ArticlePDF Available
Inonu University Journal of Art and Design
İnönü Üniversitesi Sanat ve Tasarım Dergisi
ISSN: 1309-9876, E-ISSN: 1309-9884
Cilt/Vol. 7 Sayı/No.16 (2017): 66-78
Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association
within the Conservation of Landscape Potential
Elvan ADA1*, Doğanay YENER2
İstanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Archi-
tecture, İstanbul
Corresponding Author,
DOI: 10.16950/iujad.338690
Developments in technology and science in the last two centuries have greatly
increased the effect of human to the nature and to its modifier effect on the
landscape. With the impact of globalization, especially in urban areas, the in-
crease in zoning regulations, which allow construction in urban areas, such as
shopping centers, mass housing, exemplifies the development of a lifestyle
based on consumption, not production. The fast-living, fast-consuming urban
people profile has gradually begun to create standard living spaces that are
more like each other and loss of distinctive natural and cultural landscape fea-
tures. The Cittaslow Union (Slow City Association) has emerged in cities that
have lost their rural, regional and traditional features, and are moving away
from the natural world. Natural and cultural landscapes have an important
place within these changes and disappearing features. There are a total of 14
slow cities in Turkey that are members of the Union. In order to become a
member of the Union, it is necessary to develop and implement projects to
realize the criteria set by the Union. In the current situation, there are a total
of 72 criteria in the 7 policy titles of the union.
The purpose of this study is to discuss whether the association has an effec-
tive role in the conservation of landscape areas. In this context; Cittaslow's
(Slow City Association) environmental policies were examined along with in-
frastructure policies, urban quality of life policies, and policy criteria for agri-
culture, tourism and craftsmen. Cittaslow (Slow City Association) criterias,
those who have influence on the preservation and sustainability of natural and
cultural landscapes, have been evaluated in the context of the slow cities of
Akyaka, Halfeti and Gökçeada, which are members of the Union of Turkey.
Keywords: Cittaslow, Slow city, Slow food, Akyaka, Halfeti, Gokceada
Suggested Citation
Ada, E., & Yener, D. (2017). Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association within the Conservation of Landscape Potential.
Inonu University Journal of Arts and Design, 7(16). 66-78. DOI: 10.16950/iujad.338690.
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Peyzaj Potansiyelinin Korunmasında Cittaslow-Yavaş
Kent Birliğinin Değerlendirilmesi
Elvan ADA1*, Doğanay YENER2
İstanbul Üniversitesi, Orman Fakültesi, Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü, İstanbul
Corresponding Author.
DOI: 10.16950/iujad.338690
Son iki yüzyılda teknoloji ve bilim alanında yaşanan gelişmeler, insanın doğa
ve onun uzantısı olan peyzaj üzerindeki değiştirici etkisini büyük ölçüde arttır-
mıştır. Küreselleşmenin de etkisi ile özellikle kentsel alanlarda, alışveriş mer-
kezi, toplu konut gibi inşaatlara imkân veren imar düzenlemelerinin artışı, üre-
timden çok tüketime dayalı bir yaşam şeklinin geliştiğini örneklemektedir. Hızlı
yaşayan, hızlı tüketen kentli insan profili, giderek birbirine daha çok benzeyen,
ayırt edici doğal ve kültürel peyzaj özelliklerini kaybeden, standart yaşam alan-
ları oluşturmaya başlamıştır. Kırsal, yöresel ve geleneksel özelliklerini kaybe-
den, doğallıktan giderek uzaklaşan kentlerde, hızlı bir yaşam süren kent insa-
nının, kaybettiği bu özellikleri tekrar aramaya yönelmesiyle Cittaslow birliği
(Yavaş Kent Birliği) ortaya çıkmıştır. Değişen ve kaybolan bu özellikler içeri-
sinde doğal ve kültürel peyzaj alanları önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Türkiye’nin
birliğe üye olan toplam 14 yavaş kenti bulunmaktadır. Birliğe üye olmak adına,
birliğin belirlediği kriterleri gerçekleştirmek için projeler geliştirmek ve uygula-
mak gerekmektedir. Güncel durumda, birliğin 7 politika başlığında toplam 72
kriteri bulunmaktadır.
Bu çalışmada amaç, birliğin peyzaj alanlarının korunmasında etkili bir rolü
olup olmadığının tartışılmasıdır. Bu bağlamda; Cittaslow’un (Yavaş Kent Bir-
liği) çevre politikaları, altyapı politikaları, kentsel yaşam kalitesi politikaları ve
tarımsal, turistik, esnaf ve sanatkârlara dair politikaları kriterleri ile birlikte in-
celenmiştir. Cittaslow (Yavaş Kent Birliği) kriterlerinden, doğal ve kültürel pey-
zaj alanlarının korunmasında ve sürdürülebilirliğinde etkisi olanlar, Türkiye’nin
birliğe üye olan Akyaka, Halfeti ve Gökçeada yavaş kentleri çerçevesinde tar-
tışılarak değerlendirilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Yavaş Kent Hareketi, Yavaş Kent, Yavaş Yemek, Ak-
yaka, Halfeti, Gökçeada.
