Article

Improvement in Central Sleep Apnea Following Adenotonsillectomy in Children

Authors:
  • The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States
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Abstract

Objective Previous studies examining changes in central sleep apnea (CSA) following adenotonsillectomy (T&A) performed for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children have been limited by sample size and analysis of only certain populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether CSA improves following T&A and what factors mediate this change. Methods This was a retrospective case series from 1994 to 2020 of children undergoing primary T&A for OSA (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index ≥1) with CSA (central apnea index [CAI] ≥1) and preoperative and postoperative polysomnograms within 12 months of T&A. Polysomnograms were analyzed for improvement in CSA, defined as: 1) if preoperative CAI >5, a postoperative CAI <5; or 2) if preoperative CAI <5, a postoperative CAI <1. Results One hundred twenty-three patients were included. Median age was 5.5 years (interquartile range, 2.9–8.4). Most patients were overweight/obese (58.5%). Nineteen (15.4%) had a syndromic condition. Preoperative CAI was ≥5 in 21 (17.1%) patients. CAI significantly decreased following T&A (preoperative 2.1, postoperative 0.4; P < .001). Thirty-two (26.0%) patients had CSA postoperatively. Improvement in the microarousal index and older age were significantly associated with improvement in CSA. Conclusions T&A led to resolution of CSA in most children with OSA. Improvement in the microarousal index was associated with improvement in CAI, suggesting that preoperative central apneas may be postarousal and thus resolve following T&A. Level of Evidence 4 Laryngoscope, 2021

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... The PSG criteria used to define CSA influence the rate of CSA. Conventionally, a CAI equal or greater than 1 event/hr is used to define CSA; however, a CAI ≥ 5/h has been suggested to define CSA as healthy children who had CAI ≤ 6 h in previous studies [8,9]. The optimum CAI threshold needs to be determined to better identify clinically significant CSA in children with SDB. ...
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Objective: This update of a 2011 guideline developed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations on the pre-, intra-, and postoperative care and management of children 1 to 18 years of age under consideration for tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy is defined as a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States, with 289,000 ambulatory procedures performed annually in children <15 years of age based on the most recent published data. This guideline is intended for all clinicians in any setting who interact with children who may be candidates for tonsillectomy. Purpose: The purpose of this multidisciplinary guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing children under consideration for tonsillectomy and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. Specifically, the goals are to educate clinicians, patients, and/or caregivers regarding the indications for tonsillectomy and the natural history of recurrent throat infections. Additional goals include the following: optimizing the perioperative management of children undergoing tonsillectomy, emphasizing the need for evaluation and intervention in special populations, improving the counseling and education of families who are considering tonsillectomy for their children, highlighting the management options for patients with modifying factors, and reducing inappropriate or unnecessary variations in care. Children aged 1 to 18 years under consideration for tonsillectomy are the target patient for the guideline. For this guideline update, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation selected a panel representing the fields of nursing, anesthesiology, consumers, family medicine, infectious disease, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, pediatrics, and sleep medicine. Key action statements: The guideline update group made strong recommendations for the following key action statements (KASs): (1) Clinicians should recommend watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection if there have been <7 episodes in the past year, <5 episodes per year in the past 2 years, or <3 episodes per year in the past 3 years. (2) Clinicians should administer a single intraoperative dose of intravenous dexamethasone to children undergoing tonsillectomy. (3) Clinicians should recommend ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or both for pain control after tonsillectomy. The guideline update group made recommendations for the following KASs: (1) Clinicians should assess the child with recurrent throat infection who does not meet criteria in KAS 2 for modifying factors that may nonetheless favor tonsillectomy, which may include but are not limited to multiple antibiotic allergies/intolerance, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis), or history of >1 peritonsillar abscess. (2) Clinicians should ask caregivers of children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and tonsillar hypertrophy about comorbid conditions that may improve after tonsillectomy, including growth retardation, poor school performance, enuresis, asthma, and behavioral problems. (3) Before performing tonsillectomy, the clinician should refer children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing for polysomnography if they are <2 years of age or if they exhibit any of the following: obesity, Down syndrome, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, sickle