future research.
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The growing number of premium outlets in Malaysia has led to a new shopping experience for both local and international tourists. Associated with the concept of ‘everyday discount’, premium outlets would attract more consumers to purchase at the outlets. Previous studies have revealed the significant influence of sales promotion on consumer purchase behaviour as well as impulse buying behaviour. However, there are limited studies identifying the role of sales promotion on impulse buying behaviour in the perspective of international and local tourists. Moreover, previous research of literature on the premium outlets, especially in Malaysia is still lacking. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the role of sales promotion on impulse buying in the perspective of international and local tourists at premium outlets in Malaysia. Data were collected from 359 tourists at five premium outlets in Malaysia, using a self-administered questionnaire. The result of the study indicates that both groups have different preferences in terms of sales promotion that induced them to make an impulse purchase. This study suggests that retailers or marketers should improvise their pricing strategies and give out more samples and gifts to attract tourists to spend more money.
This study investigated the influence of the antecedents of unplanned purchase behavior (service climate, travel attraction, in-store factors, and out-of-store factors) on the aforementioned behavior as well as the moderating effects of shopping values (hedonic and utilitarian shopping value) on unplanned purchase behavior. Questionnaires were distributed at an international travel fair and 443 valid samples collected. The results of the study are as follows: (1) Service climate, travel attraction, in-store factors, and out-of-store factors had positive influence on unplanned purchase behavior; (2) Hedonic shopping value moderated the effects of service climate, travel attraction, and in-store factors on unplanned purchase behavior; and (3) Utilitarian shopping value moderated the effects of service climate and in-store factors on unplanned purchase behavior. The results also revealed that the facility-related services provided by the international travel fair influenced visitors’ unplanned purchase behavior. Sales were promoted at the fair site, and the “invisible” services provided by first-line service personnel affected the unplanned purchase behavior of visitors in terms of buying tourist accommodation. The results confirmed that shopping value influenced service climate, and that in-store factors affected unplanned purchase behavior. Regarding limitations, the current study only analyzed travel fair consumers from Taiwan. Future studies should include travel fair consumers from other countries and cultures to increase the robustness of the current study’s results.
With the growing use of social media in the world, a wide variety of social media applications and services have been produced. Popular social media platforms leverage their unique functions to persuade their users to adopt such applications and services, and many enterprises have begun to consider social media operations as a crucial aspect. Thus, since the gradual influence of social media on consumer behavior, a new social commerce model has begun to develop. This research examined both business and social aspects of social commerce sites to establish an evaluation model for measuring their quality and effectiveness. We collected 468 valid samples of online users who had used social commerce site to browse or purchase products and were willing to use again. We used EFA and CFA to confirm the model we constructed, and Partial least squares regression was used to analyze the relationship among the antecedents and consequences of quality evaluation in social commerce sites. According to the result, the consumers’ behaviors were most likely affected by functionality, enjoyment, process, reliability, presence, and identity with a social commerce site. This study not only provided a credible social commerce quality measurement for other scholars to conduct relevant research but also provide conclusions for the marketing strategy of social commerce sites and products as a reference. keywords: Social commerce, Internet marketing, Online shopping, E-commerce To cite this document: Chiang, I.-P., Lin, K.-C., Huang, C.-H., Yang, W.-L. Influence factors of people purchasing on social commerce sites. Contemporary Management Research, 15(2), 69-87.
Purpose Partial least squares (PLS) has been introduced as a “causal-predictive” approach to structural equation modeling (SEM), designed to overcome the apparent dichotomy between explanation and prediction. However, while researchers using PLS-SEM routinely stress the predictive nature of their analyses, model evaluation assessment relies exclusively on metrics designed to assess the path model’s explanatory power. Recent research has proposed PLSpredict, a holdout sample-based procedure that generates case-level predictions on an item or a construct level. This paper offers guidelines for applying PLSpredict and explains the key choices researchers need to make using the procedure. Design/methodology/approach The authors discuss the need for prediction-oriented model evaluations in PLS-SEM and conceptually explain and further advance the PLSpredict method. In addition, they illustrate the PLSpredict procedure’s use with a tourism marketing model and provide recommendations on how the results should be interpreted. While the focus of the paper is on the PLSpredict procedure, the overarching aim is to encourage the routine prediction-oriented assessment in PLS-SEM analyses. Findings The paper advances PLSpredict and offers guidance on how to use this prediction-oriented model evaluation approach. Researchers should routinely consider the assessment of the predictive power of their PLS path models. PLSpredict is a useful and straightforward approach to evaluate the out-of-sample predictive capabilities of PLS path models that researchers can apply in their studies. Research limitations/implications Future research should seek to extend PLSpredict’s capabilities, for example, by developing more benchmarks for comparing PLS-SEM results and empirically contrasting the earliest antecedent and the direct antecedent approaches to predictive power assessment. Practical implications This paper offers clear guidelines for using PLSpredict, which researchers and practitioners should routinely apply as part of their PLS-SEM analyses. Originality/value This research substantiates the use of PLSpredict. It provides marketing researchers and practitioners with the knowledge they need to properly assess, report and interpret PLS-SEM results. Thereby, this research contributes to safeguarding the rigor of marketing studies using PLS-SEM.
Most online shoppers indicate that they visit e-retail websites on a social networking site. Previous research shows that visiting websites affect the consumer’s purchase intentions. This study identified various factors that affect consumer behaviour while shopping on social media. It further studied the services offered by social media and several factors that influence the consumer’s purchasing experience in social networking sites. Analysing 105 responses, the study revealed that factors such as price, services offered, advertising attitude, and shopping attitude have a significant impact on consumer behaviour.