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Chile:Folk_Inferno

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chile: folk_inferno
Foto copertã: Andrés Cortínez
ªtampilã muralã anonimã pe un zid din centrul
oraºului Santiago.
„Al capitalismo hay que darle hasta que duela“
(capitalismului trebuie sã i-o tragi pânã îl doare)
se joacã cu sensul din “Hay que dar hasta
que duela” (sã dãm pânã când ne doare), un
aforism lansat de preotul iezuit Alberto Hurtado,
recent sanctificat, a cãrui imagine a fost, de
asemenea, deturnatã.
Cover photography: Andrés Cortínez
Anonymous stencil on a wall in Santiago
downtown.
“Al capitalismo hay que darle hasta que duela”
(lets give it to the capitalism till it hurts), plays
with the meaning of “Hay que dar hasta que
duela” (let’s give till it hurts), an aphorism
minted by the recently sanctified Jesuit priest
Alberto Hurtado, whose image has been also
subverted.
“Chile: Folk_Inferno” was made possible by the
enthusiasm of URO1.ORG Cooperative, which
coordinated this editorial project.
URO1.ORG Cooperative is a Future Cultural
Concepts Laboratory. Its mission consists on
working on the aesthetic/cultural transformation
of our society. The formulation and development
of these future ideas are thought to materialize
into built projects and innovate business. These
products are understood as the crossing of an
intellectual challenge, a political approach, a
business vision, and a efficient management.
URO1.ORG Cooperative was founded in 2002
by a group of young architects (born around
1977). The Cooperative has been selected in
the 3rd Iberoamerican Biennial of Architecture
and Engineering (2002, Chile), 13th and 14th
Biennial of Chilean Architecture (2002, 2004),
the 9th Venice Biennial (2004, Italy), and the 3rd
sequence of the E-W/N-S exposition at the arc
en rêve centre d’architecture (2005, Bordeaux).
Their work has been published in Spain, Italy,
USA, UK, Germany, China, Portugal, France,
and Japan.
Fernando Portal - Architect / Master in
Architecture
Nicolas Rebolledo - Architect / Independent
Musician
Gabriel Rudolphy - Architect
Alejandro Soffia - Architect / Autodidact
Entomologist
Arturo Torres - Architect
“Chile: Folk_Inferno” a fost posibil datoritã
entuziasmului grupului de arhitecþi chilieni
URO1.ORG Cooperative, care a coordonat
acest proiect editorial.
URO1.ORG Cooperative se defineºte ca fiind
un Laborator de Concepte Culturale pentru
Viitor. Misiunea sa constã în a lucra asupra
transformãrilor estetice ºi culturale ale societãþii
contemporane. Formularea ºi dezvoltarea
acestor idei se urmãreºte a fi materializate în
proiecte construite ºi afaceri inovative. Aceste
produse sunt înþelese ca o intersectare a efortului
intelectual, a abordãrii politice, a unei viziuni de
afaceri ºi a unui management eficient.
URO1.ORG Cooperative a fost fondatã în 2002
de cãtre un grup de tineri arhitecþi (nãscuþi în
jurul lui 1977). Cooperativa a fost selectatã
pentru a 3-a Bienalã de Arhitecturã ºi Inginerie
Iberoamericanã (2002, Chile), a 13-a ºi a 14-a
Bienalã de Arhitecturã din Chile (2002, 2004), a
9-a Bienalã de la Veneþia (2004, Italia) ºi a 3-a
ediþie a expoziþiei E-W/N-S la Arc en Rêve Centre
d’Architecture (2005, Bordeaux). Lucrãrile le-au
fost publicate în Spania, Italia, SUA, Marea
Britanie, Germania, China, Portugalia, Franþa ºi
Japonia.
