Chapter

Medicinal Plants in Targeting Tuberculosis II

Authors:
  • Gandaki Province Academy of Science and Technology
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Abstract

Tuberculosis is a highly contagious infectious disease triggered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is widely spread by aerosol. The major site of infection is usually the lungs however the disease can attack any extra-pulmonary site as well, which is further diagnosis by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. World Health Organization reported almost 8.9–10 million people are suffering from tuberculosis in 2019, including 56% men and 32% women, and 12% children. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a medical condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. In-vitro studies suggest that several bioactive compounds and their synthetic derivatives obtained from plants, fungi, and marine organism possesses antimycobacterial affinity. Phenolic compounds such as dihydrocubebin, hinokinin, ethoxycubebin possess the antimycobacterial activity. Mycobacterial cell envelope antagonists have been shown to obstruct the synthesis of mycolic acids, arabinogalactan, and peptidoglycan, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. The paramount antituberculous drugs hamper the development of mycolic acids or the aid mechanism which links them to the cell membrane. Medicines targeting RNA synthesis encompass those that restrict the assembly of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, that are indispensable enzymes for RNA synthesis. Various molecular pathways for the target to cure tuberculosis entail the targets of M. tuberculosis cell wall synthesis, energy metabolism, folate metabolism, DNA replication, and RNA synthesis. Interestingly, in preserving the health of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, medicinal plants have tremendous advantages with limited side effects as compare to the standard drugs.

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Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. COVID-19 has devastating effects on people in all countries and getting worse. We aim to investigate an in-silico docking analysis of phytochemical compounds from medicinal plants that used to combat inhibition of the COVID-19 pathway. There are several phytochemicals in medicinal plants, however, the mechanism of bioactive compounds remains unclear. These results are obtained from in silico research provide further information to support the inhibition of several phytochemicals. Methods Molecular docking used to determine the best potential COVID-19 M pro inhibitor from several bioactive compounds in Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa, Cocos nucifera, Psidium guajava, and Eucalyptus globulus. Molecular docking was conducted and scored by comparison with standard drugs remdesivir. ADME properties of selected ligands were evaluated using the Lipinski Rule. The interaction mechanism of the most recommended compound predicted using the STITCH database. Results There was no recommended compound in Moringa oleifera as a potential inhibitor for COVID-19. Oleanolic acid in Allium cepa, α-tocotrienol in Cocos nucifera, asiatic acid in Psidium guajava and culinoside in Eucalyptus globulus were the most recommended compound in each medicinal plant. Oleanolic acid was reported to exhibit anti-COVID-19 activity with binding energy was − 9.20 kcal/mol. This score was better than remdesivir as standard drug. Oleanolic acid interacted through the hydrogen bond with HIS41, THR25, CYS44, GLU166. Oleanolic acid binding with CASP-3, CASP-9, and XIAP signaling pathway. Conclusions Oleanolic acid in Allium cepa found as a potential inhibitor of COVID-19 M-pro that should be examined in future studies. These results suggest that oleanolic acid may be useful in COVID-19 treatment.
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Medicinal plants are used from ancient times for treatment of various ailments. Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chestnut), is the popular and most valuable tree native to the South East Europe. It's seed extracts and their concentrates contain phytocompounds like flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenoid saponin glycosides (escin), epicatechin, tannins, kaempferol, esculin, fraxin, carbohydrate, essential fatty acids (linoleic acid), oleic acid and purine bases (adenine and guanine). Due to these vital phyto-constituents, horse chestnut is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of diverse disorders as in venous congestion in leg ulcers, bruises, arthritis, rheumatism, diarrhoea, phlebitis etc. We collected the pharmacological applications of Aesculus hippocastanum L. extracts and escin as the cheif bioactive compound and their uses in traditionally and clinically for the management of various disorders. This review describes the efficacy of A. hippocastanum L. extracts and their bioactive compounds. So in the furtue this plant may be useful for the alternative treatment measure for various ailments via incorporating either extract or escin into novel delivery systems for improving the social health in future and would provide improved quality of life.
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disease characterized by the loss and obstructive remodeling of the pulmonary arterial wall, causing a rise in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, which is responsible for right heart failure, functional decline, and death. Although many drugs are available for the treatment of this condition, it continues to be life-threatening, and its long-term treatment is expensive. On the other hand, many natural compounds present in food have beneficial effects on several cardiovascular conditions. Several studies have explored many of the potential beneficial effects of natural plant products on PAH. However, the mechanisms by which natural products, such as nutraceuticals, exert protective and therapeutic effects on PAH are not fully understood. In this review, we analyze the current knowledge on nutraceuticals and their potential use in the protection and treatment of PAH, as well as whether nutraceuticals could enhance the effects of drugs used in PAH through similar mechanisms.
