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Modernización a la mexicana: presiones internas y externas determinan al periodismo nacional y local

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Abstract

La historia reciente de México ha estado marcada por un constante esfuerzo para instaurar y consolidar un modelo democrático, que permitiera dejar atrás los tiempos de la hegemonía del Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) y abriera la puerta a otros actores que se sumaran a la construcción de una nación más incluyente. La llamada transición a la democracia dio inicio en la década de los ochenta del siglo pasado, cuando el Partido Acción Nacional (PAN) comenzó a ganar elecciones a nivel municipal y estatal; esfuerzo que se vio coronado en el 2000 con el arribo a Los Pinos del primer presidente emanado de la oposición. Las transformaciones experimentadas por el sistema político estuvieron acompañadas de una reestructuración del sistema mediático; o al menos esa era la percepción generalizada de periodistas y académicos internacionales. Sin embargo, hacia el interior, la visión no era tan halagüeña dado que, en el ámbito local -y en especial en las regiones menos desarrolladas- aún permanecian casi intactos muchos rasgos distintivos de los setenta años anteriores a la alternancia partidista. Con base en lo anterior, el objetivo de este capítulo es proponer un modelo que permita explicar la coexistencia de aspectos liberales y autoritarios en la prensa mexicana.
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