Osteoarthritis is characterized by degeneration of joint structure over time, resulting in limitation of joint mobility. There is growing evidence that curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and could be a potential therapeutic option for chronic inflammatory diseases. Hence, curcumin could potentially have a positive impact on osteoarthritis symptoms. This systematic review aimed to estimate the effects of curcumin on osteoarthritis. We systematically searched PubMed, ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to March 4, 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of consumption of all types of curcumin compounds in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Seventeen trials were identified. The duration of the included studies varied from 4 weeks to 8 months. Across all trials, 13 studies involved screening using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) scores and 11 studies used visual analog scales (VAS) for recording pain from baseline to post-intervention. There was a significant improvement in VAS and overall WOMAC scores with oral administration of various types of curcumin formulations with no severe adverse effects. In conclusion, different types of curcumin compounds may be beneficial as an alternative or complementary agent for the management of osteoarthritis. Moreover, certain curcumin compounds with higher bioavailability tended to show more positive effects.