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COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.
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The recent outburst of novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), now a global pandemic highlights an urgent need for therapeutics targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome' (SARS-CoV-2). In Nigeria, infection cases are on daily rise with death rate of ~3 %. Therefore, slowing the spread of the virus will significantly reduce the strain on the healthcare system and governments. Here, we presented local medicinal plants cultivated in Nigeria as possible therapeutic approaches, exclusively targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its pathways. The study focused on some plants containing bioactive compounds that showed promising results against previous coronaviruses. Potential plants identified include Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, echinacea, euphorbia hirta, Garcenea kola, Curcuma longa, Aleo vera and olea europaea. Although inhibition of viral replication is seen as the possible mechanism for antiviral activity of most of the natural compounds, recent research has shown that some natural compounds can interact with major viral proteins associated with virulence. Thereby, showing they could be a valuable tool for possible inhibition, management and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. However, further research is required to investigate and validate their potential use as anti-SARS-CoV-2.
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Background The aim of the present review is to provide basic knowledge about the treatment of Coronavirus via medicinal plants. Coronavirus (COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV) as a viral pneumonia causative agent, infects thousands of people in China and worldwide. There is currently no specific medicine or vaccine available and it is considered a threat to develop effective novel drug or anti-coronavirus vaccine treatment. However, natural compounds to treat coronaviruses are the most alternative and complementary therapies due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties. Methods We performed an open-ended, English restricted search of Scopus database, Web of Science, and Pubmed for all available literature from Jan-March, 2020, using terms related to phytochemical compounds, medicinal plants and coronavirus. Results The view on anti-coronavirus (anti-CoV) activity in the plant derived phytochemicals and medicinal plants give the strong base to develop a novel treatment of corona virus activity. Various phytochemicals and medicinal plant extracts have been revised and considered to be the potential anti-CoV agents for effective control and future drug development. We discuss some important plants (Scutellaria baicalensis, Psorothamnus arborescens, Glycyrrhiza radix, Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Lycoris radiate, Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Hyptis atrorubens Poit, Fraxinus sieboldiana, Erigeron breviscapus, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Amaranthus tricolor, Phaseolus vulgaris, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma longa and Myrica cerifera) emerged to have broad spectrum antiviral activity. Conclusion Nigella sativa has potent anti-SARS-CoV activity and it might be useful souce for developing novel antiviral therapies for coronaviruses.
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Background: Airway inflammation plays a pivotal role in cold asthma. Winyanghuayin decoction and Xiaoqinglong decoction can significantly improve airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Winyanghuayin decoction and Xiaoqinglong decoction on OVA-induced cold asthma in rat and compare the effects of Winyanghuayin decoction and Xiaoqinglong decoction for treatment of cold asthma rats Methods: The cold asthma rat model was induced by OVA and ice water swim stress, treated with Winyanghuayin decoction and Xiaoqinglong decoction respectively. The pulmonary function of asthmatic rats was detected by MIR Spirolab; The pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining; The autophagy in the lung of rats were observed by transmission electron microscopy; The eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and total cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted under light microscope. The expression of IL-10\IL-13\TNF-α and TGF-β1 in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); The protein level of LC3-II\I, ATG, PI3K and mTOR expression in lung tissues were detected by Western blot; Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the expression of autophagy gene ATG3\ATG5\ATG7 and ATG12. Results: Winyanghuayin decoction and Xiaoqinglong decoction can alleviate airway inflammation and improve airway hyper-responsiveness, significantly increased the level of autophagy in lung tissue and decreased the protein level of PI3K and mTOR in lung tissue of cold asthma rats. Winyanghuayin decoction have better regulation ability on autophagy and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusion: Winyanghuayin decoction and Xiaoqinglong decoction may alleviate the airway inflammation symptoms by enhancing autophagy in lung tissue dependent on the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway. Winyanghuayin decoction was more effective than Xiaoqinglong decoction for treatment of cold asthma.