Fernando Portal - Arhitect / Master în
arhitecturã
Nicolas Rebolledo - Arhitect / Muzician
independent
Gabriel Rudolphy - Arhitect
Alejandro Soffia - Arhitect / Entomologist
autodidact
Arturo Torres - Arhitect
1. Dincolo de canonul vizual chilian. Un dialog între producþie ºi
difuzare
Difuzarea internaþionalã a arhitecturii chiliene prin indermediul mediilor
specializate s-a dezvoltat în paralel cu producerea unor opere cu o
calitate arhitecturalã deosebitã. Numerele monografice ale revistelor
internaþionale precum ºi organizarea de seminarii ºi expoziþii
internaþionale (1) au dus la aflarea unor chei specifice de interpretare
a arhitecturii recente din Chile. Diferenþa dintre cele douã procese,
unul privind producþia localã iar altul difuzarea globalã a creat un efect
de mimesis în ambele sensuri: pe de o parte, producerea anumitor
opere arhitecturale evolueazã prin continuitatea referinþei – iar unele
lucrãri recunoscute în dezbaterile internaþionale (2) genereazã un set
omogen de opere; iar pe de altã parte, criteriile de publicare pentru
a fi difuzate au devenit tot mai specifice pentru un canon vizual creat
care porneºte de la ele ºi se constituie pentru ele. (IMAGE 1.tiff)
Aceastã satisfacþie narcisistã a arhitecturii chiliene, înþeleasã ca
influenþã mutualã între producere ºi difuzare este o consecinþã a unei
anume particularitãþi identificate de Argan (3) cu metodele istoriei
artei, singura capabilã sã-ºi construiascã argumentul pornind de
la observaþia directã a evenimentului studiat ºi dobândind astfel
capacitatea de a influenþa obiectul asupra cãruia îºi întoarce privirea.
Se pare cã aceastã fascinaþie mutualã care bântuie producþia ºi
difuzarea a restrâns posibilitãþile de articulare a noilor discursuri
generate în afara limitelor „stilistice” trasate exogen.
Construirea unei imagini a arhitecturii chiliene prin perspective strãine
a accentuat o laturã formalã a evoluþiei ei, limitate dar elocvente.
Limitatã în sensul cã tinde sã elimine posibilitatea unei reprezentãri
eficiente a cãilor sau sferelor producþiei artistice. Elocventã, pentru
cã reflectã condiþia regalã a dezvoltãrii arhitecturii din Chile. Cu alte
cuvinte, discursul internaþional se confruntã cu arhitectura chilianã,
deºi s-a dezvoltat paralel cu producþia pe care a definit-o, dar ignorã
noile arhitecturi care rodesc dincolo de limitele stabilite vizual de
criticul care a extras lucrarea de arhitecturã din contextul în care
se produce, izolând-o ca obiect finit de design, neþinând seama de
condiþiile culturale în care a fost creatã. Pentru a integra noile chei de
interpretare, este necesar sã observãm tematica acestui context al
prezentului.
1. Beyond the Chilean visual canon. Dialogue between production and
diffusion.
The international diffusion of the Chilean architecture through
specialized media is a process that has developed in parallel with the
generation of works with recognized architectural quality. The edition of
monographic numbers of international magazines, altogether with the
organization of seminars and exhibitions (1), has determined keys of
specific interpretation on the recently generated architecture in Chile.
The difference between both processes, the one of local production and
the one of global diffusion, have generated an effect of mimesis on both
sides: on the one hand, the production of certain architectural works
develops through the continuity or the reference, certain values within
those recognized as interesting by international debate (2), generating
a homogenous set of works; on the other hand, the publishing criteria
for their diffusion have become each time more specific about the
fulfillment of works generated in Chile, of the visual canon created from
and for them. (IMAGE 1.tiff)
This narcissist satisfaction of the Chilean architecture, understood
as a mutual influence between its production and its diffusion, is
a consequence of the particularity identified by Argan (3) with the
specific methods of art history, being the only one of special histories
that constructs its argument based on direct observation of the studied
event, acquiring the intrinsic capacity of influencing the development of
the object on which it turns.
It seemed that this mutual fascination between production and
diffusion, has restricted the possibilities of articulating new speeches,
and with it, the possibilities of recognizing the existence of works of
architectural quality that has been originated outside the exogenously
defined “stylistic” limits.