Önerilen Atıf
Ada, E., & Yener, D. (2017). Peyzaj Potansiyelinin Korunmasında Cittaslow-Yavaş Kent Birliğinin Değerlendirilmesi. Inonu
University Journal of Arts and Design, 7(16). 66-78. DOI: 10.16950/iujad.338690.
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association within the Conservation of Landscape Potential
1.1. What is the Slow City Association
and its philosophy? What is the
movement of Slow food which is its
Within the transition of mankind to the per-
manent settlement, it began to move away
from nature and created a new life style.
Especially by the advancement of technol-
ogy, people living in urban areas, has en-
tered into a rapid way of life. During the
day, in order to keep up with the fast oper-
ating conditions; they began to perform the
basic needs such as dining, recreation and
socializing, quickly as a mission.
This new system has dragged people on a
quest in order to relax, socialize and to be
fed with natural products and also has re-
sult the request of re-orientation to nature.
This request has become a rebellion by
Carlo Petrini, at first time in Italian city, Bra
in 1989. At that time USA’s leading fast
food chains had opened a branch in Italy.
Petrini defended that it was incompatible
with the Italian food culture and lifestyle. Af-
ter this rebellion Petrini has become the pi-
oneer of this slow Food movement. Slow
food has appear as a tool for preservation
of local products, traditional cuisine and the
cultural sustainability. This movement,
which is also the inspiration source of Cit-
taslow, can be defined as protecting the
traditional culture of Europe, against the
new world culture based on rapid con-
sumption of USA (Radstrom, 2011), (Pe-
Culture, including all of the behavior, tradi-
tions, beliefs and perceptions of a society
or a group, is not just a behavioral phenom-
enon. The cultural traces of the society can
be seen both in the natural environment
and in the physical environment. The rela-
tionship between the culture and the envi-
ronment can be considered as a two way
interaction. While the communities built
their living areas accordance to their cul-
ture, the culture is affected and shaped by
the conditions of the environment (Altman
and Chembers, 1980).
Cittaslow can be interpreted as an adapted
form of Slow Food movement, to the urban
living areas. Cittaslow is an association,
which has been established with the coop-
eration of Slow Food’s founder and the
mayors of Greve in Chianti, Orvieto, Bra
and Positana cities of Italy in 1999. Cit-
taslow is a movement, which aimed the
protection and sustainability of local iden-
tity, authenticity and distinctive features of
Slow cities (URL-1).
The objectives of the association in the
charter of 2017 can be summarized as;
Making life better for everyone living in
an urban environment
improving the quality of life in the cities
resisting the homogenization and glob-
alization of towns around the globe
protecting the environment
promoting cultural diversity and
uniqueness of individual cities
provide inspiration for a healthier life-
style (URL-2)
Although the union first started to show
growth in Europe, today it has become an
international collaboration concerning
many disciplines together, which has got
up to 236 members from 30 countries, far
from Japan to USA. Cittaslow union which
is started out with the discourse of “Interna-
tional network of cities where living is good”
is represented by an orange snail, facing
left side and carrying historical buildings
(Figure 1). Snail is a slow moving but a pro-
gressive scarring living being. This snail
logo means; along with development, the
historical and cultural heritage that will re-
main to the next generations has been car-
ried in these cities where quiet lives take
place. This logo reminds that the natural
life and the urban culture is important for
the people and also it summarizes the ob-
jectives of the Union (URL-2).
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Figure 1. Cittaslow Logo (URL-2).
1.2. What is the criteria for the cit-
Cittaslow is an association that only small
cities with a population less than 50,000
can attend. To be a member of Cittaslow
Union, it is necessary that developing and
implementing projects related to 72 criteria
of 7 policy chapters and also developing or-
ganization of the cities according to those
criteria. The first 4 policies are involving cri-
teria about landscape planning and their
sustainability; the last 3 policies are includ-
ing the social and cultural infrastructure of
slow cities, introduction of Cittaslow union
and their collaborations.
These policies are;
Energy and environmental policy: In the
context of this policy, there has been cri-
teria for the sustainability of the land-
scape such as air - water quality con-
servation, public energy production
from renewable sources, energy saving
in buildings and public systems and also
criteria for the conservation of the natu-
ral landscapes such as conservation of
Infrastructure policies: It includes crite-
ria for the infrastructure of urban land-
scape areas such as; efficient cycle
paths connected to public buildings,
planning of eco-mobility as an alterna-
tive to private cars, verified accessibility
to medical services.
Quality of urban life policies: These pol-
icy contains criteria for the sustainability
of an easy and quite life such as; inter-
ventions of recovery and increasing the
value of civic centers, recovery/creation
of social green areas with productive
plants and/or fruit trees, meter cubes of
cement in green urban areas, cable net-
work city.
Agricultural, touristic and artisan poli-
cies: It contains criteria such as; devel-
opment of agro-ecology, increasing the
value of rural areas, use of local prod-
ucts, conservation and increasing the
value of local cultural events, prohibiting
the use of gmo in agriculture, which are
directly realted with the conservation of
cultural landscape areas.
