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Vidyaranyamuni 'ten men story' from Panchadasi as an illustration for Advaitic 'self-realization'

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Abstract

The article dwells on a Mantra from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. This Mantra contains the essence of Vedanta. Vidyaranya Muni in Panchadasi Text writes the biggest chapter (seventh chapter) 290 Verses on this one Mantra. Four aspects are to be understood from this Mantra to understand the spiritual process in Advaitic realization. The first one is the realization, which means realizing who or what am 'I' truly (individual 'I' or Jiva). As a result, the negation of worldly enjoyments (Bogya Nisheda) means nothing in this world becomes an object worth pursuing, so one transcends this stage. The next aspect of the Mantra signifies for whose sake am 'I' (Jiva) doing all this? Hence, the 'enjoyer' or the 'person' who is trying to get pleasures, satisfaction, and enjoyment in this world must inquire into 'that;' it is nothing but the negation of the enjoyer (Boktri Nisheda). The third aspect of Mantra deals with what is there to be desired in this world from the point of realized 'self'. As a result of this process, the 'One' who thinks an 'individual being' having the body and mind and trying to attain certain goals in life, that 'One' is dissolved. Finally, suffering along with the 'body and mind' complex is transcended, this is called liberation while living (Jivanmukti); it means that life continues with the body and mind but amidst this 'realized one' transcends suffering; this is called living in the body yet transcending the body. These four aspects have dwelled in this article with the help of 'Ten men story' from a sacred text called Panchadasi written by Vidyaranya Muni
© 2021 Yoga Mīmāsā | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 59
Vidyaranyamuni ‘ten men story’ from Panchadasi as an
illustration for Advaitic ‘self-realization’
Ravi Kumar Reddy Juturi
Department of Regulatory Affairs, Shri Vishnu College of Pharmacy, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
INTRODUCTION
Mantra from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (BU) is as follows.
'Atmanam ced vijaniyad ayamasmiti purusah Kimicchan Kasya
Kamaya Sariram anusamjvaret'
(B U 4.4.12)
The Verse means; when a person realizes that 'I' am not the body
and mind, but 'I' am 'Sat Chit Ananda' (Existence Consciousness
Bliss), then desiring what and for whose satisfaction or for
whose sake for such a person continues to suer along with the
body and mind (Swami Yogeshwarananda, 1950).
This can be further understood as; 'One' who has awakened
himself to this knowledge (spiritual realization), who has risen
to the consciousness of his immaculate nature, is free from
this entanglement of the body, and freed from this dangerous
embodiment called the physical tabernacle.
The article dwells on a
Mantra
from
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
. This Mantra contains the essence of Vedanta.
Vidyaranya Muni in
Panchadasi Text
writes the biggest chapter (seventh chapter) 290 Verses on this one
Mantra
.
Four aspects are to be understood from this
Mantra
to understand the spiritual process in Advaitic realization.
The rst one is the realization, which means realizing who or what am 'I' truly (individual 'I' or
Jiva
). As a result, the
negation of worldly enjoyments (
Bogya Nisheda
) means nothing in this world becomes an object worth pursuing,
so one transcends this stage. The next aspect of the
Mantra
signies for whose sake am 'I' (
Jiva
) doing all this?
Hence, the 'enjoyer' or the 'person' who is trying to get pleasures, satisfaction, and enjoyment in this world must
inquire into 'that;' it is nothing but the negation of the enjoyer (
Boktri Nisheda
). The third aspect of
Mantra
deals
with what is there to be desired in this world from the point of realized 'self'. As a result of this process, the 'One'
who thinks an 'individual being' having the body and mind and trying to attain certain goals in life, that 'One' is
dissolved. Finally, suering along with the 'body and mind' complex is transcended, this is called liberation while
living (
Jivanmukti
); it means that life continues with the body and mind but amidst this 'realized one' transcends
suering; this is called living in the body yet transcending the body. These four aspects have dwelled in this article
with the help of 'Ten men story' from a sacred text called
Panchadasi
written by Vidyaranya Muni.
