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Ethnic and gender-based prejudice towards medical doctors? The relationship between physicians' ethnicity, gender, and ratings on a physician rating website

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Abstract

We investigated manifestations of ethnic and gender-based prejudice in a rather understudied high-status environment, that is we studied biased ratings of physicians with a migration background and female physicians. In a preregistered, archival study, we analyzed ratings of more than 140,000 physicians on a German rating website for medical professionals. Results indicate that general practitioners (but not dentists or specialists) with non-German names are rated less favorably than general practitioners with German names. This effect did not vary across regional contexts with varying prosperity and diversity. Our analyses also revealed that female physicians are evaluated less positively than male physicians. Contrary to our assumptions, bias against female physicians was especially strong in medical sub-disciplines that are characterized by a high share of female physicians.

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... Kauff et al. examined ratings of 140,000 physicians on a German website for health professionals and discovered that females and physicians with a migration background (identified by foreign names) were consistently rated lower than males. They suggest that although medicine is a prestigious profession, those within who are from low status groups (women and immigrants) may be easily targeted and perceived in a negative way (43). ...
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Background Patient bias and prejudice directed against physicians from diverse backgrounds is a frequent occurrence in healthcare. Female physicians have long experienced discrimination in the healthcare system based on their gender alone. The dynamic known as Patient Prejudice toward Providers (PPtP) is disproportionately affecting female physicians because it is frequently compounded by sexism.AimThe goal of this study was to explore the impact of PPtP on female resident and attending physicians.Methods Using transcribed one-on-one interviews from a larger study of PPtP affecting resident and attending physicians, ten interviews with female physicians (resident and attending) from diverse ethnic backgrounds and countries of training at a large academic medical center were analyzed. The authors independently reviewed the interviews using an iterative process within and across interviews to inductively identify repeating words, phrases, and concepts relevant to the study aim.ResultsDemographics of the ten participants included age (mean 34.6 years), ethnicity (6 Asian, 2 Hispanic, 2 African), and country of training (10% IMG vs. 90% US trained). Four of the interviewees were residents and six were attendings. Themes that emerged from the analysis included experiencing “A Gendered Continuum of Abuse,” “Establishing a Higher Standard of Competency,” “Overcoming the Stereotype of the White Male Physician,” “The Physicality of Self Identity,” and “The Need to be Protective of Minoritized Trainees.” All participants agreed that these perceptions created an adverse environment at the workplace and impacted on patient care.Conclusions Discrimination of physicians based on their gender or their race/ethnicity has been reported. This study highlights the compounded effects of patient prejudice on female minoritized physicians. Organizations and individuals should identify and implement strategies to address the impact of PPtP and sexism in order to create an environment where all women can thrive professionally.
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Was genau ist eigentlich Künstliche Intelligenz? Was sind KI-Assistenzsysteme? Welche Vorteile und Gefahren bringen diese Technologien für Arbeitnehmende mit sich? Mit diesem Handbuch möchten wir Ihnen auf all diese Fragen verständliche Antworten geben und Ihnen einen leichten Einstieg in das Themengebiet Künstliche Intelligenz am Arbeitsplatz ermöglichen. Damit Sie jedoch nicht nur wissen, was KI ist, sondern KI am Arbeitsplatz erfolgreich mitgestalten können, finden Sie in diesem Handbuch darüber hinaus eine Vielzahl an Tipps, Methoden und Listen, die Sie bei der Gestaltung von KI-Assistenzsystemen am Arbeitsplatz unterstützen. Die Informationen, die Sie in diesem Buch finden, wurden in dem Projekt VEKIAA (Verantwortungsvolle Einbindung von KI-Assistenzsystemen am Arbeitsplatz) zusammengetragen, das in den Jahren 2020–2022 durch den Digitalisierungsfonds Arbeit 4.0 der Arbeiterkammer Wien gefördert wurde. Das VEKIAA-Projektteam, bestehend aus dem IFZ - Interdisziplinäres Forschungszentrum für Technik, Arbeit und Kultur sowie dem Forschungsunternehmen Pro2Future, verfolgte hierzu einen partizipativen Forschungsansatz für Technologieentwicklung. Mit diesem Ansatz wurden relevante Interessenvertretungen der Arbeitswelt aktiv in den Forschungsprozess miteingebunden, um sicherzustellen, dass die tatsächlichen Umstände rund um die Implementierung von KI-Assistenzsystemen an Arbeitsplätzen berücksichtigt werden und die abgeleiteten Methoden und Werkzeuge möglichst praxisnah und nützlich sind.
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This study investigated whether sex discrimination existed in recruiters' evaluations of applicants in real employment interviews and, if so, whether other variables could explain it. The variables examined were the perceived similarity of the applicant to the recruiter, the interpersonal attraction felt by the recruiter toward the applicant, and the applicant's objectively measured and subjectively measured qualifications. Applicant sex did not directly or indirectly affect recruiters' evaluations of applicants in campus interviews, providing no evidence of sex discrimination. Instead, subjective qualifications had a significant effect on evaluations and also mediated the effects of perceived similarity, interpersonal attraction, and objective qualifications on evaluations. Recruiters saw stronger subjective qualifications in applicants with high scholastic performance whom they viewed as similar to themselves and whom they liked. Perceptions of these qualifications, in turn, were the primary determinant of evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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There is a popular theory-based assumption that women, who are numerical minorities in high-prestige work groups, will advocate for other women as potential work group peers. However, these individuals may face special challenges in fulfilling this role. I examine how the prestige accorded to the work group and their numerical representation interact to impact women's concerns about being considered valued members of their groups and hence, their propensity to support other women in the selection process. I conducted three studies which showed that women will abdicate the opportunity to support highly or moderately qualified female candidates as potential work group peers. Furthermore, the concern that a highly qualified female candidate will be seen as more of a valued group member (competitive threat) and that a moderately qualified female candidate will adversely affect their value by reinforcing negative stereotypes about their demographic category (collective threat) partially mediated the relationship between numerical representation and work group prestige and women's preference for other women as work group peers.
