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Flowering Plants of Province 1 East Nepal 2020

Authors:
  • Ministry of Forest Environment and Soil Conservation Province 1

Abstract

Province No. 1 lies in the eastern part of Nepal (26º22' to 28º7'N & 86º12' to 88º12'E). It is an important region of land in terms of biodiversity richness with unique natural beauty, forests, flora, fauna and mining and mineral resources. Its pristine habitats ranging from Kachankawal (60 m), the lowest level of Nepal to Mt. Everest (8848 m), the highest peak of the world covers almost all types of eco-regions and microclimates. Due to the variation in topography it harbors more than 60% of flowering plants found in Nepal. Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Choyu, Lotse, Jannu, Yalungkang, etc lie in this Province. This Province comprises 14 districts of eastern Nepal, namely Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, Jhapa, Sankhuwasabha, Terhathum, Bhojpur, Dhankuta, Sunsari, Morang, Solukhumbu, Khotang, Okhaldhunga and Udaypur (Fig. 1). It is bounded on the east by the Indian state of West Bengal and on the south by the state of Bihar of India. Similarly, Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and Province No. 2 in the Terai region to the south-west and Province No. 3 in the hilly region in the west. The total area of this Province is 25905 sq. km and the total population is 45,34,943. 3413 species and 87 infra-specific taxa (total 3500 taxa) of flowering plants have been documented in this book, which belong to 1168 genera and 184 families. Among them, 2303 are herbs, 526 shrubs, 398 trees and 273 climbers. More than 924 species are medicinal in use. Orchidaceae is the largest family having 237 species, which is followed by Poaceae (234 sp.), Asteraceae (203 sp.), Fabaceae (174 sp.), Cyperaceae (141 sp.) and so on.
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... Records of herbarium specimens housed at KATH also shows that natural populations of Bijaysal occur in the lowlands of Western and Central Nepal. Similarly, in Eastern Nepal the species exists in planted condition (Rajbhandari et al., 2020). ...
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P. marsupium in Gwalabari community forest comprises a very small population with lower proportions of seedlings and reproductive individuals and highest proportion of saplings. The loss of reproductive stage indicates intense current harvesting of adults. Therefore, to enhance fitness and ensure long-term viability, the existing population of P. marsupium should be strictly protected from harvesting, overgrazing and other human interferences. Particularly, protection and monitoring of seedlings and adult reproductive trees in the natural habitat is the immediate need for its conservation. Such monitoring should also take into consideration all the ecological factors affecting population fitness. Establishment of a system for sustainable Kino gum extraction is another important aspect to be focused. In addition, complementary approaches, such as augmentation and reintroduction programs are needed to increase the size of the existing populations and enhance its gene pool; and create new populations in the ecologically suitable site within its historical range where the species no longer occurs. Our study also provides some insights about the habitat preferences and other biotic interactions highlighting the significance of the species to the ecosystem
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