Key Words: Advaita,
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad,
liberation,
Panchadasi
, ten men story, Vidyaranya Muni
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Ravi Kumar Reddy Juturi, Department of Regulatory Aairs, Shri Vishnu College of Pharmacy, Bhimavaram - 534 202,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
E-mail: ravikumarreddy.j@svcp.edu.in
Submitted: 09-Jan-2021 Revised: 08-Apr-2021 Accepted: 23-Apr-2021 Published: 21-Jul-2021
How to cite this article: Juturi RK. Vidyaranyamuni ‘ten men story’
from Panchadasi as an illustration for Advaitic ‘self-realization’. Yoga
Mimamsa 2021;53:59-63.
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Juturi: Vidyaranyamuni ten men story
60 Yoga Mīmāsā | Volume 53 | Issue 1 | January-June 2021
According to Vedanta, a person must go through 'Seven stages'
(Panchadasi 7.28-84) in spiritual life for realizing the 'ones' true
nature as 'Sat Chit Ananda,' which are as follows. (Vasudeva,
2004).
'Ajnana' (Ignorance), 'Avarana' (Veiling), 'Vikshepa' (Error and
suering), 'Paroksha Jnana' (Indirect knowledge), 'Aparokshna
Jnana' (Direct Knowledge), 'Dukha Nivrithi' (Transcendence of
suering), and 'Ananda Prapthi' (Attainment of Great Bliss).
The article proceeds in 2 phases; the rst phase of the article
describes the Vidyaranya Muni ten men story and its relevance to
self-realization in seven stages and the second phase of the article
focuses on elaborating the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Mantra
which is quoted earlier (B U 4.4.12).
TEN MEN STORY
The spiritual journey to enlightenment is understood with the 'ten
men story' (Panchadasi 7.23-27) from text Panchadasi written
by Vidyaranya Muni.
The story is brief; ten friends were going on a journey and then,
on the way, they had to cross a river, and they crossed the river,
and suddenly one of them got doubt that, did all we crossed the
river or somebody drowned? Let’s count. And one of them count
one to nine of his friends and without counting himself declares
that the 'tenth person' is drowned is not here, and the other one
starts counting in the same way, and nally, each of them counts
and nd only nine, and they nally conrmed that 'tenth person'
is drowned and they were crying. Then, some wise person passes
by the way, who asks them why you all are crying then they said
we were ten friends, but while crossing the river 'tenth person' is
drowned, so we are crying. Then he asked, how did you know he
is dead? Then they say we counted, and now the wise person says,
listen to me, don’t cry the 'tenth person' is alive just believe me,
and this is indicated as an essential stage in the spiritual journey
in life. Then the wise person asks one of them to count again, and
he counts from one to nine of his friends says 'I' told there are only
nine here but then the wise man takes his hand and turns toward
himself and says 'thou art the tenth' (Dashamasthvamasi). Then,
the 'counting person' realizes with full of joy that 'I am the tenth
man,' and the tenth person has been found, and I am so happy
and delighted. Then, each of them repeated counting in the same
way and said with full delight and joy tenth person is found, and
like this, nally, everybody is happy (Mahadevan, 1969; Robert
Alan, 2002).
SEVEN STAGES IN THE STORY AND ITS
RELEVANCE TO SPIRITUAL LIFE
In this story, after close observation, 'one' can nd seven stages
for realization as 'I am the tenth person,' according to Vedanta,
these stages are very relevant to spiritual life for the realization
of the 'true self' (Swami Abhedananda, 1967).
First, the person does not know that he must count himself, so
that is the route of all of this, which is called 'Ajnana' (ignorance).
As Swami Vivekananda said, in Vedanta, we do not talk about
original sin; we talk about ignorance. Hence, we do not know our
'true nature,' therefore, the problem starts. The second problem
that comes from the Ajnana is 'Avarana' (Veiling), which is of
the nature that 'I' do not see the 'tenth person' (veiled) where is
the tenth person, it is hidden from 'me,' this is the second stage.