cell disease, or mucopolysaccharidoses. (4) The clinician should advocate for polysomnography prior to tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children without any of the comorbidities listed in KAS 5 for whom the need for tonsillectomy is uncertain or when there is discordance between the physical examination and the reported severity of oSDB. (5) Clinicians should recommend tonsillectomy for children with obstructive sleep apnea documented by overnight polysomnography. (6) Clinicians should counsel patients and caregivers and explain that obstructive sleep-disordered breathing may persist or recur after tonsillectomy and may require further management. (7) The clinician should counsel patients and caregivers regarding the importance of managing posttonsillectomy pain as part of the perioperative education process and should reinforce this counseling at the time of surgery with reminders about the need to anticipate, reassess, and adequately treat pain after surgery. (8) Clinicians should arrange for overnight, inpatient monitoring of children after tonsillectomy if they are <3 years old or have severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥10 obstructive events/hour, oxygen saturation nadir <80%, or both). (9) Clinicians should follow up with patients and/or caregivers after tonsillectomy and document in the medical record the presence or absence of bleeding within 24 hours of surgery (primary bleeding) and bleeding occurring later than 24 hours after surgery (secondary bleeding). (10) Clinicians should determine their rate of primary and secondary posttonsillectomy bleeding at least annually. The guideline update group made a strong recommendation against 2 actions: (1) Clinicians should not administer or prescribe perioperative antibiotics to children undergoing tonsillectomy. (2) Clinicians must not administer or prescribe codeine, or any medication containing codeine, after tonsillectomy in children younger than 12 years. The policy level for the recommendation about documenting recurrent throat infection was an option: (1) Clinicians may recommend tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection with a frequency of at least 7 episodes in the past year, at least 5 episodes per year for 2 years, or at least 3 episodes per year for 3 years with documentation in the medical record for each episode of sore throat and ≥1 of the following: temperature >38.3°C (101°F), cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudate, or positive test for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Differences from prior guideline: (1) Incorporating new evidence profiles to include the role of patient preferences, confidence in the evidence, differences of opinion, quality improvement opportunities, and any exclusion to which the action statement does not apply. (2) There were 1 new clinical practice guideline, 26 new systematic reviews, and 13 new randomized controlled trials included in the current guideline update. (3) Inclusion of 2 consumer advocates on the guideline update group. (4) Changes to 5 KASs from the original guideline: KAS 1 (Watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection), KAS 3 (Tonsillectomy for recurrent infection with modifying factors), KAS 4 (Tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing), KAS 9 (Perioperative pain counseling), and KAS 10 (Perioperative antibiotics). (5) Seven new KASs: KAS 5 (Indications for polysomnography), KAS 6 (Additional recommendations for polysomnography), KAS 7 (Tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea), KAS 12 (Inpatient monitoring for children after tonsillectomy), KAS 13 (Postoperative ibuprofen and acetaminophen), KAS 14 (Postoperative codeine), and KAS 15a (Outcome assessment for bleeding). (6) Addition of an algorithm outlining KASs. (7) Enhanced emphasis on patient and/or caregiver education and shared decision making.
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Data on central sleep apnea (CSA) and its significance in children are limited. Our objectives were to describe the polysomnogram (PSG) characteristics and clinical features of children with significant CSA at a single pediatric sleep center. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with CSA on a PSG, from January 2007 to December 2008, was performed. All the PSG's were performed in the pediatric sleep laboratory at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. All children diagnosed with significant CSA with a PSG was eligible for inclusion. Each PSG was conducted and scored according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine standard. Significant CSA was defined as a central apnea index (CAI) of >5 events/hr. Outcome for each patient was defined by the percentage change in the CAI at follow up. 52/969 (5.4%) patients had a CAI > 5/hr on a baseline PSG. Of the 25/52 (13 males) patients who met inclusion criteria, the median age was 19 months (range 3-156 months) and their median BMI z score was +0.27 (range -2.95 to 3.02). The median CAI was 11 events/hr (range 6-198/hr). The mean oxygen saturations ranged from 92.8% to 98.5%, with a median of 97%. Six (24%) patients had associated sleep-related hypoventilation and none of the patients had periodic breathing. The commonest identifiable risk factor for CSA in the study population was a neurological disorder. This study confirms that CSA is an important finding in a significant number of young children referred for an evaluation for suspected sleep related disordered breathing. Any child diagnosed with CSA warrants full clinical assessment, including neuro-imaging. Future research should aim to evaluate the long term outcome of significant CSA.