The construction of an image of the Chilean architecture by means
of foreign glances has emphasized a particular formal aspect of their
development, which is limited and eloquent. Limited in the sense that
it tends to eliminate the possibilities of effective representation of other
ways or spheres of artistic production. Eloquent, as it reflects the
princely condition of the development of the architecture in Chile.
In other words: the international speech faces the Chilean architecture,
although has been developed in parallel to the same production that it
has defined, has stayed off the sprouting of new architectures located
outside the limits which are visually established by this critic, (the one)
which operated through the extraction of the architectural work from
its productive context, isolating it as a finite object of design, without
EDITORIAL
posibilitãþile transformãrii culturale a producþiei
arhitecturale chiliene possibilities of cultural
transformation of chilean
architectural production
Text: URO1.ORG Cooperative
Traducere din englezã / Translated form English: Magda Teodorescu
3 chile: folk_inferno
2. Folk_In ferno. Est etica ºi posib ilitãþile indus triale ale golul ui tehnologic
dintre producþie ºi informaþie
Din punct de vedere tehnologic, caracterizarea arhitecturii periferice
nu implicã dezvoltarea unui limbaj formal (aºa cum pretind criticii
postmoderni), ci recunoaºterea propriilor condiþii de producere (4),
difenþiind între modalitatea de informaþie (legatã de dezvoltarea
conceptualã a proiectului) ºi modalitatea de producere (legatã de
construcþia efectivã a lucrãrii). (5)
În contextul chilian, procesul de generare a unei lucrãri de arhitecturã
implicã un contact cu dualitatea existentã în nivelul tehnologic al
tehnicilor aplicate în fiecare direcþie de dezvoltare. Aceastã dualitate
se rezolvã prin aplicarea unor instrumente sofisticate de proiectare
(orientate chiar spre producþia industrialã), a acelora care contrasteazã
cu caracterul artizanal al tehnologiilor constructive disponibile ºi
calitatea inferioarã a execuþiei manuale. (IMAGE 2.tiff)
Din aceastã categorie putem identifica aplicarea unui concept
documentat de instrumentele de analizã, reprezentare ºi simulare
digitalã în activitatea de proiectare – adicã, prin utilizarea softului
CAD-CAM – disociat de platforma tehnologicã aplicatã la activitatea
de construcþie a lucrãri, care tinde sã fie realizatã cu tehnici artizanale
ºi mijloace apropiate vernacularului. Aceastã disociere între
instrumentele conceptuale ºi productive este accentuatã în anumite
lucrãri de arhitecturã, care pot ilustra prin tectonica lor caracterul
neomogen al instrumentelor folosite în generare ºi prezentate ca
subproduse cu o anumitã esteticã legatã de procesul spontan al
digitalizãrii vernacularului. Acest proces, prin care urmele vernaculare
al producþiei sunt înþelese ca date ale unor instrumente digitale, apare
exprimat în sens contrar în acþiunile generate de discipline compatibile.
Aceste alte intrãri ale vernacularului par sã-l abstractizeze, indicând
alte viziuni asupra permanenþei lui. Mai mult, am fost martorii eliminãrii
încãrcãturii lui simbolice prin decontextualizarea obiectelor cotidiene
în ce privte utilitatea ºi contextul (6), împreunã cu încercarea de a
conferi continuitate prin înlãturarea laturii învechite a instrumentelor
care, la început, i-a dat formã. (7) Procesarea digitalã a condiþiilor
vernaculare, deja dezbrãcate de referinþele simbolice, se confruntã,
în construcþia propriei arhitecturi, cu necesitatea de a se auto-forma
pornind de la tehnici depãºite. Aceastã situaþie particularã a arhitecturii
chiliene permite „acapararea” sensului aforismului macluhanian, care
considering the cultural conditions of its production.
As a way of incorporating new keys of interpretation of the Chilean
production, it’s necessary then to observe the thematic of its present
productive context.