Similarly, the spiritual seeker asks where 'God' or 'Brahman' is or
'Immortal soul,' 'I' do not see it. Hence, this is a common phrase
of doubter that I don’t see 'God.' Texts are talking about pure
consciousness or Brahman, but where is 'that?' 'I' see my body
and if 'I' look inside 'I' see my mind that’s it. Hence, Vedanta
says this is called veiling, 'it' (true self) is there just like the 'tenth
person' in the story but veiled for now. This is the thinnest of the
veils but very powerful, nevertheless. Hence, the second stage is
one’s own reality is veiled, saying, 'I' can’t experience the 'God'
or 'Brahman' like in the story each one says at the beginning 'I'
can’t see the 'tenth person.'
The third stage is the 'Vikshepa' (Error), like in the story, when
they can’t see the 'tenth person' immediately, the conclusions are
drawn that the tenth person is drowned and led to the sorrow of
loss. Exactly like that, Vedanta says 'one' fall into error, that 'I'
the so-called 'pure consciousness' or 'Brahman' not seen (second
stage) but what is seen and experienced is 'Body,' 'Mind' and the
world and hence 'I' am the Body and Mind interacting with other
little individuals in this world called 'Jiva' (Individual sentient
being) (Sri Krsnanand, 1984). This is the life of an individual
from childhood to death; the whole struggle of life is somehow
to overcome suering and engage in various projects to nd joy,
peace, and satisfaction. In the usual language, this entire project
of living is called 'Samsara.' As George Harwell says, on balance,
life is suering; humans have endless striving and suering. This
is known as Error and Suering (Vikshepa).
Then, the fourth stage comes, as the wise person comes in the
story, but he does not reveal the 'tenth person' immediately; rather
says, relax, calm down, and believe me that the tenth person is
there. Hence, spiritual traditions come along, or a spiritual teacher
comes along and says that there is a possibility of overcoming
suering, and there is 'God' or 'Heaven' or 'Moksha.' As Buddha
says, life is suering, there is a cause of suering, and there
is beyond the suering that is 'Nirvana.' Hence, the words of
Traditions and Teachers have to accepted and believed at the
beginning and dwell with the promises they made and if 'one'
pursue it with the faith then one will bound to get realization
and experience it directly with perseverance. This stage is called
'Paroksha Jnana' (Indirect knowledge) (Suthren, 1996), and the
knowledge is gained by listening classes from teachers or reading
texts from religious traditions.
In the fth stage, the person in the story shows 'Thou art the
tenth man,' in a similar way, the spiritual process like Vedanta
inquiry guides an individual (Jiva) to indicate 'real self' by various
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Juturi: Vidyaranyamuni ten men story
Yoga Mīmāsā | Volume 53 | Issue 1 | January-June 2021 61
techniques, i.e., 'Drig Drisya Viveka' (The method of the seer
and seen), 'Panchakosa Viveka' (the method of ve sheaths), and
'Avastha Traya' (The method of three states waking, dreaming,
and deep sleep). With this philosophical analysis, 'one' can
appreciate that 'I' am not this body made of ve sheaths; actually
'I' am the witness 'Consciousness' of the ve sheaths or 'I' am the
witness of the waking, the dreaming, and the deep sleep, 'I' am the
'Consciousness' which illumines all of them (Vidyasankar, 1998).
'I' am free of all states, they come and go, but 'I' am ever-present.
'I' am the seer (experiencer) clearly 'I' am not the experienced
object. The body and mind are experienced; therefore, 'I' am a
direct 'experiencer' of this mind and the body (Date, 1973). To
prepare for this philosophical analysis and grasping the 'Truth,'
Vedanta recommends other yoga’s such as Karma Yoga (unselsh
action), Bhakti Yoga (Love of God or Upasana), and Raja Yoga
(Meditation) (Acharya Narayan Ram, 1987; Swami Abhedananda,
1967). This preparation makes oneself to understand Vedantic
inquiry and convert into a direct realization of the 'truth.' Finally,
one gets a breakthrough, which is like a moment of overwhelming
clarity that 'I' am free of this body and mind; 'I' am ever free witness
consciousness (Sat Chit Ananda).