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A multidimensional approach to occupational gender type was explored. In Study 1, participants' spontaneous images of various jobs were elicited. The attributes generated were used to develop a job images questionnaire employed in Study 2 on which participants rated a random sample of 100 occupational titles. Occupational images were primarily structured on two orthogonal dimensions: prestige and gender type. The multidimensional approach to occupational gender-type was supported in that important gender-related occupational attributes (masculine personality trait requirements and analytical skills) did not load on the gender-type factor, but did load highly on the prestige factor. Thus, even though the prestige and gender-type factors were orthogonal, specific gender-related attributes were related to perceived occupational prestige.
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Physician rating websites (PRWs) are gaining in popularity among patients seeking quality information about physicians. However, little knowledge is available about the quantity and type of information provided on the websites. Objective: To determine and structure the quantity and type of information about physicians in the outpatient sector provided on German-language physician rating websites. In a first step, we identified PRWs through a systematic internet search using German keywords from a patient´s perspective in the two search engines Google and Yahoo. Afterwards, information about physicians available on the websites was collected and categorised according to Donabedian´s structure/process/outcome model. Furthermore, we investigated whether the information was related to the physician himself/ herself or to the practice as a whole. In total, eight PRWs were detected. Our analysis turned up 139 different information items on eight websites; 67 are related to the structural quality, 4 to process quality, 5 to outcomes, and 63 to patient satisfaction/experience. In total, 37% of all items focus specifically on the physician and 63% on the physician's practice. In terms of the total amount of information provided on the PRWs, results range from 61 down to 13.5 items. A broad range of information is available on German PRWs. While structural information can give a detailed overview of the financial, technical and human resources of a practice, other outcome measures have to be interpreted with caution. Specifically, patient satisfaction results are not risk-adjusted, and thus, are not appropriate to represent a provider's quality of care. Consequently, neither patients nor physicians should yet use the information provided to make their final decision for or against an individual physician.
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Bias against foreign-born or -trained medical students and doctors is not well understood, despite its documented impact on recruitment, integration and retention. This research experimentally examines the interaction of location of medical education and nationality in evaluations of doctors' competence and trustworthiness. A convenience sample of prospective patients evaluated fictitious candidates for a position as a doctor in community practice at a new local health clinic. All applicants were described as having the same personality profile, legal qualifications to practise, a multi-degree education and relevant work experience. The location of medical education (the candidate's home country or the UK) and national background (Australia or Pakistan) of the applicants were independently experimentally manipulated. Consistent with previous research on skills discounting and bias, foreign-born candidates were evaluated less favourably than native-born candidates, despite their comparable education level, work experience and personality. However, overseas medical education obtained in the First World both boosted evaluations (of competence and trustworthiness) and attenuated bias based on nationality. The present findings demonstrate the selective discounting of foreign-born doctors' credentials. The data show an interaction of location of medical education and birth nationality in bias against foreign doctors. On an applied level, the data document that the benefits of medical education obtained in the First World can extend beyond its direct outcomes (high-quality training and institutional recognition) to the indirect benefit of the attenuation of patient bias based on nationality.
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To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .01), and 40% were contemplating a career change (vs 10% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .001). Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.
The effect of professor ethnicity and gender on student evaluations: Judged before met
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Ergebnisse einer Repräsentativ-und einer Betroffenenbefragung [Experiences of discrimination in Germany -A representative survey and a survey among targets
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Beigang, S., Fetz, K., Kalkum, D., & Otto, M. (2017). Diskriminierungserfahrungen in Deutschland. Ergebnisse einer Repräsentativ-und einer Betroffenenbefragung [Experiences of discrimination in Germany -A representative survey and a survey among targets]. Nomos. http://www.antidiskriminierungsstelle.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/publika tionen/Expertisen/Expertise_Diskriminierungserfahrungen_in_Deutschland.pdf
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Majorities of Americans see at least some discrimination against Black, Hispanic and Asian people in the U.S. Pew Research Center
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Stichprobenziehung für telefonische Zuwandererumfragen. Einsatzmöglichkeiten der Namensforschung (Onomastik) [Sampling for telephone-assisted surveys among migrants
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