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Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterial organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pose a major threat to public health, especially in middle and low-income countries. Worldwide in 2018, approximately 10 million new cases of TB were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). There are a limited number of medications available to treat TB; additionally, multi-drug resistant TB and extensively-drug resistant TB strains are becoming more prevalent. As a result of various factors, such as increased costs of developing new medications and adverse side effects from current medications, researchers continue to evaluate natural compounds for additional treatment options. These substances have the potential to target bacterial cell structures and may contribute to successful treatment. For example, a study reported that green and black tea, which contains epigallocatechin gallate (a phenolic antioxidant), may decrease the risk of contracting TB in experimental subjects; cumin (a seed from the parsley plant) has been demonstrated to improve the bioavailability of rifampicin, an important anti-TB medication, and propolis (a natural substance produced by honeybees) has been shown to improve the binding affinity of anti-TB medications to bacterial cell structures. In this article, we review the opportunistic pathogen M. tuberculosis, various potential therapeutic targets, available therapies, and natural compounds that may have anti-TB properties. In conclusion, different natural compounds alone as well as in combination with already approved medication regimens should continue to be investigated as treatment options for TB.
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease initially reported in China and currently worldwide dispersed caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV) affecting more than seven million people around the world causing more than 400 thousand deaths (on June 8th, 2020). The diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on the clinical and epidemiological history of the patient. However, the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is the viral detection through the amplification of nucleic acids. Although the quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been described as the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19, there are several difficulties involving its use. Here we comment on RT-PCR and describe alternative tests developed for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
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Lindera obtusiloba is widespread in northeast Asia and used for treatment of improvement of blood circulation and anti-inflammation. In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the methanolic extract of L. obtusiloba leaves (LOL) in an ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged allergic asthma model and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated NCI-H292 cell. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA by intraperitoneal injection on days 0 and 14, and airway-challenged with OVA from days 21 to 23. Mice were administered 50 and 100 mg/kg of LOL by oral gavage 1 h before the challenge. LOL treatment effectively decreased airway hyper-responsiveness and inhibited inflammatory cell recruitment, Th2 cytokines, mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-challenged mice, which were accompanied by marked suppression of airway inflammation and mucus production in the lung tissue. LOL pretreatment inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) with suppression of activator protein (AP)-1 and MUC5AC in the lung tissue. LOL also down-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB in TNF-α-stimulated NCI-H292 cells. LOL elevated the translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf-2) into nucleus concurrent with increase of heme oxyngenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Moreover, LOL treatment exhibited a marked increase in the anti-oxidant enzymes activities, whereas effectively suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, as well as lipid peroxidation in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice and TNF-α-stimulated NCI-H292 cells. These findings suggest that LOL might serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma.
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The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been defined as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and virological course of non-severe COVID-19 patients with or without symptoms who were admitted to a Chinese cabin hospital. In this retrospective single center study, we reviewed 252 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients treated at one temporary cabin hospital in Wuhan, China. Demographic, clinical, serial chest computed tomography (CT), and serial viral test data were compared between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The association between clinical features and symptomatic status or patient referral status was analyzed. Among all 252 patients, 74 (29.4%) were asymptomatic and 138 (54.76%) had more than two family members who developed COVID-19. The probability for family clustering was similar between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients (59.70 vs. 61.64%, P = 0.79). Asymptomatic patients and symptomatic patients were equally likely to reach a virus-free state during their stay at the cabin hospital (93.15 vs. 86.44%, P = 0.13). The initial chest CT screening showed that 81 (32.1%) patients had no visible pneumonia, 52 (20.6%) had unilateral pneumonia, and 119 (47.2%) had bilateral pneumonia. Symptomatic patients had a higher chance to have bilateral pneumonia (P < 0.0001) and were less likely to show improvement on the follow-up CT scan (P = 0.0002). In total, 69 (27.4%) patients were referred to the designated hospital and only 23 (9.1%) patients were referred due to the progression of pneumonia. Non-severe COVID-19 patients can transmit the disease regardless of their symptomatic status. It is highly recommended that asymptomatic patients be identified and quarantined to eliminate the transmission of COVID-19.