Article
Brief central apnoeas (CAs) during sleep are common in children and are not usually considered clinically significant unless associated with oxygen desaturation. CAs can occur spontaneously or following a movement or sigh. The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiovascular changes associated with CAs in children. Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were analysed across CAs, and spontaneous and movement-induced events were compared using two-way analysis of variance with post hoc analyses. Fifty-three children (28 male/25 female) aged 7-12 years referred for investigation of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 21 age-matched healthy controls (8 male/13 female) were studied. Children underwent routine clinical polysomnography with continuous blood pressure (BP) recordings. Movement-induced, but not spontaneous, CAs were more frequent in children with mild or moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05 for both). Movement-induced CAs were associated with significantly larger MAP and HR changes across the event compared with spontaneous CAs. The percentage changes in MAP and HR between late-event and post-event were significantly greater for movement-induced compared with spontaneous CAs (MAP 20.6 +/- 2.3 versus 12.2 +/- 1.8%, P < 0.01; HR 28.2 +/- 2.6 versus 14.7 +/- 2.5%, P < 0.001). This study demonstrates that movement-induced CAs are more common in children with OSA, and are associated with significantly greater changes in HR and BP compared with spontaneous CAs. These data suggest that movement-induced CAs should be considered when assessing the cardiovascular impact of SDB.
Article
Polysomnography is important in the evaluation of children and adolescents with sleep-disordered breathing. Adult criteria for obstructive sleep apnea have been shown to be inapplicable to children. Nevertheless, very little data are available regarding normal respiratory parameters during sleep in healthy children and adolescents. The purpose of the study was to characterize normal polysomnography values in healthy children and adolescents and to establish respiratory reference values for pediatric polysomnography. Seventy healthy, normal children and adolescents were studied. Age ranged from 1 to 15 years (mean +/- SD, 8.02 +/- 4.57 years). All children underwent overnight polysomnography including EEG, electromyography, electrooculography, ECG, pulse oximetry arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), chest wall and abdomen motion, oral and nasal airflow, and end-tidal PCO(2) (PETCO(2)). Three children (4%) had a mean of 0.37 obstructive apneas (OAs) per hour of sleep (1 to 5 OAs per child per study), with mean apnea duration of 10.3 +/- 2.1 s. This was not accompanied with oxygen desaturation. Twenty-six children had one to seven central apneas (CAs) per child, resulting in a mean of 0.4 CAs per hour of sleep (median, 0.33; 97.5 percentile, 0.9). Eleven of the 58 events of CA in six children coincided with oxygen desaturation to a minimum of 88% (nadir apnea desaturation range, 88 to 93%). The mean SpO(2) was 97.2 +/- 0.8% with SpO(2) nadir of 94.6 +/- 2.2%. PETCO(2) > 45 mm Hg occurred for 1.6 +/- 3.8% of total sleep time (TST) in 21 of 70 children (30%), with a distribution of 1.3 +/- 3.03% in the range of 46 to 47 mm Hg; < 0.7% were within the range of 48 to 50 mm Hg; and in 0.29 +/- 0.24% of TST, PETCO(2) values were > 50 mm Hg. Based on these data, the recommended limits for normal values are as follows: OA index, 1; CA index, 0.9; oxygen desaturation, 89%; baseline saturation, 92%; and PETCO(2) > 45 mm Hg for < 10% of TST.
The AASM Manual for Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications, Version 2.6
  • RB Berry
  • SF Quan
  • AR Abreu