Policies for hospitality, awareness and
training: This policy is for systematic
and permanence information for the cit-
izens regarding the meaning of Cit-
taslow, and supporting for Cittaslow
Social cohesion: It contains; minorities
discriminated, multicultural integration,
integration of disabled people, children
care and youth condition etc. Criteria
(URL-2). According to Altman and
Chembers (1980), in terms of cultural
sustainability, the transfer of beliefs,
values and behaviors shared by society
plays an important role in the education
and socialization of future generations
(Altman and Chembers, 1980). Espe-
cially this criteria is important for under-
standing the mission of Cittaslow in the
sustainability of culture.
Partnerships: It includes support for Cit-
taslow campaigns and activity, collabo-
ration with Slow food and the other or-
ganizations (URL-2).
1.3. What is the landscape?
Landscape is defined as, natural and cul-
tural elements in a very variety of charac-
ters, located in an environment and that
can fit into viewing angle from any point of
view (Yücel et al., 2008). So the landscape
is a component of each item that the eye
can see and the brain can identify from a
Natural elements, morphological and geo-
logical terrain, the vegetation cover on this
land, fauna and all visual items but except
the impact of human are defined as natural
landscape (Bayer, 1977). In the Essay of
Watermann which is called: Basics of
Landscape Architecture, he emphasizes
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association within the Conservation of Landscape Potential
that "to be able to understand the land-
scape, it is true to look out from the door of
your home and also it is a broad concept
that covers everything where open space
exist" (Watermann, 2012).
The areas where people use for various
purposes and the areas comprising joint
work of people and nature is defined as cul-
tural landscape (UNESCO, 2011). Socie-
ties change their environment according to
their cultural heritage and they develop
land use forms according to their benefit
style from nature and soil. There are differ-
ent classifications of this benefit styles for
the cultural landscape areas. In this study,
in the framework of Slow city concept, ur-
ban and rural landscape areas which are
affected by the people in the urban and ru-
ral areas next to them, has been identified.
Urban landscapes are the living areas
which are formed by peoples demand of
living together. These are buildings forming
the city, urban blocks, traffic system, social
facilities, trade and industrial areas etc. ru-
ral landscape is identified as the view of
natural environment that has been
changed because of the activities of people
outside the city. These are, agriculture, for-
estry, recreation, transportation and indus-
trial facilities (Dirik, 2005).
The impact of Cittaslow to the landscape
potentials of the cities has been evaluated
in a case study of Akyaka in Aegean re-
gion, Gökçeada in Northern Aegean region
and Halfeti in South-east Anatolia region of
2.1. Akyaka
Akyaka is one of the resorts in Aegean re-
gion of Muğla city in Province Ula. İt is lo-
cated in the north-east side of Gökova Gulf,
at the foot of the 1000 m high mountains
and at the meeting point of the seas and
mountains. The first historical source of the
city is from BC 5th century. It is said that the
first name of the city was Idyma which is a
Carian city. Since the ancient times, that
region has been home to different civiliza-
tions. In the Ottaman time this region was
a small village but still it has the rich histor-
ical traces (URL-3), (URL-4).
In 2001, Akyaka has been included to Cit-
taslow through its natural landscape fea-
tures, cultural landscape areas and vernac-
ular layout formed by the traditional land
use types. There is a quite life dominated
in Akyaka, because of the impact of the
natural qualities and the prioritizing behav-
ior of the local people to production and
tourism- based economy.
As geological features of the region; the
waters coming from the plains and creeks
at the east side of Akyaka has dumped to
the sea. These wetlands formed by these
creeks are home to the flora of reeds,
marshes and meadows. Also there has
been Tamarix sp., Bambusa sp. and spe-
cies from Chenopodiaceae family. Espe-
cially Quercus sp., Laurus sp., Callistemon
sp., Nerium sp., Pinus brutia, Liquidambar
orientalis, Pinus pinea, Cedrus sp., Juni-
perus sp., Celtis sp., Ceratonia sp., Iris
xanthospuria are the dominant taxa of
Akyaka flora (Top, 2013).
At the southeast part of the Akçapınar
creek; there has been cultural landscape
areas consisting of agricultural lands. In
these areas, citrus, cotton, sesame, corn
and wheat stand out as major agricultural
products. On the high and sloppy areas,
there has been the olives (Top, 2013). In
the local market places; natural products
gained from the natural flora are solved.
For example thyme, lavender, sage, laurel,
st.john’s wort, olive. Local people also ben-
efit from those natural products in their tra-
ditional food culture (URL-5).
Although Akyaka has a really rich flora and
fauna elements, cultivated Eucalyptus
trees were planted in the area. And now
this area became an important cultural
landscape area. 1500 Eucalyptus trees
were planted in 1938, to Akçapınar village
to improve the marsh areas. This way is 3
km long and now called as “Aşıklar Yolu-
Lovers Way” and also so important for our
oral cultural heritage (URL-6) (Figure 2).