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Objective: Many studies on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) using herbal medicines have been undertaken in recent decades in East Africa. The details, however, are highly fragmented. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the reported medicinal plants used to manage TB symptoms, and to analyze scientific reports on their effectiveness and safety. Method: A comprehensive literature search was performed in the major electronic databases regarding medicinal plants used in the management of TB in East Africa. A total of 44 reports were retrieved, and data were collected on various aspects of the medicinal plants such as botanical name, family, local names, part (s) used, method of preparation, efficacy, toxicity and phytochemistry. The data were summarized into percentages and frequencies which were presented as tables and graphs. Results: A total of 195 species of plants belonging to 68 families and 144 genera were identified. Most encountered species were from Fabaceae (42.6%), Lamiaceae (19.1%), Asteraceae (16.2%) and Euphorbiaceae (14.7%) families. Only 36 medicinal plants (18.5%) have been screened for antimycobacterial activity. Out of these, 31 (86.1%) were reported to be bioactive with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 47-12500 µg/ml. Most tested plant extracts were found to have acceptable acute toxicity profiles with cytotoxic concentrations on normal mammalian cells greater 200 µg/ml. The most commonly reported phytochemicals were flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and phenols. Only Tetradenia riparia, Warburgia ugandensis and Zanthoxylum leprieurii have further undergone isolation and characterization of the pure bioactive compounds. Conclusion: East Africa has a rich diversity of medicinal plants that have been reported to be effective in the management of symptoms of TB. More validation studies are required to promote the discovery of antimycobacterial drugs and to provide evidence for standardization of herbal medicine use.
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After its recent discovery in patients with serious pneumonia in Wuhan (China), the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), named also Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread quickly. Unfortunately, no drug or vaccine for treating human this coronavirus infection is available yet. Numerous options for controlling or preventing emerging 2019-nCoV infections may be predicted, including vaccines, interferon therapies, and small-molecule drugs. However, new interventions are likely to require months to years to develop. In addition, most of the existing antiviral treatments frequently lead to the development of viral resistance combined with the problem of side effects, viral re-emergence, and viral dormancy. The pharmaceutical industry is progressively targeting phytochemical extracts, medicinal plants, and aromatic herbs with the aim of identifying lead compounds, focusing principally on appropriate alternative antiviral drugs. Spices, herbal medicines, essential oils (EOs), and distilled natural products provide a rich source of compounds for the discovery and production of novel antiviral drugs. The determination of the antiviral mechanisms of these natural products has revealed how they interfere with the viral life cycle, i.e., during viral entry, replication, assembly, or discharge, as well as virus-specific host targets. Presently, there are no appropriate or approved drugs against CoVs, but some potential natural treatments and cures have been proposed. Given the perseverance of the 2019-nCoV outbreak, this review paper will illustrate several of the potent antiviral chemical constituents extracted from medicinal and aromatic plants, natural products, and herbal medicines with recognized in vitro and in vivo effects, along with their structure-effect relationships. As this review shows, numerous potentially valuable aromatic herbs and phytochemicals are awaiting assessment and exploitation for therapeutic use against genetically and functionally different virus families, including coronaviruses.
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Background To face the current COVID-19 pandemic, diagnostic tools are essential. It is recommended to use real-time RT-PCR for RNA viruses in order (i) to perform a rapid and accurate diagnostic, (ii) to guide patient care and management and (iii) to guide epidemiological strategies. Further studies are warranted to define the role of serological diagnosis and a possible correlation between serological response and prognosis. Objectives To guide clinical microbiologists in the use of these diagnostic tests and clinicians in the interpretation of their results. Sources A research of literature was performed through PubMed and Google Scholar using the keywords SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis, SARS-CoV-2 immune response, SARS-CoV-2 serology/antibody testing, coronavirus diagnosis. Content The present review discusses performances, limitations and use of current and future diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2. Implications Real-time RT-PCR remains the reference method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, notwithstanding its varying sensitivity according to the time of infection, serology represents a valid asset (i) to try to solve possible discrepancies between a highly suggestive clinical and radiological presentation and negative RT-PCR, (ii) to solve discrepancies between different PCR assays, and (iii) for epidemiological purposes.
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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person. The virus that causes COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia with respiratory failure and even death, with many patients being hospitalised with pneumonia. In China and East Asia, Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat diverse diseases for thousands of years. As an important means of treatment now, Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of respiratory diseases in China. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for COVID-19. Methods: We will search the following sources for the identification of trials: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP), and the Wanfang Database. All the above databases will be searched from the available date of inception until the latest issue. No language or publication restriction will be used. Randomized controlled trials will be included if they recruited participants with COVID-19 for assessing the effect of Chinese medicine vs control (placebo, no treatment, and other therapeutic agents). Primary outcomes will include chest CT and nucleic acid detection of respiratory samples. Two authors will independently scan the articles searched, extract the data from articles included, and assess the risk of bias by Cochrane tool of risk of bias. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus or the involvement of a third party. All analysis will be performed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Dichotomous variables will be reported as risk ratio or odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and continuous variables will be summarized as mean difference or standard mean difference with 95% CIs. Results and conclusion: The available evidence of the treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine will be summarized, and evaluation of the efficacy and the adverse effects of these treatments will be made. This review will be disseminated in print by peer-review.