Then, in the sixth stage, sorrow goes away, like in the story,
the sorrow of losing a friend, i.e., 'tenth person' that goes away.
How, suering goes away after 'self' realization, because now 'I'
see that the problems are in the body and mind, 'I' the witness
consciousness, 'I' is the witness of suering in the body and
witness of suering in mind, quite apart from the body and mind,
'I' never had any suering, 'I' do not have any suering and there
is no possibility for having any suering, hence question of
removing suering also goes away. 'I' have been ever free and this
becomes very clear and this called 'Dukha Nivruthi' (transcending
suering or cessation of sorrow) (Acharya Narayan Ram, 1987)
and then what am 'I' is beyond suering 'Sat Chit Ananda' is
ever revealed to me, this is indicated in the story that a great joy
arises in everybody when they found 'tenth person.' The same joy
arises after the realization of 'true self' because one recognizes
the identity with 'God.' This is the litmus test for an enlightening
being that they are always extraordinary happy, blissful, and
content. This is called 'Brahmananda' (the bliss of the innite)
and 'Ananda Prapthi' (attaining everlasting happiness) (Mishra,
1992). These are the seven stages of the spiritual journey, which
is illustrated by the ten men story.
Then, to get to the point of understanding and to get established
as 'I am that,' contemplation (Manana) and meditation
(Nididhyasana) are necessary.
CIDABHASA (REFLECTED CONSCIOUSNESS)
By means of the ten men story, the nature of aiction is illustrated.
Although the understanding of one’s self-nature may occur
instantaneously, overcoming one’s prārabdha karman and the
habit of identifying with one’s body might take a while, but
one does eventually 'heal,' i.e., suering/aiction ceases when
identication with the body ceases.
Once released from suering, one enters the nal of the seven
stages, 'tṛpti' (satisfaction). It describes the state of unlimited
satisfaction for a knower of Brahman and his/her conduct in the
midst of those who are still ignorant of their true nature. All that
was to be achieved has already been achieved, nothing more
remains to be done, not even śravaṇa, manana, nididhyāsana, or
samādhi, since one already knows oneself to be Brahman.
Whenever 'I' is uttered or indicated, there are two meanings
referred to it; one meaning is from the unenlightened one, and
another meaning is from the enlightened 'one' stand point. In
the former case, the word 'I' instinctively refers to the body and
mind. This is further understanding as 'I' is a combination of
consciousness (Chit) and reected consciousness (Cidabhasa)
(Sri Krsnanand, 1984; Swami Abhedananda, 1967; Shakuntala,
1958). The reected consciousness is not the real awareness;
it is like when we look at the face in the mirror, then the real
face is reected in the mirror, so this reected face is like
reflected consciousness, but that is not the real; it is only
reected consciousness. If 'one' forgets the 'real self' and takes
reected image as the 'real self,' then it is the condition of an
ignorant 'Individual sentient being' (Jiva).
The enlightened beings can clearly distinguish the dierence
between reflected consciousness and real consciousness,
i.e., original consciousness is reecting in the mind as that of the
face in the mirror. Hence, for enlightened beings, the 'I' means
'Sat Chit Ananda' (Existence Consciousness Bliss), (Swami
Yogeshwarananda, 1950) and while they utter the word 'I,' they
are referring to themselves as 'pure consciousness' with full
conviction.
MEANS OF REALIZATION (
ATMANAM CED
VIJANIYAD)
Ten men story outlined the entire trajectory of an individual from
ignorance through contentment resulting from enlightenment
through the intervening ve stages (āvṛti, vikṣepa, parokṣa-jñāna,
aparokṣa-jñāna, and śoka-apagama). Furthermore, woven in
are the means for attaining this knowledge of one’s true advaita
nature, assurances that there is no backsliding and descriptions of
what it is like to function in the world after liberation.
