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Satellite-Based Approaches in the Detection and Monitoring of Selected Hydrometeorological Disasters

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Abstract

Earth observation satellite systems play an important role in the provision of a wide range of information, especially in data-scarce regions. This role becomes extremely relevant during a disaster and when direct access to the affected area is difficult. This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art remote sensing techniques and tools for the detection and monitoring of hydrometeorological disasters, focusing on tropical cyclones Idai and Kenneth. In a perspective of disaster preparedness, rainfall measurements provided by satellites can enable decision-makers to take urgent measures in the pre-event phase and can be used as input for early warning systems. Data acquired from satellite missions are used for a set of different tools developed to map flood extent, while several satellite-based emergency mapping mechanisms provide timely post-event information by taking advantage of observations provided by satellites (including commercial platforms providing images at very high geometric resolution). Analysis of vegetation dynamics derived from time-series of multispectral imagery is used to assess changes, such as the detection of cyclone-damaged areas, identification of critical conditions in vegetation health/productivity, and land cover change mapping.

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... GPM data are used to provide information regarding the accumulated rainfall over the past 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, while GFS data are used to provide the forecasts for the upcoming 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The system was tested and validated over several case studies, highlighting good alerting capabilities [7][8][9][10][11]. However, some types of rainfall events (such as short-duration, very localized convective events) can undermine its capacity to detect extreme rainfall events [7]. ...
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