2. Folk-inferno. Aesthetic and industrial possibilities of technological gap
between production and information
The characterization of a peripheral architecture, from a technological
point of view, does not imply the development of a formal language (as
postmodern critics pretended), but the recognition of its own conditions
of production (4), distinguishing between its way of information (bound
to the conceptual development of a project), and its way of production
(bound to the effective construction of the work). (5)
In the Chilean context, the process of generating an architecture work
implies taking contact with the duality, which exists in the technological
level of the techniques used for each way of development.
This duality is carried out by the application of sophisticated tools of
projecting (oriented even towards an industrial production), those that
contrast with the artisan-like character of the available constructive
technologies and the low qualification of the manual labor. (IMAGE 2.tiff)
Of this form, we can identify, the application of a concept informed from
digital tools of analysis, representation and simulation in the projecting
action - through the use of software guided to the CAD-CAM production
- dissociated of the technological platform applied to the construction
of the work - which tends to be made with artisan techniques, analog
means and vernacular references.
This dissociation between conceptual and productive tools is
pronounced in certain works of architecture, which are able to give
account through its tectonics, of the dissimilar character of the tools
used in its generation, presented as a sub-product, a particular
aesthetics related to a spontaneous process of digitalization of the
vernacular.
This process, through which the vernacular reminiscences of the
production are understood like data from digital tools of information
administration, is expressed in the opposite sense in actions originating
from compatible disciplines. These other registries of the vernacular
seem to abstract it, showing other visions on its permanence. On the
one hand, we attended the elimination of its symbolic load through
the de-contextualization of daily objects of its utility and context (6), in
association with an attempt to give continuity by means of its separation
of the obsolescence of the tools that originally gave its form. (7)
This digital processing of vernacular conditions, undressed already
of symbolic references, faces in the case of the own construction to
the architecture, with the necessity to form itself starting from obsolete
techniques. This particular condition of the Chilean production allows
“taking hand” from the macluhanian aphorism by which, “all the
5 chile: folk_inferno
spune cã „tehnologia depãºitã este pe pragul de a deveni artã” (8).
Materializarea acestei dualitãþi a diverselor stadii de tehnologie ºi
a expresiei lor tectonice se reflectã în componentele unei estetici
generate de înþelegerea învechitului ca o platformã de generare a
artefactelor. (IMAGE 3.tiff)
Administrarea digitalã a datelor legatã de tehnici ºi procese
constructive artizanale ar sta la baza acestei estetici recognoscibile,
un produs al depãºitului, învechitului, la urma urmelor.
Lucrarea astfel proiectatã ºi construitã poate fi parte a unei moºteniri
artizanale legate de tradiþiile vernaculare în construcþii. Deºi definirea
acestei estetici permite distanþarea producþiei chiliene de canonul
vizual dominant în scopul interpretãrii, a te baza pe posibilitãþile
expresiei tectonice a acestei disocieri ar presupune eliminarea
capacitãþii unei lucrãri de arhitecturã de a genera inovaþia tehnologicã
eficientã în domeniul industrializãrii.
3. Arhitectura post-totalitarã. Posibilitãþile critice ale relaþiei între
producþie ºi sens
Sunt 16 ani de la revenirea la democraþie, a aspiraþiei nostalgice
de ascensiune a comunismului din timpul guvernãrii Allende (1970-
73) ºi polarizãrii populare datorate dictaturii militare (1973-89). Din
punct de vedere tematic, acest factor a caracterizat procesul de
tranziþie politicã prin care a trecut þara. Acestea au permis apariþia
unei generaþii de artiºti ºi arhitecþi formaþi în ultimii ani. Deºi prezenþa
trecutului autoritar poate fi cititã printre rânduri în anumite lucrãri ale
acestei perioade (9), inerþia, trivialitatea ºi atitudinea conservatoare
preponderente în timpul dictaturii sunt subminate de recompunerea
unei scene cu puternice forþe creatoare, unde atacul lansat împotriva
moralitãþii dominante a þãrii vizeazã luarea deciziilor – în domeniul
artistic – ºi respectul faþã de construirea unei republici moderne.