In spite of intellectual understanding of the process, to
realize the 'Truth' with great clarity as given in the rst part
of Mantra 'Atmanam ced vijaniyad' (Panchadasi 7.1, BU
4.4.12), Brihadaranyaka Upanishad recommends three
stages of 'Sadhana' which are 'Shravana' (hearing about the
truth again and again), 'Manana' (reection about the truth in
mind), and 'Nididhyasana' (Meditation upon the truth) (Swami
Krishnananda, 1988).
The process can be summarized as to remove ignorance and give
clarity about 'true nature' of 'Individual self' (Jiva) (Panchadasi
7.83-96), Scriptures and Guru are required, hence Vedanta is to
be studied systematically, where the 'Truth' is told by a Guru
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62 Yoga Mīmāsā | Volume 53 | Issue 1 | January-June 2021
that you are the 'pure consciousness' (Tat Tvam Asi) (Chandogya
Upanishad 6.8.7), this is like a wise man in the 'ten men story'
(indicated 'Thou art the tenth men') (Panchadasi 7.23-27).
According to Vedanta (BU 2.4), the problem in the rst stage to
realization is 'Pramana Asambhavana,' which means 'purports
to teach about the Brahman or about some other entity.' This
is the doubt about the Pramana itself. The Pramana here is
Upanishad. This removes by 'hearing' and systematic study of
Texts (Shravanam).
The problem in the next stage is 'Prameya Asambhavana,.' which
means 'doubt whether Brahman and Jiva are identical or not' in
other words, 'doubt about the subject matter.' This is resolved by
systematic Vedantic inquiry till it comes to clarity and intellect
get convinced (Manana) (Swami Abhedananda, 1967).
The problem in the nal stage is 'Viparita Bhavana' which means
wrong notions such as 'the universe is real, the dierence between
Brahman and Jiva is real' in other words 'opposite tendency of
behaving as if we are the body and mind' which are contrary
to the teachings of the Upanishads. This problem is resolved
by 'Nididhyasana,' which involves continuous dwelling on the
'Truth' till realization dawns and manifested in life. In the words
of Swami Vivekananda, tell yourself again and again till it is
entered into very veins and tingles in every drop of blood with 'I
am that innite' (Swami Abhedananda, 1967).
WHAT IS TO BE DESIRED IN THE WORLD?
(KIMICCHAN)
The next part of the Mantra says 'Kimicchan,' which means
desiring what do one lead life? This can be rephrased as by
desiring what 'one' can attain lasting happiness and profound
peace in life? Upanishads say nothing in the world can give this
though they promise. The rst great fault of worldly pursuits is
impermanence means it comes and goes; this includes all sensory
pleasures and even cultivated knowledge through learnings
by science and art also fade away from memory in the course
of time. The Buddha said, 'Anityam anityam sarvam anityam'
(Impermanent Impermanent all is impermanent), 'Kshanikam
kshanikam sarvam kshanikam' (Momentary Momentary all is
Momentary), 'Sunyam sunyam sarvam sunyam' (Empty Empty
all is empty), and 'Dukham dukham sarvam dukham' (Misery
misery all is misery). Hence, Buddha’s teaching says, all worldly
acquisitions are impermanent, momentary, and empty, and thus,
suering is the result. The other defect in worldly projects is
unsatisfying. Nobody ever has claimed the attainment of complete
satisfaction in the worldly achievements except one class of
spiritually enlightened ones.
Advaita shows that the nature of worldly objects and their
acquisitions are 'unreal' (Mithya) (Diksitha, 1983). The 'Isha
Vashya Upanishad' says that there is no 'reality' to worldly things,
and hence, it cannot give fullment. A 3D movie illustrates this;
there, it appears like things and characters are coming in front and
playing but, it is all an appearance that doesn't exist. Vedanta says
exactly that all the pleasures of the world are appearances in the
'Consciousness' (Mishra, 1992).
