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The Compact Disc Digital Audio System: Modulation and Error Correction

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This paper deals with the modulation and error correction of the Compact Disc digital audio system. This paper is the very first public disclosure of the Compact Disc digital audio format.
... (RS-code) is a famous error-correcting code invented in 1960 by Reed and Solomon [36]. The first application of RS codes in mass-produced products was the compact disc (CD) in 1980, where two interleaved RS codes were used [37]. Nowadays, RS coding is very widely used in mass storage systems to correct the burst errors associated with media defects. ...
... (RS-code) is a famous error-correcting code invented in 1960 by Reed and Solomon [36]. The first application of RS codes in mass-produced products was the compact disc (CD) in 1980, where two interleaved RS codes were used [37]. Nowadays, RS coding is very widely used in mass storage systems to correct the burst errors associated with media defects. ...
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Steganography is a process of secret communication where a secret message is hidden in such a way that the very existence of the secret information remains concealed. Any steganographic system can be characterized by three factors; robustness, the hiding capacity, and visual quality. The characteristics of the steganographic system may be enhanced by adopting some techniques such as data compression to allow a lot of data to be embedded, or Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) to enhance robustness. This paper investigates the effect of Reed-Solomon code (RS-code), as a famous ECC method and redundancy as an alternative to ECC in terms of robustness. Each technique will be combined with four well-known data embedding methods. Those methods are Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) quantization, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) quantization, DWT content-based, and histogram equalization. In terms of Bit Error Rate (BER), the experimental results show that adding redundancy bits to the message has a much better effect on improving the robustness of the first two embedding methods. In contrast, RS-code (15,3) improves the third embedding method more than the addition of redundancy. However, neither the Rs-code nor the addition of redundancy could improve the fourth embedding method
... (RS-code) is a famous error-correcting code invented in 1960 by Reed and Solomon [36]. The first application of RS codes in mass-produced products was the compact disc (CD) in 1980, where two interleaved RS codes were used [37]. Nowadays, RS coding is very widely used in mass storage systems to correct the burst errors associated with media defects. ...
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Steganography is a process of secret communication where a secret message is hidden in such a way that the very existence of the secret information remains concealed. Any steganographic system can be characterized by three factors; robustness, the hiding capacity, and visual quality. The characteristics of the steganographic system may be enhanced by adopting some techniques such as data compression to allow a lot of data to be embedded, or Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) to enhance robustness. This paper investigates the effect of Reed-Solomon code (RS-code), as a famous ECC method and redundancy as an alternative to ECC in terms of robustness. Each technique will be combined with four well-known data embedding methods. Those methods are Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) quantization, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) quantization, DWT content-based, and histogram equalization. In terms of Bit Error Rate (BER), the experimental results show that adding redundancy bits to the message has a much better effect on improving the robustness of the first two embedding methods. In contrast, RS-code (15,3) improves the third embedding method more than the addition of redundancy. However, neither the Rs-code nor the addition of redundancy could improve the fourth embedding method.
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Reed-Solomon Codes and Their Applications Edited by Stephen B. Wicker, Georgia Institute of Technology and Vijay K. Bhargava, University of Victoria On the Voyager spacecraft, they were responsible for sending clear pictures of the planets back to earth. They have also played a key role in the digital audio revolution. They are Reed-Solomon error codes: the extremely powerful codes that provide critical error control for many different types of digital communications systems. This outstanding collection of thirteen original articles written by leading researchers in the field provides a uniquely comprehensive overview of the history and practical applications--some never before published--of these important codes. Key features include: * Thirteen original articles from leading researchers in the field, with a historical overview by Reed and Solomon * An explanation of how Reed-Solomon codes were used in the Voyager spacecraft and how they are currently used in the compact disc player * Specific applications for digital audio, data transfer over mobile radio, satellite communications, spread spectrum systems, and more * New techniques for improving the performance of your own communications systems This book will be of interest to design and research engineers in the telecommunications field, particularly those in the aerospace/satellite and mobile radio industries. It is also well-suited for use as an advanced-level textbook on the subject of error control coding.