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Figure 2. Aşıklar Yolu- Lovers Way (URL-6).
As well as Akyaka has natural landscape
features, also it has indigenous and tradi-
tional architectural houses. Nail Çakırhan
has designed a house and its garden in-
spiring from old Ula houses (Figure 3). In
1983 this house has won an architectural
award called Ağa Han Architectural
Award”. Since 1983 in Akyaka, the same
type of houses are applied and so a land-
scape specific to that region has been
formed (Tuğutlu, 2013), (URL-7) (Figure 4).
Figure 3. Çakırhan House (URL-8)
Figure 4. Akyaka Houses (URL-5)
When we observe the ecological life sensi-
tivity, it is seen that it tried to take the ad-
vantage of technological possibilities with
an environmental approach. Wastewater
treatment facility of municipal is working on
the basis of microbiological treatment
(URL-9). Moreover, the municipal recycling
project is carried out and information meet-
ings are done on behalf of public participa-
2.2. Halfeti
Halfeti province is located near the Euphra-
tes River, in the north-west part of Şanlıurfa
city in south-east Anatolia region of Turkey.
Its history begins from the year BC 2000
and it has been home to Hittite, Assyrian,
Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. The
rocky areas near the Euphrates River, re-
sembles a green belt in Halfeti. Town cen-
ter is formed from Euphrates River and
near the steep rocky slopes which begins
200m from the shore (URL-10).
In 2013, Halfeti has been included to the
Cittaslow Union. It is important for conser-
vation of biodiversity and for the introduce
and sustainability of natural and cultural
landscapes. Halfeti has been an important
tourism center because of its natural envi-
ronment features and abandoned settle-
ment patterns as a result of dam water.
The city was first established as a fortress
city around Rumkale (Figure 5). Settlement
moved to Fırat coastline which is called
“Old Halfeti” because of the loss property
of the castle and at the same time Fırat
coastal areas became more attractive due
to its natural qualities (Figure 6). In 2000,
by the water was collected from the Birecik
dam, the city near the coastline was
flooded by the water. And than the city dis-
placed for the second time and moved to
the village Karaotlak which is 8 km east
(Bakırcı, 2002).
Figure 5. Rumkale (Ada, 2013)
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association within the Conservation of Landscape Potential
Figure 6. Old Halfeti (Ada, 2013)
In order to adapt to the climatic conditions
of the region, flat-roofed or roofless build-
ings made by cut stone is used which is a
local material. Just for the efficient use of
the water, people created dams. As a result
of this, interesting settlement pattern has
been occurred which is a good example of
the cultural landscape of Halfeti.
Rich soils that has been formed by the al-
luvium, accumulated on the banks of Fırat
river, is also home to rich flora. 381000
square meters of the land is in a quality of
agriculture. In half of these lands pistachio,
vines and olives are generally grown. In the
other half part of the land, grain cultivation
is done (URL-11).
The endemic plant of 'black rose' is only
grown in Halfeti in Turkey. The most typical
example is the Halfeti rose (“Siyah gül” in
meaning black rose, Arapkızı); this rose
commercialized and sailed in the name of
“Louis XIV”. The rose is a local variety of
Rosa odorata named “Yediveren” in Turk-
ish (Özçelik, 2013). In Orvieto city of Italy,
there is a rose garden where only rarely
cultivated roses from different countries are
grown. In this garden “Black Rose” which is
an endemic rose species of Halfeti, is
planted. This plant has a cultural meaning
because it acts as a cultural bridge be-
tween the countries.
2.3. Gökçeada
Gökçeada is the biggest island of Turkey.
Its on the west point of the country, in the
city of Çanakkale and in north-east of the
Aegean sea. “Imroz” is its ancient name
and in the Ilyada epic of Homeros, it is said
that it was the island of Poseidon, who is
the god of the sea (URL-12), (Özdemir,
Because of the inaccessible and isolated
structure of the islands, they are used to be
quite places and their population is gener-
ally less than the mainland. Gökçeada has
been included to the Cittaslow union in
2011 because of its natural landscape fea-
tures, island culture and indigenous way of
Within the advantage of being away from
the mainland, it has a rich fauna and flora.
In the island there has seen a transitional
climate type between the Marmara climate
and the Mediterranean climate. Maquis
vegetation is dominated in the island. In an-
imal breeding, sheep and goats are con-
ducted in a manner described as free sys-
tem. Maquis and pasture areas are both
functional and economic landscape areas
of Gökçeada (Cengiz et al., 2013). There
has been 5 ponds in Gökçeada which is the
4th island of the world in terms of the abun-
dance of water resources. In the south part
of the island, there is the salt lake, in which
place of resort of the flamingos and migra-
tory birds like wild ducks and goose
(Özdemir, 2012). The coastal area be-
tween the Kaleköy and Kuzulimanı was de-
clared as “Underwater National Park” be-
cause of its rare underwater fauna (URL-
Island is suitable for organic agriculture,
thanks to its isolated structure (Figure 7).