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COVID-19 is a viral disease caused by a new severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), which has quickly resulted in a pandemic. As a great threat to global public health, the development of a treatment has become vital, and a rush to find a cure has mobilized researchers from all areas across the world. Synthetic drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, have gained attention. However, the efficacy of repositioned drugs is still under evaluation, and besides, some severe side effects are a cause for concern. This emphasizes the urgency for treatment options, which can be both safe and effective. With this in mind, natural products could be an important resource in the development of COVID-19 treatment, as they have already contributed in the past to treatments against other viruses, such as HIV, MERS-CoV, and influenza. Natural products are described long term as bioactive substances and some phytochemical classes such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and peptides are known antiviral bioproducts, and have been virtually tested with success against COVID-19. However, important issues still need to be addressed as to their bioavailability and true efficacy in vivo. This review intends to systematically evaluate the natural metabolites that could potentially be used against this new disease looking at their natural sources, mechanism of action and previous pharmacological usages. The aim is to provide a starting point for this research area in order to speed up the establishment of anti-SARS-CoV-2 bioproducts.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Daphne pseudomezereum var. koreana Hamaya is distributed in the Gangwon-do of South Korea and is traditionally used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. Aim of the study: We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of biflavonoid-rich fraction (BF) obtained from an extract of D. pseudomezereum leaves on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Materials and methods: Neochamaejasmin B (NB) and chamaejasmin D (CD) were spectroscopically characterized as major components of BF obtained from the leaves of D. pseudomezereum. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with NB, CD and BF and activated by LPS (500 ng/ml) were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of these materials in vitro. To evaluate the protective effect of BF on allergic asthma, female BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and treated with BF by oral administration (15 or 30 mg/kg). Results: Pretreatment with BF inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α and IL-6, and led to upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Orally administered BF significantly inhibited the recruitment of eosinophils and the production of IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 and MCP-1 as judged by the analysis of BALF from OVA-induced asthma animal model. BF also decreased the levels of IgE in the serum of asthmatic mice. BF suppressed the influx of inflammatory cells into nearby airways and the hypersecretion of mucus by the airway epithelium of asthmatic mice. In addition, the increase in Penh in asthmatic mice was reduced by BF administration. Furthermore, BF led to Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction in the lungs of mice. Conclusions: These data have shown the anti-asthmatic effects of BF, and therefore we expect that BF may be a potential candidate as a natural drug/nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of allergic asthma.
Article
At the end of 2019, a novel flu‐like coronavirus named COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) was recognized by World Health Organization. No specific treatments exist for COVID‐19 at this time. New evidence suggests that therapeutic options focusing on antiviral agents may alleviate COVID‐19 symptoms as well as those that lead to the decrease in the inflammatory responses. Flavonoids, as phenolic compounds, have attracted considerable attention due to their various biological properties. In this review, the promising effects and possible mechanisms of action of naringenin, a citrus‐derived flavonoid, against COVID‐19 were discussed. We searched PubMed/Medline, Science direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases up to March 2020 using the definitive keywords. The evidence reviewed here indicates that naringenin might exert therapeutic effects against COVID‐19 through the inhibition of COVID‐19 main protease, 3‐chymotrypsin‐ like protease (3CLpro), and reduction of angiotensin converting enzyme receptors activity. One of the other mechanisms by which naringenin might exert therapeutic effects against COVID‐19 is, at least partly, by attenuating inflammatory responses. The antiviral activity of the flavanone naringenin against some viruses has also been reported. On the whole, the favorable effects of naringenin lead to a conclusion that naringenin may be a promising treatment strategy against COVID‐19.
Article
Commonly used drugs for treating many conditions are either natural products or derivatives. In silico modelling has identified several natural products including quercetin as potential highly effective disruptors of the initial infection process involving binding to the interface between the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) Viral Spike Protein and the epithelial cell Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein. Here we argue that the oral route of administration of quercetin is unlikely to be effective in clinical trials owing to biotransformation during digestion, absorption and metabolism, but suggest that agents could be administered directly by alternative routes such as a nasal or throat spray.