EXPERIENCER IN 'THREE STATES' (
KASYA
KAMAYA)
The next part of the Mantra says 'Kasya Kamaya' means for whose
sake one desires all the pleasures of the waking world and all the
dream world’s experiences and restfulness of the deep sleep?
Upanishad shows that all the 'Three States' are remaining where
they are, and 'I' (Consciousness or experiencer) moves smoothly
and eortlessly between these three states of waking, dreaming,
and deep sleep (Sri Krsnanand, 1984; Swami Abhedananda,
1967; and Shakuntala, 1958). This is like great sh moves easily
between the left banks and right banks of the river and sometimes
beneath the water. Therefore, the 'self' is free of these pleasures
and suerings of 'three states.' Having understood this, a question
arises that, for whose sake one is chasing for pleasures, is it for
'waker' (awaken one) in the waking state or 'dreamer' in the
dreaming state or 'blankness' in the deep sleep state? Vedanta
says none of them is the real self; in fact, the true self 'Witness
Consciousness' left behind each state and moves easily into
another state. More precisely, 'Consciousness' won’t transit, but
the three states are transit or arise in it (Date, 1973).
IDENTIFICATION WITH THE 'THREE BODIES'
(
SARIRAM ANUSAMJVARET
)
The last part of the Mantra is 'Sariram anusamjvaret,' which
means after realization why 'one' should identify with the body
and mind and suer along with them. According to Vedanta,
there are 'three bodies;:' Sthula Sarira (Physical body), Sukshma
Sarira (Subtle body), which comprises thoughts, emotions, and
memories, and the third one is Karana Sarira (causal body),
which is there in a deep sleep state. 'Jiva' is the identied state
with Sukshma Sarira and Karana Sarira, which can migrate
from one body to another after the physical body’s death (Swami
Akhandananda Swarasvati, 1970; Swami Krishnananda, 1988).
Upanishad says identication with any of the 'Three Bodies'
causes suering, which is inescapable. Vedanta further says
experiencing through any of these bodies does not cause suering
unless identication arises with it (Sri Krsnanand, 1984; Swami
Abhedananda, 1967). All the physical body problems such as
pain, disease, aging, and decay are unavoidable; similarly,
for the subtle body, negative thoughts, feelings, emotions,
and depression are also inevitable. Experiencing all these
things through the physical body and mind is undeniable and
acceptable, but when 'one' takes a leap from that phase and
says 'I' am suering or 'I' am so unhappy is the fundamental
mistake because the 'self' is the witness or experiencer of the
unhappiness of the mind but 'it' is not unhappy. In fact, the
moment this understanding arises instantly, unhappiness and
depression go down.
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In a deep sleep state, all suffering present in the seed form
as the causal body after waking up; all the same thoughts,
feelings, memories, and problems manifest in the form of a
subtle body. This is the reason why Vedanta says though one
is not aware of any problems in a deep sleep, they are still
present in the potential seed state (Bija Avasta) (Vidyasankar,
1998). Hence, according to Vedanta, none of these states are
referred to 'me' (Pure Consciousness); they come and go in
'me,' the unchanging 'awareness.' This is called 'Sariram
anusamjvaret' why should 'I' suffer from 'three bodies' and
their three-fold problems. Moment 'one' realizes that this
leads to transcending suffering, and this is equated with
the sixth stage, 'Dukha Nivruthi,' which is explained in the
earlier part. This realization also gives insight that till now, 'I'
suffered along with the body and mind because of foolishness
or error. In Vedanta, this error is referred to as 'Adhyasa,'
(Janaki, 1990) which means superimposing the qualities
of existence and consciousness upon the 'three bodies' and
superimposing the qualities of their sufferings upon 'me'
(pure consciousness).