Article
From CD to DVD to Blu-ray Disc, that optical disc all adopted the error-correction code to improve the storage. The error-correction code for the Blu-ray Disc, the up-to-the-minute optical disc, is more advanced than others. Many new technologies are applied in the Blu-ray Disc, especial the error-correction code which called Picket code is more powerful than RS and RSPC code. In the same condition, the error-code rate of the optical disc which used the Picket code is 1.5x10-18, and the optical disc used RSPC is 5.7x10-7. In this paper, the characteristic of those technologies which used in the optical disc will be discussed, include RS code used in CD system, RSPC code used in DVD system, and Picket code. Finally, it will add two different error matrixes to simulate the process of the error-correction code for the DVD system. In this simulating process, especially, we will compare the RS and RSPC code from mathematical direction in the simulation which is different from the professional comparison, this method can be easily accepted by beginner and the comparative result is very intuitionistic for freshman.
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Array error control codes are linear block or convolutional codes which are constructed from several single parity check or other component codes, assembled in two or more geometrical dimensions or directions, with emphasis on simple component codes and low complexity methods of decoding. This survey attempts to introduce, relate and compare all known types of array codes and their applications. After an introduction to the basic properties and uses of array codes, the second section of the paper describes binary array code constructions for random, burst and cluster error control. The third section describes a number of binary convolutional array codes, for both random and burst error control. Non-binary and byte-oriented array codes, both block and convolutional, are covered in the fourth section, which mentions some quite powerful and yet practical constructions. The fifth section discusses various enhancements which can be applied to array codes. The paper ends with conclusions, open problems, and an extensive set of references.
Article
While the Compact Disc (CD) players have been gradually spread, a higher- performance for the error correction capability has been required in order to protect reproduced audio signals against errors due to scratches, finger prints etc. on a disc. On the other hand, the CD player have been given attention as a data file system, which provides a lower cost, more capacity and reliability than a conventional data file such as floppy disc system and so on. In order to apply a CD player to such a data file system what is called "CD ROM", an improvement of the error correction capability is also required.
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We present an extension of the current LaserVision video disc format that includes a digital audio signal. We show the feasibility of a combined digital audio signal according to the Compact Disc Digital Audio format and the current analog audio signals in the NTSC video format, enabling the realization of a compatible system. For the PAL and SECAM video formats we show the feasibility of digital audio, but unfortunately it cannot be combined with the analog audio carriers. Copyright © 1983 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Article
A high-speed 2-in. data disk system that has a 14. 3-Mb/s data transfer rate has been developed. This system also has a powerful error-correction case called a cross-interleaved Reed-Solomon code, which is valid for both random and burst errors. Error-free data reading is possible even if the random byte error rate falls to 10** minus **3 or the burst error is up to 2. 43 mm long in each sector. The formatted capacity is 0. 819 Mb with a single-side usage. The system incorporates a recently designed disk controller LSI called the advanced disk controller.
Article
Orthogonal space-time block coding proposed recently by Alamouti (1998) and Tarokh et al. (1999) is a promising scheme for information transmission over Rayleigh-fading channels using multiple transmit antennas due to its favorable characteristics of having full transmit diversity and a decoupled maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding algorithm. Tarokh et al. extended the theory of classical orthogonal designs to the theory of generalized, real, or complex, linear processing orthogonal designs and then applied the theory of generalized orthogonal designs to construct space-time block codes (STBC) with the maximum possible diversity order while having a simple decoding algorithm for any given number of transmit and receive antennas. It has been known that the STBC constructed in this way can achieve the maximum possible rate of one for every number of transmit antennas using any arbitrary real constellation and for two transmit antennas using any arbitrary complex constellation. Contrary to this, in this correspondence we prove that there does not exist rate-one STBC from generalized complex linear processing orthogonal designs for more than two transmit antennas using any arbitrary complex constellation.
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