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It has been found, by some experiments, that during internal field emission , capacitors thrust anomalously towards their anodes. It is shown here that this thrust is predicted by quantised inertia, a theory that also predicts galaxy rotation without dark matter. One experiment has claimed that the capacitors' thrust was as large as 120 N/kW, and quantised inertia predicts that this is further enhanceable, making this a potential launch system.
v=P τ d
v=P d2
v=at =qeV t/med=qeV/(me(v
~2P d2me
F=2P d2me
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It is shown here that a model for inertial mass, called quantised inertia, or MiHsC (Modified inertia by a Hubble-scale Casimir effect) predicts the rotational acceleration of the 153 good quality galaxies in the SPARC dataset (2016 AJ 152 157), with a large range of scales and mass, from just their visible baryonic matter, the speed of light and the co-moving diameter of the observable universe. No dark matter is needed. The performance of quantised inertia is comparable to that of MoND, yet it needs no adjustable parameter. As a further critical test, quantised inertia uniquely predicts a specific increase in the galaxy rotation anomaly at higher redshifts. This test is now becoming possible and new data shows that galaxy rotational accelerations do increase with redshift in the predicted manner, at least up to Z=2.2.
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It is shown here that if we assume that what is conserved in nature is not simply mass-energy, but rather mass-energy plus the energy uncertainty of the uncertainty principle, and if we also assume that position uncertainty is reduced by the formation of relativistic horizons, then the resulting increase of energy uncertainty is close to that needed for a new model for inertial mass (MiHsC, quantised inertia) which has been shown to predict galaxy rotation without dark matter and cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The same principle can also be used to model the inverse square law of gravity, and predicts the mass of the electron.
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The present work provides a detailed analysis of already published reports on the observation of an anomalous force in a vacuum associated with vacuum sparks in asymmetric capacitors charged with “constant” high voltages. Known experimental details of these experiments are put forward and propulsion performance is compared with the only known propulsion system known to exist in a vacuum associated with sparks: the vacuum arc thruster (VAT). VAT's are known for decades and work on principles of momentum conservation. They vaporize particles from the electrodes themselves through a high spark current in one direction in order to develop a thrust in the opposite direction. However, the known performance trend for these thrusters does not account for the vacuum spark force values published by NASA. Furthermore, they have not observed the electrode erosion usually associated with VAT operation, even after extended testing. Therefore it is possible that a new propulsion mechanism might be at work, but that should be verified and confirmed experimentally in the future in order to resolve the question.
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The research group of the HONDA R&D Institute observed the weight reduction at an experiment by applying an alternate electric field to a capacitor. This phenomenon, which can be called as "dynamical Biefeld-Brown effect", cannot be explained within the framework of conventional physics. From the standpoint of the ZPF field, the author tries to explain this phenomenon as an interaction between the vacuum electromagnetic zero-point field and the high potential electric field. By the theoretical analysis, it is considered that the interaction of zero-point vacuum fluctuations with a high potential electric field can induce a greater momentum for the dielectric material, which would produce a sufficient artificial gravity to permit interstellar travel for a potential spacecraft.
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The property of inertia has never been fully explained. A model for inertia (MiHsC or quantised inertia) has been suggested that assumes that 1) inertia is due to Unruh radiation and 2) this radiation is subject to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This model has no adjustable parameters and predicts the cosmic acceleration, and galaxy rotation without dark matter, suggesting that Unruh radiation indeed causes inertia, but the exact mechanism by which it does this has not been specified. The mechanism suggested here is that when an object accelerates, for example to the right, a dynamical (Rindler) event horizon forms to its left, reducing the Unruh radiation on that side by a Rindler-scale Casimir effect whereas the radiation on the other side is only slightly reduced by a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This produces an imbalance in the radiation pressure on the object, and a net force that always opposes acceleration, like inertia. A formula for inertia is derived, and an experimental test is suggested.
This paper examines various aspects of black-hole evaporation. A two-dimensional model is investigated where it is shown that using fermion-boson cancellation on the stress-energy tensor reduces the energy outflow to zero, while other noncovariant techniques give the Hawking result. A technique for replacing the collapse by boundary conditions on the past horizon is developed which retains the essential features of the collapse while eliminating some of the difficulties. This set of boundary conditions is also suggested as the most natural set for a preexistent black hole. The behavior of particle detectors under acceleration is investigated where it is shown that an accelerated detector even in flat spacetime will detect particles in the vacuum. The similarity of this case with the behavior of a detector near the black hole is brought out, and it is shown that a geodesic detector near the horizon will not see the Hawking flux of particles. Finally, the work of Berger, Chitre, Nutku, and Moncrief on scalar geons is corrected, and the spherically symmetric coupled scalar-gravitation Hamiltonian is presented in the hope that someone can apply it to the problem of black-hole evaporation.
Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.
This paper proposes an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly: an unexplained Sunward acceleration of 8.74 +/- 1.33 x 10^-10 m s^-2 seen in the behaviour of the Pioneer probes. Two hypotheses are made: (1) Inertia is a reaction to Unruh radiation and (2) this reaction is weaker for low accelerations because some wavelengths in the Unruh spectrum do not fit within a limiting scale (twice the Hubble distance) and are disallowed: a process similar to the Casimir effect. When these ideas are used to model the Pioneer crafts' trajectories there is a slight reduction in their inertial mass, causing an anomalous Sunward acceleration of 6.9 +/- 3.5 x 10^-10 m s^-2 which agrees within error bars with the observed Pioneer anomaly beyond 10 AU from the Sun. This new scheme is appealingly simple and does not require adjustable parameters. However, it also predicts an anomaly within 10 AU of the Sun, which has not been observed. Various observational tests for the idea are proposed.
Electrostatic accelerated electrons within symmetric capacitors during eld emission condition events exert bidirectional propellant-less thrust
  • F M Becker
  • A S Bhatt
Becker, F.M. and A.S. Bhatt, 2018. Electrostatic accelerated electrons within symmetric capacitors during eld emission condition events exert bidirectional propellant-less thrust. Arxiv:
Propellant-less propulsion from quantised inertia
  • M E Mcculloch
McCulloch, M.E., 2018. Propellant-less propulsion from quantised inertia. J. Space Exploration. 7(3).