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When to challenge employees' comfort zones? The interplay between culture fit, innovation culture and supervisors' intellectual stimulation

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Abstract

Purpose: This study, first, examines whether a low culture person–organization (P-O) fit reduces job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Second, the author investigates how an organization's current innovation culture affects employees' attitudes and behaviors. Third, the author focuses on the interplay between leadership and organizational culture by testing whether supervisors' intellectual stimulation can mitigate the negative effects of a low innovation culture. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via online questionnaires from 135 employees. Using the organizational culture assessment inventory, employees described their current and their preferred organizational culture and rated their supervisors' behavior. Findings: Current-preferred culture discrepancies and a low innovation culture were associated with lower job satisfaction. The negative effect of a low innovation culture on employees' satisfaction was moderated by supervisors' intellectual stimulation (i.e. employees working in a low innovation culture are more satisfied when they have a stimulating supervisor). If employees' preference regarding the desired culture differed from those of their colleagues, they reported less OCB. Intellectual stimulation exacerbated this effect. Research limitations/implications: The author relied on self-reported cross-sectional data. Practical implications: Actions are needed to ensure that the current culture and the preferred culture align and that employees agree on how the organizational culture should develop. Unless followers prefer different cultures than their colleagues, supervisors should show intellectual stimulation, especially in a culture whose norms do not support innovation. Originality/value: The author emphasizes the positive consequences of a culture P-O fit and contributes to the much needed knowledge regarding the interplay between organizational culture and leadership behaviors on employees' attitudes and behaviors.