And for many years chemical control is not
carried out on the island. Gökçeada has
chosen as a pilot area for the purpose of
making ecological agriculture, by the Min-
istry of Agriculture. The other cultural value
of the island is its traditional food culture,
under the effect of Greek population. In
these traditional foods, again the local
products are used. There is a soap studio
in Kaleköy in which the olives, the laurel
and lots of herbaceous plants of the island
is used (Saygı, 2010) (Figure 8).
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Figure 7. Gökçeada agricultural areas (Ada,
Figure 8. Gökçeada Soap Studio (Ada, 2012)
52 % of the natural and cultural valuable
areas of the island is protected as archae-
ological sites, natural sites and urban sites
status (Cengiz et al., 2013). There has
been 5 Greek villages on the island which
are called; Dereköy, Kaleköy, Tepeköy,
Zeytinli and Eski Bademli. The architectural
pattern of all these villages are under pro-
tection as urban site status. These are typ-
ical Greek villages with their cobblestone
roads, simple houses from natural cut
stone, squares and laundries near the
fountains. Although there has been a de-
crease in Greek immigration and external
migration in Gökçeada, which has a dense
Greek population until 1970's, the reflec-
tions of this cultural structure are observed
in settlement texture and land use
(Kahraman, 2005).
The emergence of Cittaslow is simple. As
stated in the international charter, "Cit-
taslow is an international network where
living is good". In the Cittaslow Manifest it
is stated that "a new cultural and scientific
approach was born: from food to agricul-
ture, from agriculture to the environment,
from the environment to dwelling space.
Slow town is at the centro, of “slow” lands
and a new awareness" (URL1). Cittaslow,
based on the philosophy of Slowness, aims
to protect the unique urban and cultural
identity in small towns, to ensure that local
production and consumption models are
made sustainable by using environmentally
friendly and modern technologies, to estab-
lish an urban living environment where the
relationship between nature and humans
will be managed in a balanced way and
every citizen and visitor will be happy to live
here. At the beginning of the movement,
the goal is to provide all of these criteria,
even if preservation is not possible, and to
serve to preserve the natural and cultural
landscape features within local boundaries.
Cittaslow is a new movement whose his-
tory is not very old, that has not even com-
pleted 20 years. Especially the negative ef-
fects of technological and scientific innova-
tions in the last two centuries on urban life,
nature and human relations and sustaina-
bility have caused this new movement to
be discussed by researchers in different
disciplines. The common question of these
researchers is whether Cittaslow has the
potential to be evaluated as a tool in the
transformation of these negative effects
into positives.
Mayer and Knox (2006) investigate Slow
Food and Slow City movements as an al-
ternative approach to urban economic de-
velopment. Their research is based on the
assumption that these movements are a
good example of Campbell's "three-E"
framework for local sustainability (Camp-
bell, 1996). In Campbell (1996), the con-
cepts of economy, environment and equity,
including as much contradictions as being
priorities for planners, are defined as the
three corners of triangle. Campbell (1996)
describes three basic priorities for plan-
ners, Economy, Environment and Equity,
which also create conflicts in planning, as
three corners of triangle. The economic de-
velopment, planner sees the city as a loca-
tion where production, consumption, distri-
bution, and innovation take place. The en-
vironmental planner sees the city as a con-
sumer of resources and a producer of
wastes. The city is in competition with na-
ture for scarce resources and land, and al-
ways poses a threat to nature. Space is the
ecological space of greenways, river ba-
sins, and ecological niches. The equity
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association within the Conservation of Landscape Potential
planner sees the city as a location of con-
flict over the distribution of resources, of
services, and of opportunities (Camp-
bell,1996) In Campbell (1996), it has been
pointed out that in practice, finding a bal-
ance between economic development, en-
vironmental protection, and equity is not
easy because their aims are sometimes
conflicting with each other. Mayer and
Knox (2006) argue that the Slow City
movement can eliminate this conflict since
it aims at environmental sustainability, but
defending only local economic operations,
traditional production and traditional land
use. At the same time, they note that Cit-
taslow may be an alternative in providing
the ‘’three-E’’ since the application of social
cohesion criteria indicated in the charter
may be an essential tool in providing eq-
uity. In this context, they have examined
Hersbruck and Waldkirch, the first slow cit-
ies of Germany, which were included in Cit-
taslow for the first time outside the borders
of Italy, as an example.
Hersbruck features unique cultural land-
scapes with its towers and castles, city
walls and the advantages brought by being
a small medieval city center. In addition to
these features, natural landscape features
with the preserved thermal water resources
make up the elements that enrich the city's
rural landscape (URL 14). In Hersbruck, lo-
cal environmental protection groups work
in partnership with farmers, city govern-
ment and small businesses for local tradi-
tional land use, and the preservation of
pastures and orchards. Local environmen-
tal groups have begun these works since
the 1980s, but with the introduction of
Hersbruck into Cittaslow, these efforts
have gained speed and importance. In this
town, fruits are picked from fruit trees and
shrubberies, particularly apple trees, which
are rural landscape components, and
these fruits are used in local production. In
addition, these landscapes create habitats
for birds, insects and wildlife, as well as
providing aesthetic value and shades. The
fact that the fruits and products of the local
farms produced and picked with traditional
methods are used again in the local mar-
kets and restaurants protects the environ-
ment and also contributes to the economy.