Înflorirea acestei scene culturare se hrãneºte din utilizarea unor spaþii
de acþiune spontanã ºi reaproprierea spaþiului public. Revistele,
fanzinele, publicaþiile, cluburile, cafenelele, evenimentele multimedia
ºi alte produii legate de muzi ºi artele spectacolului direcþioneazã
un proces de transformare culturalã în interiorulruia artele vizuale
ºi arhitectura au reit ocupe un spaþiu privilegiat de acþiune ºi
discuþie. Acest lucru se întâmplã pentru cã ambele discipline au
obsolete technology is ready to become art” (8).
The materialization of this duality between different stages of technology
and its tectonic expression could be the components of an aesthetic,
generated from the understanding of the obsolete as a platform for the
generation of artifacts. (IMAGE 3.tiff)
The digital administration of data about techniques and constructive
processes of artisan-like character would base this recognizable
aesthetics, product of the obsolescence, after all.
The work thus designed and constructed, happens to be part of an
artisan legacy related to vernacular traditions of construction. Although
the definition of this aesthetics allows distancing the Chilean production
from the prevailing visual canon for its interpretation, to rest on the
possibilities of tectonic expression of this dissociation, it would suppose
to eliminate the capacity of an architecture work to generate effective
technological innovation in the field of industrialization.
3. Post-totalitarian architecture. Critical possibilities of the relation
between production and meaning
There are 16 years since the return to the democracy, the nostalgic
sublime of the democratic ascent of the socialism of the Unidad
Popular in the government of Allende (1970-73), and the popular
polarization due to the neo-conservative military dictatorship (1973-
89). That has characterized thematically the cultural production of the
process of political transition carried out by the country. It has allowed
the explorations by a generation of artists and architects formed in
the last years. Although the presence of an authoritarian past can
be read between the lines in certain works produced in this period
(9), the prevailing inertia, triviality and the conservative attitude in the
dictatorship are being undermined by the conformation of a scene of
high creative force, in where the attack to the predominant moral in the
country considers as a decision making - from the artistic production -,
the respect to the construction of a modern republic. The sprouting of
this cultural scene has been fed on the use of spontaneous spaces of
action and the gradual re-appropriation of the public space. Through
magazines, fanzines, record labels, publications, clubs, coffees and
multimedia events, a series of productions related to music, scenic
and performing arts are guiding a process of cultural transformation,
within as the visual arts and the architecture have managed to occupy
a privileged place of action and discussion. This has happened since
both disciplines have agreed in finding particular production logics
within this post-totalitarian context, which have affected their level of
meaning.
The development of a cultural policy of support and subsidies of the
artistic production on the part of the governing center-left agreement
has generated a quite ample public platform for the conformation of
artistic actions and architectural works. (IMAGE 4.tiff)
reuºit gãseascã propria logicã în contextul post-totalitar care le-a
afectat nivelul de înþelegere.
Dezvoltarea unei politici culturale de sprijin ºi subsidii pentru producþia
artisticã – politicã iniþiatã de guvernul de centru-stânga – a generat
o platformã publicã amplã în domeniul artistic ºi arhitectural. (IMAGE
4.tiff) Instituþionalizarea acestei logici productive ºi auto-gestionarea
ei a permis arhitecturii sã ajungã subiect de dezbatere publicã,
atingându-se în special condiþiile morale preexistente în societatea
chilianã (10); simultan, acest lucru a dus la crearea unor noi
monumente dedicate memoriei istorice. (11). Faptul cã o producþie
artisticã, îndeosebi aceea care priveºte critic contextul social ºi
cultural al producerii ei, genereazã prin sprijinul statului, un proces de
„estetizare” politicã; aceastã producþie va crea un fel de hegemonie
statalã prin vectorul de propagandã. Cu toate acestea, dezvoltarea
tematicã a acestor lucrãri de arhitecturã pare sã distorsioneze acest
rol, fiind considerate drept producþii critice, fie numai prin capacitatea
lor de a demonstra contradicþiile actuale date de context. (13) (IMAGE
5.tiff) Astfel, condiþiile particulare ale producþiei de arhitecturã, când
se atinge aproape un statut instituþionalizat în logica artisticã, au
permis discutarea acestei propagãri a hegemoniei, care atinge un
grad înalt, înþelegînd-o ca pe un agent active în actulul proces de
transformare culturalã.