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We were near the end of a one-day meeting on transformationalleadership with a group of 25 managers from the public and privatesectors in Silicon Valley. What had been learned about transformationalleadership, about charisma, inspirational leadership, intellectualstimulation and individualised consideration, had been emphasised andhow they differed from the focus that had previously been placed oncontingent reinforcement and its “One Minute Manager” variations.Methods were considered which had been used to help managers toimprove their own performance on the transformational factors. Themeeting instructor was optimistic about the possibilities oftransformational leadership and how more of it could be done even inhighly bureaucratic organisations. Nevertheless, some participantsremained sceptical that much could be done to change, about whatmethods might work, and how to begin. In response, one womanmanager remarked with great emotion, “Look, these techniques mayor may not be easy to apply. What is really important for me is thattoday I have been made aware of a whole new way of thinking aboutleadership and I am convinced that it is going to result in importantchanges in me and my work”.
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Examined the influence of person–organizational fit on employee's task and contextual performance. It was hypothesized that the fit between employees' desired organizational cultures and their actual organizational cultures would predict contextual performance (e.g. helping behaviors toward other employees or the organization. The study was conducted in 2 phases. In phase 1, 221 employees of a manufacturing firm responded to a survey about organizational culture. In phase 2, the immediate supervisor of each Ss was asked to rate their subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior and task-based job performance. It was found that (1) perceptions of the organizational culture and (2) the discrepancy between employees' ideal organizational culture and their perceptions of the actual culture were important in predicting both contextual performance and task performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article presents a comprehensive definition and conceptual model of person-organization fit that incorporates supplementary as well as complementary perspectives on fit. To increase the precision of the construct's definition, it is also distinguished from other forms of environmental compatibility, silch as person-group and person-vocation fit. Once defined, commensurate measurement as it relates to supplementary and complementary fit is discussed and recommendations are offered regarding the necessity of its use. A distinction is made between the direct measurement of perceived fit and the indirect measurement of actual person-organization fit, using both cross- and individual-level techniques, and the debate regarding differences scores is reviewed. These definitional and measurement issues frame a review of the existing literature, as well as provide the basis for specific research propositions and suggestions for managerial applications.
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A framework for understanding the etiology of organizational behavior is presented. The framework is based on theory and research from interactional psychology, vocational psychology, I/O psychology, and organizational theory. The framework proposes that organizations are functions of the kinds of people they contain and, further, that the people there are functions of an attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) cycle. The ASA cycle is proposed as an alternative model for understanding organizations and the causes of the structures, processes, and technology of organizations. First, the ASA framework is developed through a series of propositions. Then some implications of the model are outlined, including (1) the difficulty of bringing about change in organizations, (2) the utility of personality and interest measures for understanding organizational behavior, (3) the genesis of organizational climate and culture, (4) the importance of recruitment, and (5) the need for person-based theories of leadership and job attitudes. It is concluded that contemporary I/O psychology is overly dominated by situationist theories of the behavior of organizations and the people in them.
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This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between person–job (PJ), person–organization (PO), person–group, and person–supervisor fit with preentry (applicant attraction, job acceptance, intent to hire, job offer) and postentry individual-level criteria (attitudes, performance, withdrawal behaviors, strain, tenure). A search of published articles, conference presentations, dissertations, and working papers yielded 172 usable studies with 836 effect sizes. Nearly all of the credibility intervals did not include 0, indicating the broad generalizability of the relationships across situations. Various ways in which fit was conceptualized and measured, as well as issues of study design, were examined as moderators to these relationships in studies of PJ and PO fit. Interrelationships between the various types of fit are also meta-analyzed. 25 studies using polynomial regression as an analytic technique are reviewed separately, because of their unique approach to assessing fit. Broad themes emerging from the results are discussed to generate the implications for future research on fit.
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This paper presents a framework for organizational analysis. The empirically derived approach does not emerge from the observation of actual organizations, but from the ordering, through multivariate techniques, of criteria that organizational theorists and researchers use to evaluate the performance of organizations. In a two-stage study, organizational theorists and researchers were impaneled to make judgments about the similarity of commonly used effectiveness criteria. The model derived from the second group closely replicated the first, and in convergence suggested that three value dimensions (control-flexibility, internal-external, and means-ends) underlie conceptualizations of organizational effectiveness. When these value dimensions are juxtaposed, a spatial model emerges. The model serves a number of important functions. It organizes the organizational effectiveness literature, indicates which concepts are most central to the construct of organizational effectiveness, makes clear the values in which the concepts are embedded, demonstrates that the effectiveness literature and the general literature on organizational analysis are analogues of one another, and provides an overarching framework to guide subsequent efforts at organizational assessment.
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A meta-analysis of the transformational leadership literature using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was conducted to (a) integrate the diverse findings, (b) compute an average effect for different leadership scales, and (c) probe for certain moderators of the leadership style-effectiveness relationship. Transformational leadership scales of the MLQ were found to be reliable and significantly predicted work unit effectiveness across the set of studies examined. Moderator variables suggested by the literature, including level of the leader (high or low), organizational setting (public or private), and operationalization of the criterion measure (subordinate perceptions or organizational measures of effectiveness), were empirically tested and found to have differential impacts on correlations between leader style and effectiveness. The operationalization of the criterion variable emerged as a powerful moderator. Unanticipated findings for type of organization and level of the leader are explored regarding the frequency of transformational leader behavior and relationships with effectiveness.
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This study examines the relationship between employees' perceptions of person–job (P-J) and person–organization (P-O) fit. Survey data collected from 231 employees (104 office personnel and 127 drivers) of a national trucking company show a low correlation (r=.18) between the two types of self-reported fit. Both P-J and P-O fit had a unique impact on job satisfaction and intent to quit. P-O fit was a better predictor of intentions to quit than was P-J fit, but there was little difference in their relative influence on job satisfaction. The predicted positive relationship between perceived P-O fit and contextual performance (extrarole behaviors an employee performs beyond those prescribed in their job description) was also supported. No relationship was found between perceived P-J fit and task performance. Taken as a whole, these results provide further evidence that employees' perceptions of P-J and P-O fit should be treated as distinct constructs.
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Drawing from the conservation of resources framework and self-control principles, we proposed a moderated mediational model through which emotional exhaustion may be linked to counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs). Analyses conducted with 175 Midwestern government workers revealed that both depersonalization (i.e. detachment from one's work, customers or co-workers) and organizational disidentification (i.e. cognitive opposition to an organization) were viable predictors of deviancy. Further, depersonalization and disidentification mediated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and CWBs, although disidentification drove these findings. Lastly, trait self-control moderated most variations of this relationship, in that this mediational model only applied to individuals with low and moderate self-control but not high self-control. Consistent with the conservation of resources framework, this study suggests that in a state of depleted emotional resources, heightened depersonalization and disidentification together provide the necessary levels of psychological/emotional withdrawal and justification for CWBs to emerge.