In addition to training programs run with lo-
cal farms, children are given training in the
use of local products and preparation of
food in schools in order to transfer these
traditions to future generations. The execu-
tion of these training programs and the cre-
ation of job opportunities for local produc-
ers and business owners provide the equity
(Mayer and Knox, 2006). Waldkrich, an-
other slowcity of Germany, is presented by
Mayer and Knox (2006) as an example of
Cittaslow's social cohesion criteria. The
'Red House' project, taking its name from
the exterior color of a house, which was in
very poor condition that has been reno-
vated by the municipality in Waldkrich and
transformed to a public space, and has be-
come an important work for social sustain-
ability. Red house has become an im-
portant community center as a meeting
place for communities, a community
kitchen for the homeless, and close by
marketplaces where local farmers can sell
vegetables and fruit. This area, which ena-
bles people of all ages and ethnic groups
to establish social networks, allows for en-
vironmental protection by promoting the
production and consumption of local and
traditional products. With the cases of
Hersbruck and Waldkrich, Mayer and Knox
(2006) have proven that Slowcities can ful-
fill Campbell's "three-E".
In his study titled "Cittaslow: Producing
Slowness Against The Fast Life", Miele
(2008) investigated the slowcities of Italy,
Orvieto and San Vincenzo, in order to illus-
trate that each city has its own slowness
approach. The city of Orvieto, founded by
the Etruscans, has a long and rooted his-
tory. Cittaslow's international headquarters
is the Orvieto Municipality in Orvieto
(URL2). Many traces and remains from its
history can be found in the cultural struc-
ture of this city, which has a history of 3000
years. These traces manifest themselves
in the culture of food and social life. Or-
vieto's wine, extra virgin olive oil, and local
dishes produced with traditional methods
are particularly important in describing the
slow character of the city. The city has a
slow character with the advantage of its
history, and it is among the founding cities
of the association. However, innovative
projects are being developed in order to
maintain Orvieto's position in the Cittaslow
community and the slowness of life. Prac-
tices such training programs for children
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
where traditional local products and meth-
ods are introduced, or summer schools that
are based on developing environmental
awareness and food culture are carried
out. The use of environmentally friendly
technologies in the urban infrastructure
and the promotion of the use of renewable
energy resources are other applications
(URL, 15) (Miele, 2008). The city of San
Vincenzo has made plans for developing
natural and environmental resources in or-
der to join Cittaslow since it is not a histori-
cal and cultural city center like Orvieto. San
Vincenzo, a small coastal town in Tuscany
with white sandy coasts, joined Cittaslow
following processes such as the conserva-
tion of natural resources and the applica-
tion of innovative environmental policies.
When these two cities are compared, it is
observed that they have completely differ-
ent slowness characters and they are
transformed into different and original
slowcities by strengthening the strong as-
pects of their identities (URL, 16) (Miele,
The research of Mayer and Knox (2006)
constitutes an assessment of Cittaslow in
terms of urban planning; whereas the work
of Miele (2008) deals with Cittaslow
through the approach of urban identities. In
this study, we have assessed whether Cit-
taslow can be a model for preserving the
landscape potential with examples of Turk-
ish slowcities Akyaka, Halfeti, and
When the landscape potential of Akyaka is
considered, it is seen that it has a rare nat-
ural geography and natural landscape fea-
tures consisting of the rich flora and fauna
that this geography hosts. These natural
landscape features are attractive features
for those who wish to escape from fast ur-
ban life and want to live a natural life in or-
der to slow down. For Akyaka to remain a
quiet city, Cittaslow membership is an in-
surance in order to protect these natural
properties and for the protective measures
to be applied. The continuation of the local
settlement texture and traditional architec-
tural features, which are included in the cri-
teria of Cittaslow, is an important factor in
the preservation of Akyaka's cultural land-
scape. In the city, the products obtained as
a result of traditional land use techniques
meeting with consumers in the public mar-
ket or being used in the traditional food cul-
ture supported by slow food organizations
positively affect the sustainability of agricul-
tural landscapes.