Note
(1) Printre acestea, putem sublinia numerele monografice ale revistelor Casabella,
Abitare (nr. 353), L’Arca (nr. 93), Arkinka (nr. 28), A&V (nr.48), Deutsche Bauzeitung
(nr.129), 2G (nr.8), Praxis (nr.2), seminarul despre arhitectura chilianã „Condiþii ale
Illunyainia”, organizat de ªcoala de Arhitecturã din Catalonia în 2002, ºi expoziþia
recentã FRONTIS, 20 de tineri arhitecþi chilieni, prezentatã la a noua Bienalã
Internaþionalã de la Veneþia. Acestea au fost comentate în Torrent, Horacio, 2004,
Al sur del mundo: Arquitecturas de Chile, în Perez, F. Torrent, H. Et al. V Foro
Internacional: La nueva Arquitectura de Chile. Ecuador, Colegio de Arquitetura USFQ.
Universidad San Francisco de Quito. p. 100 -113.
(2) Printre aceste valori apar unele aspecte vizuale de seamã (augmentate prin
difuzarea lor prin fotografii) care subliniazã utilizarea de geometri simple, evidenþierea
peisajului prin contrast cu mediul înconjurãtor, lucrarea construitã ºi amplasarea ei,
aplicarea stereotomiei învelitorilor ºi apelul la vernacular în concordanþã cu o tectonicã
specificã.
The institutionalization of its productive logics, and their generation from
the self-management, has allowed this architectural production to reach
a public platform of discussion about the preexisting moral conditions
in the Chilean society (10), and simultaneously, to the constitution of
new monuments prone to the retroactive construction of a historical
memory (11).
The fact that an artistic production that that thinks himself as critic respect
to the cultural and social conditions of its production, generates through
state supports, locate it within a process of political “aesthetification”
(12), within this production will become a vector of propagation of
certain hegemony on the part of the State. Nevertheless, the thematic
developed by these works of architecture, and in evident form but, the
cultural debates proposed by their implementation, seemed to distort
this roll, considering like a critical production, at least in their capacity
to demonstrate the present contradictions in their productive context
(13). (IMAGE 5.tiff)
Of this form, the particular conditions of the architectural production
when this comes near to the institutionalized logics of art, have allowed
to discuss to the propagation of a hegemony, acquiring a high degree
of meaning, through their understanding like an active agent in the
present process of cultural transformation.
Notes
(1) Between these, one may emphasize the monographs made by the magazines:
Casabella (n650), Abitare (n353), L’Arca (n93), Arkinka (n28), A&V (n48),
DeutscheBauzeitung (n129), 2G (n8), Praxis (n2), the seminar on Chilean architecture
“Conditions of Illunyainia” organized by the School of Architects of Catalonia in 2002,
and the recent exhibition FRONTIS, 20 Young Chilean architects, presented in the 9th
Biennale Internazionale di Venezia.
As commented in: Torrent, Horacio. 2004. Al sur del mundo: Arquitecturas de Chile.
En: Perez, F. Torrent, H. Et al. V Foro Internacional: La nueva Arquitectura de Chile.
Ecuador. Colegio de Arquitetura USFQ. Universidad San Francisco de Quito. p. 100-
113.
(2) Between these values, there are outstanding visual aspects (extended by its
diffusion on the basis of photography), between which they emphasize: the use
of simple geometries, the subliming of landscape from the contrasts between the
surroundings, the constructed work and its way of location, the stereotomic application
of coatings and the use of vernacular conditions in conformation with a specific tectonic.
(3) Argan, Giulio Carlo 1984. Historia del arte como historia de la ciudad. Spain. Laia.
p. 25-26.
(4) This argument, centered on the paradoxical conditions of the introduction of
technologies in the Latin-American context, has been presented by URO1.ORG in the
debate “ Does Latin-American Architecture have an Identity”, published in: Gallanti,
Fabrizio. 2004. URO1.ORG: prototype M7. Domus. 875:72-89
(5) Duque, Felix. 2003. De Cyborgs, superhombres y otras exageraciones. In:
Hernandez Sanchez, Domingo (Ed.). Cuerpo, arte y tecnología (Body, art and
7 chile: folk_inferno
(3) Argan, Giulio Carlo, 1984, Historia del arte como historia de la ciudad, Spania,
Laia. p. 25-26.
(4) Acest argument, centrat pe condiþiile paradoxale ale introducerii tehnologiei în
America Latinã, a fost prezentat de URO1.ORG în dezbaterea “Are Arhitectura Latino-
Americanã o Identitate “, publicatã în: Gallanti, Fabrizio. 2004. URO1.ORG: prototip
M7. Domus. 875:72-89
(5) Duque, Felix. 20 03. De Cyborgs, superhombres y otras exageraciones, în:
Hernandez Sanchez, Domingo (Ed.). Cuerpo, arte y tecnología (Artã, corp ºi
tehnologie). Spania, Ed. University of Salamanca, p. 167-187.
(6) Acþiune observabilã în domeniul mobilierului rural, cercetat de Josefina Guilisasti.
(7) Cum se prezintã intrarea ºi intervenþia ulterioarã a graficii vernaculare a lui Manuel
Corboda.
(8) MacLuhan, Marshall. READING AND THE FUTURE OF PRIVATE IDENTIT Y [in
line] < http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss1/1_1art1.htm > [consults:
November 2005]
(9) Observabilã în utilizarea strategiilor de reprimare a spaþiului creator întreprinse de
Pablo Rivera.
(10) Ca în cazul criticului culturii care a studiat moºtenirea iudeo-creºtinã prezentã în
lucrarea Nautilus de la URO1.ORG ºi Jorge Christie.
(11) Dat de un amplu efort al statului de a sprijini crearea unor monumente în memoria
victimelor abuzurilor împotriva drepturilor omului din timpul dictaturii, dintre care
Memorialul Femeii, al Ofinica de Arquitectura, este un exemplu.
(12) Despre caracteristicile procesului de „estetizare” politicã vezi Benjamin, Walter.
2003. La obra de arte en la época de su reproductibilidad técnica. Mexico. Ed. Itaca.
127p. Despre utilizarea arhitecturii ca vehicul de construirea hegemoniei statale vezi
: Menser, Michael, 1998, Volverse heterarca: sobre la teoría tecnocultural, la ciencia
menor y la producción de espacio, în Aronowitz, Stanley Martinsons, Barbara Menser,
Michael (Ed.) Tecnociencia y cibercultura. La interrelación entre cultura, tecnología y
ciencia, Spania, Paidos, pp. 333-357.
(13) Aceastã capacitate a operei de arhitecturã poate fi obser vatã în debaterea iscatã
în jurul aplasamentului „Memorialului Femeii”. Schimbarea aplasamentului, dupã
câºtigarea premiului, s-a izbit de refuzul primarului din Santiago (primarul face parte
din partidul de opoziþie) de-al amplasa în faþa clãdirii guvernului, unde se afla un
monument, acum demolat, cu conotaþii militare. Aceastã schimbare demonstreazã
imposibilitatea intersectãrii sau suprapunerii a douã tipuri de memorie vizând perioada
autoritarã.
technology). Spain. Ed. University of Salamanca, p. 167-187.
(6) Observable action in registry of rural furniture carried out by Josefina Guilisasti.
(7) As it presents the registry and the later intervention of vernacular graphics carried
out by Manuel Corboda.
(8) MacLuhan, Marshall. READING AND THE FUTURE OF PRIVATE IDENTITY [in
line] <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss1/1_1art1.htm > [consults:
November 2005]
(9) Observable in the use of strategies of repression like creative space, carried out by
Pablo Rivera.
(10) As in the case of the critic to the culture of the inherited body of the Jewish-
Christian tradition made by the work Nautilus from URO1.ORG and Jorge Christie.
(11) From an ample state effort towards the generation of monuments in the memory
of victims of abuses against the human rights during the dictatorship, of which the
Woman’s Memory Memorial of oficinadearquitectura.cl is an example.
(12) On the characteristics of the process of political “aesthetification” see: Benjamin,
Walter. 2003. La obra de arte en la época de su reproductibilidad técnica. Mexico. Ed.
Itaca. 127p.
On the use of the architecture as vehicle of construction of hegemony on the part of the
state, see: Menser, Michael. 1998. Volverse heterarca: sobre la teoría tecnocultural, la
ciencia menor y la producción de espacio, in: Aronowitz, Stanley. Martinsons, Barbara.
Menser, Michael (Ed.) Tecnociencia y cibercultura. La interrelación entre cultura,
tecnología y ciencia. Spain, Paidos, pp. 333-357.
(13) This capacity of an architectural work is observable in the debate arisen around
the location given to the “Memorial Memory Woman”. The shift of the position of the
memorial once adjudged the prize, had to the refusal on the part of the mayor mandate
of Santiago (regarding that the mayor mandates from a political group in opposition to
the government), to locate it in front of the house of government, near the place that
received during the dictatorship, recently demolished monument of military connotation.
This shift demonstrates the present impossibility of intersecting or superposing two
different memories on the authoritarian period.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Historia del arte como historia de la ciudad, Spania, Laia
  • Giulio Argan
  • Carlo
Argan, Giulio Carlo, 1984, Historia del arte como historia de la ciudad, Spania, Laia. p. 25-26.
De Cyborgs, superhombres y otras exageraciones
  • Felix Duque
Duque, Felix. 2003. De Cyborgs, superhombres y otras exageraciones, în: Hernandez Sanchez, Domingo (Ed.). Cuerpo, arte y tecnología (Artã, corp ºi tehnologie). Spania, Ed. University of Salamanca, p. 167-187.
READING AND THE FUTURE OF PRIVATE IDENTITY
  • Marshall Macluhan
MacLuhan, Marshall. READING AND THE FUTURE OF PRIVATE IDENTITY [in line] <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss1/1_1art1.htm > [consults: November 2005]
Ca în cazul criticului culturii care a studiat moºtenirea iudeo-creºtinã prezentã în lucrarea Nautilus de la URO1
  • Jorge Org
  • Christie
Ca în cazul criticului culturii care a studiat moºtenirea iudeo-creºtinã prezentã în lucrarea Nautilus de la URO1.ORG ºi Jorge Christie.
Volverse heterarca: sobre la teoría tecnocultural, la ciencia menor y la producción de espacio, în Aronowitz
  • Despre
  • Michael Menser
Despre utilizarea arhitecturii ca vehicul de construirea hegemoniei statale vezi : Menser, Michael, 1998, Volverse heterarca: sobre la teoría tecnocultural, la ciencia menor y la producción de espacio, în Aronowitz, Stanley Martinsons, Barbara Menser, Michael (Ed.) Tecnociencia y cibercultura. La interrelación entre cultura, tecnología y ciencia, Spania, Paidos, pp. 333-357.
As in the case of the critic to the culture of the inherited body of the Jewish-Christian tradition made by the work Nautilus from URO1
  • Jorge Org
  • Christie
As in the case of the critic to the culture of the inherited body of the Jewish-Christian tradition made by the work Nautilus from URO1.ORG and Jorge Christie.
On the characteristics of the process of political "aesthetification" see: Benjamin, Walter
On the characteristics of the process of political "aesthetification" see: Benjamin, Walter. 2003. La obra de arte en la época de su reproductibilidad técnica. Mexico. Ed. Itaca. 127p.