CONCLUSION
The basic teaching of Advaita philosophy and Upanishads, in
a nutshell, is the discovery of what truly 'I' sense in 'Individual
being' (Jiva) and trace it back to its source. The realization is
possible through a systematic study of texts (or hearing from
Guru), contemplation (or inquiry), and meditation. This entire
process is referred to as 'Jnana Yoga.' The outcome of realization
reveals complete freedom from suerings and gives eternal joy
and profound peace as it is the nature of the 'true self' (Ananda
Swarupa), thus realized one says; 'Brahmanandam spastam
vibathime' means that the bliss of Brahman nature is spectacularly
ever shining before 'me.' According to Vedanta, the cause of great
bliss which arises upon 'self-realization' is 'Ananda prapthi' which
can be expressed in three ways; 'kritha kritya thaya' means all
is done what is to be done in the human life without any regret,
'Prapanya praptha thaya' means what for the human life is meant
for is attained ('God' or 'Innite'), and 'Jnathavya jnatha thaya'
means what is to be searched for or to be known in human life
is found or known (having known the absolute nothing more is
to be known).
Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.
Conicts of interest
There are no conicts of interest.
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Article
Text in PDF format. Mode of access: World Wide Web. Translation of: Jīvanmuktiviveka. Thesis (Ph, D)--University of Texas at Austin, 2002.
Srimad Vidyaranyamuni Pranita Pancadasi, Ramakrsnakrita Vyakhyaya, Visamsthala-Tippanipathantara-Srutikosasloka-Visayasuy-Adibhih, Srimat Paramahamsa-Parivrajakacarya Mahesvara-Mahodayanam Bhumikaya ca Samalamkrta
  • Ram Acharya Narayan
Acharya Narayan Ram. (1987). Srimad Vidyaranyamuni Pranita Pancadasi, Ramakrsnakrita Vyakhyaya, Visamsthala-Tippanipathantara-Srutikosasloka-Visayasuy-Adibhih, Srimat Paramahamsa-Parivrajakacarya Mahesvara-Mahodayanam Bhumikaya ca Samalamkrta. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan.
Jaiminiya-Nyayamala Sri Madhavacharyena Viricita Tad Viracita-Vistarakhyaya Vidyaranya Vidyapitham
  • M R Diksitha
Diksitha, M. R. (1983). Jaiminiya-Nyayamala Sri Madhavacharyena Viricita Tad Viracita-Vistarakhyaya Vidyaranya Vidyapitham, Karnataka.
Madhava, the Commentator on the Suta Samhita
  • S S Janaki
Janaki, S. S. (1990). Madhava, the Commentator on the Suta Samhita. In Jagannadham, Pervaram. Vidyaranya Bharati: Essays on Vidyaranya, (pp. 79-84). India: Kakatiya University, India.
The Pancadasi of Bharatitirtha Vidyaranya; An Interpretive Exposition
  • T M Mahadevan
Mahadevan, T. M. (1969). The Pancadasi of Bharatitirtha Vidyaranya; An Interpretive Exposition. Bharat Itihasa Samshodhan Mandal, Pune: University of Madras.
Pancadasi: A Critical Study
  • P Shakuntala
Shakuntala, P. (1958). Pancadasi: A Critical Study. Delhi: Parimal Publications.
Srimad Vidyaranyamuni Viracita Pancadasi
  • S Sri Krsnanand
Sri Krsnanand, S. (1984). Srimad Vidyaranyamuni Viracita Pancadasi,. The Divine Life Society Publications, Rishikesh, India. (www.swamikrishnananda.org).
Strategies of Interpretation: Samkara's Commentory on Brhadaranyakopanisad
  • H J Suthren
Suthren, H. J. (1996). Strategies of Interpretation: Samkara's Commentory on Brhadaranyakopanisad. Journal of American Oriental Society, 116, 58-75.
An Introduction to the Philosophy of Panchadasi
  • Swami Abhedananda
Swami Abhedananda. (1967). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Panchadasi. In Complete Works of Swami Abhedananda, Advaita Ashrama Publications, Ramakrishna Math. Calcutta. Vol. 2, pp. 260-77.