Halfeti is a unique cultural landscape area
that can be presented as evidence for the
changing effects of human activities on the
physical and natural environment per-
formed in order to control nature. The set-
tlement texture that remains beneath the
dam waters reveals an interesting land-
scape. Moreover, the traditional use of land
in agriculture for several generations
emerges as another form of cultural land-
scapes. The conservation and sustainabil-
ity of these natural and cultural landscaping
features, which led to the acceptance of
Halfeti as a slowcity, will play an important
role for the city that has a tourism-based
economy. With the projects and programs
to be realized in order to realize the Cit-
taslow criteria, Halfeti will make a name for
itself, and this will result in increased socio-
cultural welfare and prosperity through
tourism. In this way, contributions can be
made for the preservation of the natural
landscape and for the local people in main-
taining their lives in a high quality natural
Production in Gökçeada takes place
through the agricultural use of land and the
direct sale of products obtained from these
lands to the public. In addition, agricultural
and related herbal products of the region
are also used in the production and sale of
local foods, as supported by the slow food
movement. When the existence of agricul-
tural lands are considered in terms of main-
taining an ancestral form of land use, as
well as the way in which products are used
and utilized, Gökçeada meets the main
purposes of Cittaslow with its impact on the
sustainability of cultural landscapes. The
development of innovative projects in order
to meet Slowcity criteria may create added
value in maintaining a high quality life cycle
provided by the island’s natural and cultural
landscape features.
İnönü University Journal of Art and Design
Evaluation of Cittaslow-Slow City Association within the Conservation of Landscape Potential
When the slow cities are evaluated in Tur-
key, even they are in different geographical
regions, it is seen that they all have a rare
natural environment. Within these natural
landscape features, also their agricultural
areas has been attract attention. The prod-
ucts of these agricultural areas are used in
the local market places and also in local
food culture. That’s why these areas are
cultural landscape areas in terms of their
aesthetic and functional features. The ex-
istence of traditional forms of settlement
that each city has its own currency as a re-
flection of cultural values and lifestyles also
increases the diversity of the cultural land-
The cities selected according to the objec-
tives and criteria of the Slow city, should
maintain these properties in order to main-
tain their existing membership. This re-
quirement has a significant impact on the
protection of the natural and cultural land-
scape. Urban people especially choose to
live in these quite cities because of their
natural and cultural characteristics. Also
the tourists prefer these cities for the same
reasons. A life in harmony with the natural
environment, the aesthetic landscape
formed by traditional land use patterns, lo-
cal architecture and a physical environ-
ment that ensure the continuity of the local
culture and the local architecture, has pro-
vides the usage of cities in terms of tour-
ism. Considering that tourism is one of the
main livelihood of the inhabitants of the
city, providing the continuity of the natural
and cultural landscape values is obliged,
which makes the city attractive.
In order to have a better quality of urban
life, it is necessary to improve the infra-
structures that support the ecological life.
As it seen at the examples of Turkey’s Slow
cities, Cittaslow is an important, interna-
tional communicational tool in order to rec-
ognize the cities and landscapes. This un-
ion is very important for the attention of
competent institutions in case of conserva-
tion and sustainable use of natural and cul-
tural landscape potentials. Investments
that has been done for the introducing and
criteria of Cittaslow providing public partic-
ipation and awareness of the public, is an
important factor ensuring the sustainability
of vernacular landscape. Mentioned criteria
is an important step against the rapid ur-
banization movement. It has a philosophy
that encourages the preservation of the
world landscape heritage and transferring
it to the next generations.
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... To use resources efficiently and live in harmony with the environment, these individuals choose plain buildings instead of luxury and multi-story buildings, or they repair them again (Doherty & Etzioni, 2003, p. 22;Elgin, 2010, p. 110) and individuals living in rural areas lead a simpler life than those living in cities (Shama & Wisenblit, 1984). The slow city concept has started to gain importance as urban people, who lead a fast life in cities that have lost their rural, local, and traditional features and are gradually moving away from naturalness, tend to seek these lost features again (Ada & Yener, 2017). Slow destinations are far from different types of pollution in a natural and culturally undisturbed environment (Coşar et al., 2015). ...
... Cittaslow movement which aims improving the quality of life in small cities by slowing down its overall pace, came to the forefront and has been the subject of many studies [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. When having a look at the scientific studies conducted in Turkey in relation with the Cittaslow movement, it can be clearly seen that these focused on different areas [4,[14][15][16]. When investigating the studies, it is evident that these studies examined the mobility mostly on specific criteria or focused on the analysis of the current member cities. ...
Full-text available
In the past there has been a large increase in the number of people who prefer urban areas to continue their daily life. This has caused many problems in the immediate vicinity of the city and the city. Problems such as environmental pollution, unplanned growth, inadequate green spaces, unqualified and unqualified residential areas have begun to suffer difficulties in returning to natural and cultural values. Sustainable city approaches have emerged in the interest of removing these problems from urban natural-cultural values. One of these approaches is Cittaslow movement. A coun-try's holistic approach to sustainability is very important. However it is directly proportional to how the pieces can be evaluated in terms of sustainability. The primary aim of this study is to create awareness about the values districts have and offer a functional, spatial and an ideal solution that eliminates the deficiencies of the current usage for sustainability by Cittaslow. Basically targeted; editing sustainable countries from part to whole. So in the study firstly Cittaslow scores of the districts were calculated and their deficiencies were determined by Cittaslow criteria. After that the recommendations have been defined to overcome the deficiencies that the district has. Simulations have been developed that are defined as solutions to problems. The suggestions and simulations for the deficiencies and problems are interrelated with the notion of city form and sustainability. Finally, the recommendations have been evaluated with the dwellers via questionnaire. Thus, the deficiencies in sustainable urban understanding will be eliminated and ecological approaches have been determined which get the forefront urban identity.
Full-text available
The objective of the article is to analyse changes in landscape structure after 1989 in selected communes of the Chełm county in the Lublin Voivodeship, namely the urban commune of Rejowiec Fabryczny, and two urban-rural communes Rejowiec and Siedliszcze. The landscape structure was analysed based on data on land cover from the CORINE Land Cover data base. GIS tools were used for the analysis of landscape structure transformations with the application of landscape metrics. Moreover, an attempt was made to examine the affiliation to the Cittaslow network in the context of landscape transformations. The study showed that changes in land cover are not only related to the sprawl of building development, but also to an increase in the area of agricultural land outside the range of irrigation facilities, and an increase in the mean surface area of such land. A decline in land cover transformations has also been observed since 2012, as confirmed by the landscape structure diversity index. It may be related to the membership in the European Union (among others Common Agricultural Policy). The study showed no effect of affiliation with the Cittaslow network on landscape transformations. A continuation of the proposed analyses is required in a broader time perspective and in a specific spatial range.
Full-text available
Green infrastructure (GI) is a strategic planning approach that can contribute to solutions for ecological, social, and environmental problems. GI also aims to conserve natural and semi-natural landscapes and enhance ecological networks. Within the scope of spatial planning, urban and rural landscape units can be integrated through GI planning. In this study, we propose a method to calculate the landscape potential and map GI in the lower Büyük Menderes River Basin, Turkey. We used landscape character assessment (LCA) to identify the landscape typology, which was one of the key steps for determining the landscape potential. Three thematic maps were produced and overlaid in ArcMap 10.7. A map showing the spatial distributions of 71 landscape types was created by means of LCA. Then, the landscape types were assessed according to defined criteria, and finally, GI of the study area was mapped. This study found that high-quality landscape types were located in the middle, northern, and eastern parts of the lower Büyük Menderes River Basin, rather than in the protected areas. Moreover, 68 of the 71 landscape types were present in the GI map. The findings show the necessity of including the landscape potential concept in conservation strategies. Thus, this paper provides a reference guideline for mapping GI as a contributor to nature conservation and spatial planning strategies.
Full-text available
This study is carried out in between 2006-2012 years. Materials of it collected from all over the country and identified by the classic systematic literatures. Voucher specimens are deposited in GUL Herbarium of Süleyman Demirel University in Isparta. In this paper, important new systematic, geographical and ecological characters, and also economical usage values of all Türkiye’s roses were determined by literature and field observations. In addition to this, some known characters in the genus were broadened
Full-text available
This article will provide an introduction and description of the Cittaslow organisation, its history, philosophy and policy. The organisation is reviewed through the lenses of place­sustaining,localisation and the importance of identity. Much of this article is based upon research from 2004 and 2005, conducted by the author, in Europe (primarily Italy) and from the author’s home­base in Canada. The original intention was to analyse the case of Cittaslow, as it seeks to sustain the local sense of place and the identity inherent to each individual urban area.
This article examines the Slow Food and Slow City movement as an alternative approach to urban development that focuses on local resources, economic and cultural strengths, and the unique historical context of a town. Following recent discussions about the politics of alternative economic development, the study examines the Slow City movement as a strategy to address the interdependencies between goals for economic, environmental, and equitable urban development. In particular, we draw on the examples of two Slow Cities in Germany—Waldkirch and Hersbruck, and show how these towns are retooling their urban policies. The study is placed in the context of alternative urban development agendas as opposed to corporate-centered development. We conclude the article by offering some remarks about the institutional and political attributes of successful Slow Cities and the transferability of the concept.
Abstract Nothing inherent in the discipline steers planners either toward environmental protection or toward economic development -- or toward a third goal of planning: social equity. Instead, planners work within the tension generated among these three fundamental aims, which, collectively, I call the "planner's triangle," with sustainable development located at its center. This center cannot be reached directly, but only approximately and indirectly, through a sustained period of confronting and resolving the triangle's conflicts. To do so, planners have to redefine sustainability, since its current formulation romanticizes our sustainable past and is too vaguely holistic. Planners would benefit both from integrating social theory with environmental thinking and from combining their substantive skills with techniques for community conflict resolution, to confront economic and environmental injustice.
Personal Photo Album
  • E Ada
Ada, E. (2012-2013), Personal Photo Album.
Culture and Environment
  • I Altman
  • M Chembers
Altman, I., & Chembers, M. (1980). Culture and Environment. California: Wadsworth. Inc.
Türkiye'de Baraj Yapımı Nedeni ile Yer Değiştiren Bir Şehir Halfeti
  • M Bakırcı
Bakırcı, M. (2002). Türkiye'de Baraj Yapımı Nedeni ile Yer Değiştiren Bir Şehir Halfeti. Coğrafya Dergisi, 10, 55-78.
Peyzaj Mimarisi. Ankara
  • M Z Bayer
Bayer, M. Z. (1977). Peyzaj Mimarisi. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu.